Nan Madol: Perbedaan revisi

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Nama Nan Madol berarti "ruang di antara" dan merupakan rujukan kepada kanal di reruntuhan ini. Menurut Gene Ashby dalam bukunya ''Pohnpei, An Island Argosy'', nama aslinya adalah ''Soun Nan-leng'' (Karang Surga).<ref>Ashby, Gene; 'Pohnpei, An Island Argosy'; Publisher: Rainy Day Pr West; Revised edition (June 1987); ISBN 0-931742-14-5; ISBN 978-0-931742-14-9</ref> Reruntuhan ini sering dijuluki sebagai "Venesia di Pasifik."<ref>http://www2.canada.com/vancouvercourier/news/travel/story.html?id=d7601625-fafe-46f4-b1d1-5c18837881cf</ref>
 
== Sejarah ==
[[File:Map FM-Nan Madol.PNG|thumb|right|250px|Central Nan Madol]]
[[File:Nan Madol 5.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Nan Madol]]
[[File:NanMadol1.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Nan Madol]]
[[File:NanMadol2.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Nan Madol]]
 
Nan Madol merupakan pusat upacara dan politik [[Dinasti Saudeleur]], yang menyatukan sekitar 25.000 penduduk Pohnpei sampai kira-kira tahun 1628.<ref name=Ayres/> Terletak terpisah di antara pulau utama Pohnpei dan pulau [[Temwen]], telah dilacak adanya aktivitas manusia sejak abad pertama atau kedua Masehi. Pada abad ke-8 dan ke-9 pembangunan ''islet'' (pulau kecil) ini mulai dilakukan, tetapi [[arsitektur]] [[megalith]] kemungkinan baru dimulai pada abad ke-12 atau awal abad ke-13.
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Little can be verified about the megalithic construction. Pohnpeian tradition claims that the builders of the Lelu complex on [[Kosrae]] (likewise composed of huge stone buildings) migrated to Pohnpei, where they used their skills and experience to build the even more impressive Nan Madol complex. However, this is unlikely: [[radiocarbon dating]] indicates that Nan Madol predates Lelu. Like Lelu, one major purpose of constructing a separate city was to insulate the nobility from the common people.
 
According to Pohnpeian legend, Nan Madol was constructed by twin sorcerers Olisihpa and Olosohpa from the mythical Western Katau, or Kanamwayso. The brothers arrived in a large [[canoe]] seeking a place to build an altar so that they could worship Nahnisohn Sahpw, the god of agriculture. After several false starts, the two brothers successfully built an altar off [[Temwen Island]], where they performed their rituals. In legend, these brothers levitated the huge stones with the aid of a flying dragon. When Olisihpa died of old age, Olosohpa became the first [[Saudeleur]]. Olosohpa married a local woman and sired twelve generations, producing sixteen other Saudeleur rulers of the Dipwilap ("Great") clan.{{#tag:ref|Hanlon (1988) notes differing accounts of the number of Saudeleur rulers, ranging from eight to seventeen, concluding that it is impossible to know this number for certain.<ref name=Hanlon/>{{rp|234}} |group=note}} The founders of the dynasty ruled kindly, though their successors placed ever increasing demands on their subjects. Their reign ended with the invasion by [[Isokelekel]], who also resided at Nan Madol, though his successors abandoned the site.<ref name=PlaceNames/><ref name=Native>{{cite book|title=The Native Polity of Ponape |volume=10 |series=Contributions to Anthropology |first=Saul H |last=Riesenberg |publisher=Smithsonian Institution Press |year=1968 |pages=38, 51 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=JV-0AAAAIAAJ |accessdate=2012-01-01}}</ref><ref name=Joseph>{{cite book|title=The Lost Civilization of Lemuria: The Rise and Fall of the World's Oldest Culture |first=Frank |last=Joseph |publisher=Inner Traditions / Bear & Co |year=2006 |isbn=1-59143-060-7 |pages=21, |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=9tCybZagbqkC |accessdate=2012-01-01}}</ref><ref name=Goodenough>{{cite book|title=Under Heaven's Brow: Pre-Christian Religious Tradition in Chuuk |volume=246 |series=Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society |first=Ward Hunt |last=Goodenough |publisher=American Philosophical Society |year=2002 |isbn=0-87169-246-5 |page=293 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=iOktNiIoMHAC |accessdate=2012-01-01}}</ref>
 
==Purpose and features==
The elite centre was a special place of residence for the nobility and of mortuary activities presided over by [[priest]]s. Its population almost certainly did not exceed 1,000, and may have been less than half that. Although many of the residents were chiefs, the majority were [[commoner]]s. Nan Madol served, in part, as a way for the ruling Saudeleur chiefs to organize and control potential rivals by requiring them to live in the city rather than in their home districts, where their activities were difficult to monitor.
 
Madol Powe, the mortuary sector, contains 58 islets in the northeastern area of Nan Madol. Most [[islet]]s were once occupied by the dwellings of priests. Some islets served special purpose: [[food]] preparation, [[canoe]] construction on Dapahu, and [[coconut]] oil preparation on Peinering. High walls surrounding [[tomb]]s are located on Peinkitel, Karian, and Lemenkou, but the crowning achievement is the royal mortuary islet of Nandauwas, where walls {{convert|18|–|25|ft|m}} high surround a central tomb enclosure within the main courtyard.
 
Supposedly there was an escape tunnel beginning at the center of Nan Madol and boring down through the reef to exit into the ocean. Scuba divers continue to look for this "secret" route, but so far a complete tunnel has not been discovered.
 
==Food and water==
On Nan Madol there is no [[fresh water]] or food; water must be collected and food grown inland. During [[Saudeleur]] rule, Pohnpeians brought essential food and water by boat.<ref name=Hanlon>{{cite book|title=Upon a Stone Altar: A History of the Island of Pohnpei to 1890 |volume=5 |series=Pacific Islands Monograph |first=David L |last=Hanlon |publisher=University of Hawaii Press |year=1988 |isbn=0-8248-1124-0 |pages=13–25 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=OzgF5vZByVoC |accessdate=2012-01-01}}</ref><ref name=Morgan/><ref name=Ballinger>{{cite book|title=Lost City of Stone: The Story of Nan Madol, the "Atlantis" of the Pacific |first=Bill Sanborn |last=Ballinger |publisher=Simon and Schuster |year=1978 |isbn=0-671-24030-7 |pages=45–8 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=l6oSAQAAIAAJ |accessdate=2011-12-31}}</ref> The Saudeleur received food at a particular islet — first Peiniot, and later the closer Usennamw.<ref name=Morgan/><ref name=PlaceNames/>
 
Around 1628, when [[Isokelekel]] overthrew the Saudeleurs and began the Nahnmwarki Era, the [[tribal chief|Nahnmwarkis]] lived at Nan Madol, but had to gather their own water and grow their own food. This is thought{{who|date=April 2011}} to have caused them eventually to abandon Nan Madol and move back to their own districts, although there are other explanations for the deserting of the complex, such as a sharp population decline.
 
==Archaeology and tourism==
Today Nan Madol forms an archaeological district covering more than 18&nbsp;km² and includes the stone [[architecture]] built up on a coral reef flat along the shore of [[Temwen Island]], several other artificial islets, and the adjacent Pohnpei main island coastline. The site core with its stone walls encloses an area approximately 1.5&nbsp;km long by 0.5&nbsp;km wide and it contains nearly 100 artificial islets—[[Rock (geology)|stone]] and [[coral]] fill platforms—bordered by tidal [[canal]]s.
 
[[Carbon dating]] indicates that the construction of Nan Madol began around 1200 CE, while excavations show that the area may have been occupied as early as 200 BCE. Some probable [[quarry]] sites around the island have been identified, but the exact origin of the stones of Nan Madol is yet undetermined. None of the proposed quarry sites exist in [[Madolenihmw]], meaning that the stones must have been transported to their current location. It has been suggested that they might have been floated via raft from the quarry, and a short dive between the island and the quarries shows a trail of dropped stones. However, no one has successfully demonstrated or explained the process. Some modern Pohnpeians believe the stones were flown to the island by use of [[black magic]].
 
In 1985 the ruins of Nan Madol were declared a [[National Historical Landmark]]. Currently, a greater effort is being made to preserve them.
 
== In fiction ==
Nan Madol has inspired a number of works of fiction about lost civilisations:
*The ruins of Nan Madol were used as the setting for a [[lost race]] story by [[A. Merritt]], ''[[The Moon Pool]]'' (1918), in which the islands are called Nan-Tauach and the ruins are called the Nan-Matal.
*''Nan Madol'' is the name of an album recorded by [[Edward Vesala]] in 1974.
*Nan Madol and its history have been used as the basis of the novel ''[[Deep Fathom]]'' (2001) written by [[James Rollins]].
*Nan Madol is identified with [[R'lyeh]], the sunken city in which [[Cthulhu]] reputedly lies, "Dead, but dreaming" in the [[H.P. Lovecraft]] short story [[The Call of Cthulhu]].<ref>{{cite book|title=Necronomicon Gnosis: A Practical Introduction|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=n8bx1BYdjgUC&pg=PA29|year=2007|publisher=Edition Roter Drache|isbn=978-3-939459-05-7|page=29}}</ref>
*It is also featured in [[Clive Cussler]]'s 2009 novel ''[[Medusa (Cussler novel)|Medusa]]''.
*The novel "The Ultimate Aphrodisiac" by [[Robert G. Barrett]] is set in the fictional Micronesian Island of Lan Laroi, which was inspired by Barrett's visit to Nan Madol.
* It is mentioned in passing in Episode 93 of ''The Flying Cloud''.<ref>Gazis, Paul. [http://airships.paulgazis.com/093/FlyingCloud093.htm The Flying Cloud, Episode 93]. Retrieved 2013-08-07.</ref>
 
==Theories==
There have also been theories, although the "[[lost continents]]" of Lemuria and Mu are considered to be falsified by [[plate tectonics]].
*Nan Madol was one of the sites [[James Churchward]] identified as being part of the lost continent of [[Mu (lost continent)|Mu]], starting in his 1926 book ''The Lost Continent of Mu Motherland of Man''.<ref>Joseph, Frank (2005) [http://books.google.com/books?id=9nNGMjm8VmgC&pg=PA169 Nan Madol: The Lost Civilisation of the Pacific]. In ''Underground!: the disinformation guide to ancient civilizations, astonishing archaeology and hidden history'' edited by Preston Peet, [[The Disinformation Company]], page 169-176</ref>
*In his book ''Lost City of Stones'' (1978) writer [[Bill S. Ballinger]] theorizes the city was built by Greek sailors c.300 BCE.
*[[David Hatcher Childress]], an author of travel guides, speculates that Nan Madol is connected to the lost continent of [[Lemuria (continent)|Lemuria]].<ref>''Lost Cities of Ancient Lemuria & the Pacific'', 1991, ISBN 0-932813-04-6</ref>
*The 1999 book [[The Coming Global Superstorm]] by [[Art Bell]] and [[Whitley Strieber]], which predicts that [[global warming]] might produce sudden and catastrophic [[climate|climatic]] effects, claims that the construction of Nan Madol, with exacting tolerances and extremely heavy basalt materials, necessitated a high degree of technical competency. Since no such society exists in the modern record - or, even, in legend - this society must have been destroyed by dramatic means.
* Lihat pula [[Erich Von Daniken]] (1973), ''The Gold of the Gods'', Chapter 4: "Temuen, The Island They Call Nan Madol"
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== Catatan ==
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== Catatan kakiReferensi ==
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