Haftarah: Perbedaan revisi

250 bita ditambahkan ,  7 tahun yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
'''''Haftarah''''' atau '''''Haftorah''''' (dalam pelafalan [[Ashkenazi]]:'''''haftoroh''''' (alt. '''haphtara'''), [[Hebrewbahasa language|HebrewIbrani]]: '''הפטרה'''; "partingberpisah," "takingmengambil leavecuti", pluralbentuk jamak ''haftarot'' oratau ''haftoros'') adalah suatu rangkaian bacaan pilihan dari kitab-kitab pada bagian ''[[Nevi'im]]'' ("Kitab Nabi-nabi") [[Alkitab Ibrani]] (''[[Tanakh]]'') yang dibaca di depan umum pada [[sinagoga]] sebagai bagian praktik ibadah [[Yudaisme]]. Pembacaan Haftarah mengikuti [[pembacaan Taurat]] pada setiap hari [[Sabat]] dan pada festival dan hari-hari puasa Yahudi. Biasanya, ''haftarah'' secara tematik dikaitkan dengan''[[parsyah]]'' (bagian bacaan Taurat mingguan) yang dibacakan sebelumnya.<ref>Goswell argues that the arrangement "suggests we should understand the books of Joshua - Kings as illustrating and applying the theology and ethics of the [[Pentateuch]]." Gregory Goswell, "The Hermeneutics of the Haftarot," ''[[Tyndale Bulletin]]'' 58 (2007), 100.</ref> Pembacaan ''haftarah'' dilakukan dengan nyanyian (dikenal sebagai "''trop''" dalam [[bahasa Yiddish]] atau "[[Cantillation]]" dalam bahasa Inggris. Suatu pemberkatan terkait diberikan sebelum dan sesudah pembacaan Haftarah.
<!--
The origin of haftarah reading is lost to history, and several theories have been proposed to explain its role in Jewish practice, suggesting it arose in response to the persecution of the [[Jews]] under [[Antiochus Epiphanes]] which preceded the [[Maccabean revolt]], wherein Torah reading was prohibited,<ref name="Rabinowitz, Louis 2007">Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.</ref> or that it was "instituted against the [[Samaritans]], who denied the [[Biblical canon|canon]]icity of the Prophets (except for Joshua), and later against the [[Sadducees]]."<ref name="Rabinowitz, Louis 2007"/> The [[Talmud]] mentions that a ''haftarah'' was read in the presence of Rabbi [[Eliezer ben Hyrcanus]], who lived c.70 CE,<ref>Tosefta, Megillah, 4 (3): 1, gives the haftarot for the Four Special Sabbaths. A baraita in Megillah 31a, which has later additions by the Babylonian amoraim who add the haftarot for the second days of the festivals (and who sometimes change the order of the haftarot as a result) – gives the haftarot for every one of the festivals, including their intermediate Sabbaths, as well as a Sabbath which is also Rosh Hodesh, the Sabbath which immediately precedes Rosh Hodesh, and Hanukkah.</ref> and in the [[Christian]] [[New Testament]] several references suggest this Jewish custom was in place during that era.<ref>Acts 13:15 states that "after the reading of the law and the prophets" Paul was invited to deliver an exhortation. Luke 4:17 states that during the Sabbath service in Nazareth the Book of Isaiah was handed to Jesus, "and when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written," the passage being Isaiah 61:1–2. Unfortunately, the Greek word used there meaning "found" does not make it clear whether the passage read was fixed beforehand or whether it was chosen at random. See Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.</ref>
== Sejarah ==
 
Tidak ada yang tahu pasti asal mula pembacaan ''haftarah'', tetapi beberapa teori telah dikemukakan. Penjelasan paling umum yang diterima oleh sejumlah otoritas Yahudi tradisional adalah pada tahun 168 SM, ketika orang Yahudi di bawah kekuasaan Kekaisaran Seleukia pada zaman raja [[Antiokhos IV Epiphanes]], mereka dilarang membaca [[Taurat]] sehingga menggantinya dengan bacaan Haftarah. Ketika kemudian diizinkan kembali membaca Taurat, mereka tetap membaca ''haftarah'' pula.<ref name="Rabinowitz, Louis 2007">Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.</ref>
<!--
An alternative explanation, offered by Rabbis [[Reuven Margolies]] and [[Samson Raphael Hirsch]], is that the ''haftarah'' reading was instituted to fight the influence of those [[sects]] in Judaism that viewed the Hebrew Bible as consisting only of the [[Torah]].
 
== Daftar ''Haftarot''==
Bacaan pilihan dari bagian ''[[Nevi'im]]'' yang dibaca sebagai ''haftarah'' tidak selalu sama pada semua komunitas Yahudi. Jika berbeda adat, maka dalam daftar ini ditandai sebagai berikut: ''A''= [[Ashkenazi]] (''AF''= [[Frankfurt am Main]]; ''AH''= [[Chabad]]; ''AP''= [[Polandia]]); ''I''= adat [[Italia]] custom; ''S''= [[SephardimSefardim]] dan [[Mizrahi]]; ''Y''= [[Yahudi Yaman|YemeniteYemenit]]; ''R''=[[Romaniotes|Romaniote]] (ByzantineBizantine, easternkekaisaran RomanRomawi empiretimur); dan ''K''= [[KaraiteYahudi JudaismKarait|Karait]]. Jika huruf-huruf ini tidak muncul, berarti semua adat setuju.
 
===''Haftarot'' untuk Kitab Kejadian ===
**A: Yesaya 42:5&ndash;43:10
**S, AF, AH, AP: Yesaya 42:5&ndash;21
***PortuguesePortugis (acc tomenurut Dotan): Yesaya 42:5&ndash;21, and 61:10, and 62:5
**I: Yesaya 42:1&ndash;21
**Y: Yesaya 42:1&ndash;16
**K: Yesaya 33:17&ndash;35:10
*''[[Chayei Sarah (parsha)|Chayei Sarah]]'' (23:1&ndash;25:18)
**A, S, Y, komunitas [[Dor Daim|Dardai]] communities: 1 Kings 1:1&ndash;31
**I: 1 Kings 1:1&ndash;34
**K, R: Yesaya 51:2&ndash;22
**Y: Malachi 1:1&ndash;3:4
**K, R: Yesaya 65:23&ndash;66:18
*''[[Vayetze (parsha)|Vayetze]]'' (28:10&ndash;32:3)&#32; &#32;&#32;<ref>S.R. Hirsch mencatamencatat adanya konflik tradisi mengenai Vayetze; akibatnya telah diulas dalam Hirsch, Hertz, Jerusalem Crown, & the Koren Bibles</ref>
**A: Hosea 12:13&ndash;14:10 (and somebeberapa, including thetermasuk [[Perushim]], menambah pada bagian akhir Yoel 2:26&ndash;27)
**S (alsojuga A, acc tomenurut Cassuto, Israeli Defense Forces Bibles): Hosea 11:7&ndash;12:12
**K, Amsterdam, Algiers, some Maghreb (and S, acc to ArtScroll): Hosea 11:7&ndash;13:5
**Y, I, AH, Baghdad, Djerba: Hosea 11:7&ndash;12:14
**R: Isaiah 32:18&ndash;33:18
**K: Isaiah 32:18&ndash;33:22
(°&#32; howevertetapi,if jika Vayeshev occursjatuh onpada thehari firstSabat Sabbathpertama Hanukkah, whichyang happenskadang occasionallyterjadi, the Haftarah isadalah Zechariah 2:14&ndash;4:7.)
*''[[Miketz (parsha)|Miketz]]'' (41:1&ndash;44:17)
**1 Kings 3:15&ndash;4:1&#32;&#32;&#32;°
**R: Isaiah 29:7&ndash;30:4
**K: Isaiah 29:7&ndash;24
(°&#32; howevertetapi,if jika Miketz occursjatuh onpada thehari firstSabat Sabbathpertama Hanukkah, whichyang isbiasanya usually the caseterjadi, the Haftarah isadalah Zechariah 2:14&ndash;4:7. <br>If it occurs on the second Sabbath Hanukkah, the Haftarah is 1 Kings 7:40&ndash;50)
*''[[Vayigash (parsha)|Vayigash]]'' (44:18;&ndash;47:27)
** Ezekiel 37:15&ndash;28
**K, R, AH: Isaiah 27:6&ndash;28:13
**S, I: Jeremiah 1:1&ndash;2:3
**Y (alsojuga Algiers, Baghdad, Fez, Persia): Ezekiel 16:1&ndash;14 (acc to Dotan, 16:1&ndash;13)
*''[[Va'eira (parsha)|Va'eira]]'' (6:2&ndash;9:35)
**A, S: Ezekiel 28:25&ndash;29:21
**K: Isaiah 34:11&ndash;35:10
*''[[Beshalach (parsha)|Beshalach]]'' (13:17&ndash;17:16)
**A, AH: Judges 4:4&ndash;5:31 (longestpembacaan Haftarah ofmingguan the weekly readingsterpanjang)
**Y, Libya, Fez, Istambul: Judges 4:23&ndash;5:31
**I: Judges 4:4&ndash;5:3
**S: Judges 5:1&ndash;5:31
**K, R: Joshua 24:7&ndash;24:26
*''[[Yitro (parsha)|Yitro]]'' (18:1&ndash;20:26) (includestermasuk The[[Sepuluh TenPerintah CommandmentsAllah]])
**A, Baghdad, Algiers: Isaiah 6:1&ndash;7:6 & 9:5&ndash;6
**S, AH, I: Isaiah 6:1&ndash;13