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{{Life of Paul}}
#ALIH [[Perjanjian Baru#Surat-surat Paulus]]
'''Surat-surat Paulus''' ({{lang-en|Pauline epistles}}, ''Epistles of Paul'', atau ''Letters of Paul'') adalah kumpulan surat-surat yang kemudian menjadi kitab-kitab dalam [[Perjanjian Baru]] di [[Alkitab]] [[Kristen]]. Ada tiga belas surat yang dimulai dengan nama "Paulus" (Παῦλος) pada kata pertamanya, dan dengan demikian memberikan identitas [[Paulus dari Tarsus|Paulus]] sebagai penulisnya. Di antara surat-surat ini terkandung ajaran-ajaran paling awal dalam [[Kekristenan]], termasuk perdebatan prinsip dalam [[gereja mula-mula]], munculnya aliran-aliran yang tidak sejalan dan, sebagai bagian dari [[Kanon Alkitab]], semua surat ini terus menerus menjadi landasan [[teologi]] [[Kristiani]] dan [[etika Kristen]]. [[Surat Ibrani]] tidak memuat nama "Paulus" sama sekali, meskipun pada zaman kuno dianggap juga merupakan tulisan Paulus, sampai sekarang masih diragukan apakah benar-benar tulisannya.
 
Surat-surat Paulus biasanya ditempatkan di antara [[Kisah Para Rasul]] dan [[Surat-surat Am]]. Pada sejumlah naskah kuno, misalnya [[minuscule]] [[Minuscule 175|175]], [[Minuscule 325|325]], [[Minuscule 336|336]], dan [[Minuscule 1424|1424]], surat-surat Paulus ditempatkan di akhir [[Perjanjian Baru]].
 
== Urutan ==
 
Menurut urutannya dalam [[Perjanjian Baru]], surat-surat Paulus meliputi:
 
{| class="wikitable"
! rowspan=2 | Nama<br />
! rowspan=2 | Bahasa Yunani<br />
! rowspan=2 | Bahasa Latin<br />
! colspan=3 | Singkatan
|-
! Penuh
! Min.
 
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Roma]]
<td>Προς Ρωμαίους
<td>Epistula ad Romanos
<td>Rom
<td>Ro
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat 1 Korintus]]
<td>Προς Κορινθίους Α
<td>Epistula I ad Corinthios
<td>1 Kor
<td>1C
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat 2 Korintus]]
<td>Προς Κορινθίους Β
<td>Epistula II ad Corinthios
<td>2 Kor
<td>2C
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Galatia]]
<td>Προς Γαλάτας
<td>Epistula ad Galatas
<td>Gal
<td>G
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Efesus]]
<td>Προς Εφεσίους
<td>Epistula ad Ephesios
<td>Efe; Ef
<td>E
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Filipi]]
<td>Προς Φιλιππησίους
<td>Epistula ad Philippenses
<td>Flp
<td>Phi
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Kolose]]
<td>Προς Κολασσαείς
<td>Epistula ad Colossenses
<td>Kol
<td>K
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat 1 Tesalonika]]
<td>Προς Θεσσαλονικείς Α
<td>Epistula I ad Thessalonicenses
<td>1 Tes
<td>1Th
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat 2 Tesalonika]]
<td>Προς Θεσσαλονικείς Β
<td>Epistula II ad Thessalonicenses
<td>2 Tes
<td>2Th
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat 1 Timotius]]
<td>Προς Τιμόθεον Α
<td>Epistula I ad Timotheum
<td>1 Tim
<td>1T
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat 2 Timotius]]
<td>Προς Τιμόθεον Β
<td>Epistula II ad Timotheum
<td>2 Tim
<td>2T
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Titus]]
<td>Προς Τίτον
<td>Epistula ad Titum
<td>Tit
<td>T
</tr>
<tr>
<td>[[Surat Filemon]]
<td>Προς Φιλήμονα
<td>Epistula ad Philemonem
<td>Flm
<td>P
</tr>
|}
 
Semua surat-surat tersebut memuat nama Paulus sebagai penulisnya.<ref>[[Joseph Barber Lightfoot]] dalam karyanya ''Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians'' menulis: "At this point [{{bibleverse||Gal|6:11}}] the apostle takes the pen from his [[amanuensis]], and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name ({{bibleverse|2|Thess|2:2}}; {{bibleverse-nb|2|Thess|3:17}}) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries... In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. ''pelikois grammasin''), that his handwriting may reflect the energy and determination of his soul."</ref> Sejumlah klasifikasi memasukkan [[Surat Ibrani]], yang tidak memuat nama penulis, sebagai surat-surat Paulus, bukan termasuk ke dalam [[Surat-surat Am]], tetapi siapa penulis [[Surat Ibrani]] masih diperdebatkan sejak zaman dahulu sampai sekarang, dan banyak yang meragukan bahwa penulisnya adalah Paulus.<ref>"Meskipun [Surat] Ibrani hampir pasti tidak ditulis oleh Paulus, [kitab itu] merupakan bagian kumpulan Surat-surat Paulus 'sejak permulaan pembuatan naskah-naskah kuno yang ada sampai sekarang'." (Wallace, Daniel B. [http://web.archive.org/web/20031011120719/http://www.bible.org/docs/soapbox/hebotl.htm ''Hebrews: Introduction, Argument, and Outline'']).</ref>
 
Pada naskah-naskah kuno [[Perjanjian Baru]] [[Surat Ibrani]] ditempatkan di antara surat-surat Paulus:
* antara Rom dan 1 Kor dalam ''mss'' ("naskah-naskah"): [[Papirus 46]] dan dalam [[minuscule]]: [[Minuscule 103|103]], [[Minuscule 455|455]], 1961, 1964, 1977, 1994.
* antara 2 Kor dan Gal (minuscule 1930, 1978, dan 2248)
* antara Gal dan Efe,
* antara 2 Tes dan 1 Tim, pada ''mss'': [[Codex Sinaiticus]], [[Codex Alexandrinus]], [[Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209]], [[Codex Ephraemi]], [[Codex Coislinianus|H]], [[Codex Freerianus|I]], [[Codex Guelferbytanus A|P]], [[Uncial 0150|0150]], [[Uncial 0151|0151]], dan sekitar 60 [[kodeks]] [[minuscule]] (misalnya [[Minuscule 218|218]], [[Minuscule 632|632]]).
 
Sekarang Surat Ibrani ditempatkan di belakang surat-surat Paulus, sesuai dengan naskah-naskah berikut:
[[Codex Claromontanus]], [[Codex Vaticanus 2061|Uncial 048]], [[Codex Laudianus|Codex Laudianus (E)]], [[Codex Mosquensis I|K]], [[Codex Regius (New Testament)|L]] dan mayoritas minuscule.
 
== Klasifikasi agamawi ==
 
Surat-surat Paulus mempunyai ciri khas hubungan pribadi dengan antara penulis dan penerima surat. Paulus menyapa banyak orang dengan nama dan sering dibubuhi informasi nilai persahabatan antara mereka serta rasa syukur atas budi baik yang mereka berikan kepadanya.
<!--
== Authenticity ==
:''Main article [[Authorship of the Pauline epistles]]''.
Several of the letters are thought by most modern scholars to be [[Pseudepigraphy|pseudepigraphic]], that is, not actually written by Paul the Apostle even if attributed to him within the letters themselves, or, arguably, even forgeries intended to justify certain later beliefs. Details of the arguments regarding this issue are addressed more specifically in the articles about each epistle.
 
These are the seven letters (with consensus dates)<ref>Pheme Perkins, [http://books.google.ca/books?id=UuwWpq9SznsC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=Philemon+dating&source=bl&ots=3fP2qoyCoL&sig=L45iXK8Lcqb-oMpZlgL9Lhc4qUo&hl=en&ei=hjPSSazPM57yswOQgsHVAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPA4,M1 ''Reading the New Testament: An Introduction''] (Paulist Press, 1988), pp. 4-7.</ref> considered genuine by most scholars (see main article [[Authorship of the Pauline epistles]]: section [[Authorship_of_the_Pauline_epistles#The_undisputed_epistles|The undisputed epistles]]):
 
*[[1 Thessalonians|First Thessalonians]] (ca. 51 AD)
*[[Philippians]] (ca. 52-54 AD)
*[[Epistle to Philemon|Philemon]] (ca. 52-54 AD)
*[[1 Corinthians|First Corinthians]] (ca. 53-54 AD)
*[[Epistle to the Galatians|Galatians]] (ca. 55 AD)
*[[2 Corinthians|Second Corinthians]] (ca. 55-56 AD)
*[[Epistle to the Romans|Romans]] (ca. 55-58 AD)
 
The letters thought to be [[pseudepigraphic]] by the majority of modern scholars include:<ref name="New Testament Letter Structure">[http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/Paul-Disputed.htm New Testament Letter Structure], from [http://catholic-resources.org Catholic Resources] by Felix Just, S.J.</ref>
 
*[[Pastoral epistles]]
**[[1 Timothy|First Timothy]]
**[[2 Timothy|Second Timothy]]
**[[Epistle to Titus|Titus]]
*[[Ephesians]]
 
The letters on which modern scholars are about evenly divided are:<ref name="New Testament Letter Structure"/>
 
*[[Colossians]]
*[[2 Thessalonians|Second Thessalonians]]
 
==Lost Pauline epistles==
* The first Epistle to Corinth<ref>Also called ''A Prior Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians''[http://www.icwseminary.org/lostbooks.htm] or ''Paul’s previous Corinthian letter''.[http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/42], possibly [[Third Epistle to the Corinthians]]</ref> referenced at {{bibleverse|1|Corinthians|5:9}}
* The third Epistle to Corinth called [[Severe Letter]] referenced at {{bibleverse|2|Corinthians|2:4}} and {{bibleverse|2|Corinthians|7:8-9}}
* The earlier Epistle to the Ephesians referenced at {{bibleref|Ephesians|3:3-4}}
* The [[Epistle to the Laodiceans]]<ref>[http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/42 Apologetics Press - Are There Lost Books of the Bible?<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> referenced at {{bibleref|Colossians|4:16}}
 
== Non-canonical Pauline epistles ==
Several non-canonical epistles claim or having been claimed to have been written by Paul. Most bible scholars reject their authenticity. They include
* [[Third Epistle to the Corinthians]] (canonical for a time in the [[Armenian Apostolic Church|Armenian Orthodox]])
* [[Epistle to the Laodiceans]] (found in [[Codex Fuldensis]])
* [[Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul]] (addressed to Paul, not written by him)
* [[Epistle to the Alexandrians]]
 
Texts also exist which, while not strictly epistles, nevertheless claim to have been written by (or about) Paul. These include
* [[Acts of Paul and Thecla]]
* [[Acts of Peter and Paul]]
* [[Apocalypse of Paul]]
* [[Coptic Apocalypse of Paul]]
* [[Prayer of the Apostle Paul]]
* [[Epistle to Seneca the Younger]]
 
Some{{who|date=October 2011}} have also postulated the existence of a third epistle to the Thessalonians (second chronologically) forged in Paul's name, citing 2 Th 2:1-2, 3:17 as evidence; that hypothesis, though, has not gained mainstream acceptance.
-->
== Lihat pula ==
#ALIH* [[Perjanjian Baru#Surat-surat Paulus]]
* [[Surat-surat Am]]
 
==Referensi ==
<references/>
 
== Sumber pustaka ==
*Aland, Kurt. “The Problem of Anonymity and Pseudonymity in Christian Literature of the First Two Centuries.” ''[[Journal of Theological Studies]]'' 12 (1961): 39-49.
*Bahr, Gordon J. “Paul and Letter Writing in the First Century.” ''[[Catholic Biblical Quarterly]]'' 28 (1966): 465-77. idem, “The Subscriptions in the Pauline Letters.” ''[[Journal of Biblical Literature]]'' 2 (1968): 27-41.
*Bauckham, Richard J. “Pseudo-Apostolic Letters.” ''[[Journal of Biblical Literature]]'' 107 (1988): 469-94.
*Carson, D.A. “Pseudonymity and Pseudepigraphy.” ''Dictionary of New Testament Background''. Eds. Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2000. 857-64.
*Cousar, Charles B. ''The Letters of Paul''. Interpreting Biblical Texts. Nashville: Abingdon, 1996.
*Deissmann, G. Adolf. ''Bible Studies''. Trans. Alexander Grieve. 1901. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1988.
*Doty, William G. ''Letters in Primitive Christianity''. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. New Testament. Ed. Dan O. Via, Jr. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.
*Gamble, Harry Y. “Amanuensis.” ''Anchor Bible Dictionary''. Vol. 1. Ed. David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
*Haines-Eitzen, Kim. “‘Girls Trained in Beautiful Writing’: Female Scribes in Roman Antiquity and Early Christianity.” ''[[Journal of Early Christian Studies]]'' 6.4 (1998): 629-46.
*Kim, Yung Suk. ''A Theological Introduction to Paul's Letters''. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2011.
*Longenecker, Richard N. “Ancient Amanuenses and the Pauline Epistles.” ''New Dimensions in New Testament Study''. Eds. Richard N. Longenecker and [[Merrill C. Tenney]]. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974. 281-97. idem, “On the Form, Function, and Authority of the New Testament Letters.” ''Scripture and Truth''. Eds. D.A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983. 101-14.
*Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome. ''Paul the Letter-Writer: His World, His Options, His Skills''. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical, 1995.
*Richards, E. Randolph. ''The Secretary in the Letters of Paul''. Tübingen: Mohr, 1991. idem, “The Codex and the Early Collection of Paul’s Letters.” ''Bulletin for Bulletin Research'' 8 (1998): 151-66. idem, ''Paul and First-Century Letter Writing: Secretaries, Composition, and Collection''. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2004.
*Robson, E. Iliff. “Composition and Dictation in New Testament Books.” ''[[Journal of Theological Studies]]'' 18 (1917): 288-301.
*Stowers, Stanley K. ''Letter Writing in Greco-Roman Antiquity''. Library of Early Christianity. Vol. 8. Ed. Wayne A. Meeks. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1989.
*Wall, Robert W. “Introduction to Epistolary Literature.” ''New Interpreter’s Bible''. Vol. 10. Ed. Leander E. Keck. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002. 369-91.
 
== Pranala luar ==
* [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/harnack/origin_nt.v.i.html The Marcionite Prologues to the Pauline Epistles]
* [http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/corpus-paul/19990330/000029.html Chronological Order of Paul's Letters]
* [http://www.bombaxo.com/paulchron.html Chronology of Paul's Letters]
 
{{Kitab-kitab Alkitab}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Surat-surat Paulus}}
[[Category:Paulus]]
[[Category:Surat]]
[[Category:Istilah Kristen]]
[[Kategori:Perjanjian Baru]]
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