Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord: Perbedaan antara revisi

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k (Bot: ro:Bătăliile de la Lexington și Concord adalah artikel bagus; kosmetik perubahan)
|date=19 April 1775
|place=[[County Middlesex, Massachusetts]]
|coordinates=Lexington: {{coord|42|26|58.7|N|71|13|51.0|W|name=Lexington|type:landmark_scale:5000|display=inline,title}}<br />Concord: {{coord|42|28|08.54|N|71|21|02.08|W|name=Concord|type:landmark_scale:5000|display=inline}}
|result=Kemenangan koloni; dimulainya [[Perang Revolusi Amerika]]
|combatant2={{flagcountry|Britania Raya}}
|combatant1=[[Provinsi Teluk Massachusetts]]
|commander2=[[Francis Smith (perwira Britania)|Francis Smith]]<br />[[John Pitcairn]]<br />Walter Laurie<br />[[Hugh Percy]]
|commander1=[[John Parker]]<br />James Barrett<br />Major [[John Buttrick]]<br />[[William Heath]]<br />[[Joseph Warren]]
|strength2='''Departing Boston''' 700<ref name="Chidsey6">[[#Chidsey|Chidsey]], hal. 6. This is the total size of Smith's force.</ref><br />'''Lexington:''' 400<ref name="Coburn64">[[#Coburn|Coburn]], hal. 64. This force is six light infantry companies under Pitcairn.</ref><br />'''Concord:''' 100<ref name="Coburn77">[[#Coburn|Coburn]], hal. 77 and other sources indicate "three companies". [[#Chidsey|Chidsey]], p. 28 gives a company size "nominally of 28".</ref><br />'''End of Battle:''' 1,500<ref name="Coburn114">[[#Coburn|Coburn]], hal. 114 gives the size of Percy's force at 1,000. This count reflects that estimate plus the departing strength, less casualties.</ref>
|strength1=<br />'''Lexington:''' 77<ref name="CoburnXII">[[#Coburn|Coburn]], p. xii</ref><ref name="MilitiaSize">The exact number of militia on the field for the conflict is a matter of debate. Fischer (notes on p. 400) cites contemporaneous counts and those of other historians of between 50 and 70 militia, and states (p. 183) that Sylvanus Wood, in an account taken 50 years later, recalled only counting 38 militia. Coburn (p. 60) identifies 77 individuals by name that mustered for the encounter.</ref><br />'''Concord:''' 400<ref name="ConcordMilitiaCount">[[#Chidsey|Chidsey]], p. 29 estimates the colonial force at 500 by the time the confrontation occurs. [[#Coburn|Coburn]], pp. 80–81 counts about 300 specifically, plus several uncounted companies.</ref><br />'''Akhir pertempuran:''' 3,800<ref name="CoburnXII"/>
|casualties2=73 tewas,<br />174 terluka,<br />53 hilang<ref name="Chidsey47">[[#Chidsey|Chidsey]], p. 47 recites all casualty figures except MIA. [[#Coburn|Coburn]], pp. 156–159 recites by town and name the American losses, and by company the British losses, including MIA (from Gage's report). Chidsey, Coburn, and Fischer disagree on some American counts: Chidsey and Fischer count 39 wounded, Coburn 42. [[#Fischer|Fischer]], pp. 320–321 also records 50 American KIA vs Chidsey and Coburn's 49.</ref>
|casualties1=49 tewas,<br />39 terluka,<br />5 hilang<ref name="Chidsey47"/>
}}
'''Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord''' adalah pertempuran pertama dalam [[Perang Revolusi Amerika]].<ref name="French"> [[#French| French]], pp. 2, 272-273</ref><ref>A controversial interpretation holds that the [[Battle of Point Pleasant]], six months earlier, was the initial military engagement of the Revolutionary War. Despite a 1908 United States Senate resolution designating it as such, few, if any, historians subscribe to this interpretation.[http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh56-5.html]</ref> Pertempuran ini pecah pada tanggal 19 April 1775, di [[County Middlesex, Massachusetts|County Middlesex]], [[Provinsi Teluk Massachusetts]], di kota [[Lexington, Massachusetts|Lexington]], [[Concord, Massachusetts|Concord]], [[Lincoln, Massachusetts|Lincoln]], [[Arlington, Massachusetts|Menotomy (sekarang Arlington)]], dan [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]]. Pertempuran ini menandai dimulainya konflik bersenjata antara [[Britania Raya]] melawan tiga belas koloninya di [[Amerika Utara]].
 
== Catatan kaki ==
 
== Pranala luar ==
* [http://www.nps.gov/mima/ National Park Service site for Minute Man National Historical Park]
* [http://rjohara.net/gen/wars/minuteman Why We Remember Lexington and Concord and the 19th of April]
* [http://www.nps.gov/mima/My%20Webs/myweb/The%20Hancock%20Returns.htm Rescued cannon returns to Concord]
* [http://www.generalatomic.com/AmericanHistory/lexington.html Battles of Lexington and Concord]
* [http://www.concordma.com/concordfight/toc.html Articles about the Concord Fight in Concord Magazine]
* [http://www.revolutionarywaranimated.com/lex Animated History of the Battles of Lexington and Concord]
* [http://www.revolutionaryday.com/usroute20/concord/default.htm Concord Massachusetts]
* [http://www.justice101us.com/merriam.htm Merriam's Corner]
* {{cite web |title=Colonial towns, by the numbers |url=http://www.wickedlocal.com/lexington/fun/entertainment/arts/x1605763724 |accessdate=2010-04-25}} Facts and figures on Acton, Bedford, Concord and Lexington of the period, including the rosters of the towns' Minute Men and Militia
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20636/20636-8.txt Statements of American combatants at Lexington and Concord] contained in supplement “Official Papers Concerning the Skirmishes at Lexington and Concord” to ''The Military Journals of Private Soldiers, 1758-1775,'' by Abraham Tomlinson for the Poughkeepsie, NY museum, 1855.
* [http://www.wikischool.us/instructor_pages/vol_1_files/Page315.htm Teach this article at the Wikischool]
 
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[[Kategori:Konflik dalam tahun 1775]]
[[Kategori:Perang Revolusi Amerika Serikat]]
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