Presiden Mesir: Perbedaan revisi

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{{Use British English|date=June 2012}}
{{Infobox Jabatan Politik
{{Infobox political post
|jabatan = Presiden
|lembagapost = Republik Arab Mesir= Presiden
|body = <br>Republik Arab Mesir
|namaasli = رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية
|insignia = Presidential Standard of Egypt.svg
|insigniasize = 125px
|ukuraninsignia = 150px
|insigniacaption = Lambang Kepresidenan
|keteranganinsignia = Standar Presiden Mesir
|image = =
|imagesize = 200px
|incumbent = [[HosniMohamed MubarakMorsi]]
|incumbentsince = 1430 OktoberJuni 19812012
|residence = [[Heliopolis Palace]], Kairo, Mesir
|gelar =
|kediamantermlength = Istana4 Abdeentahun, [[Kairo]],dipilih [[Mesir]]kembali
|salary = $48,000 per tahun<ref>http://www.masrawy.com/News/reports/2012/june/21/5123880.aspx</ref>
|tempo = Enam tahun, dapat diperbaharui
|pertama inaugural = [[Muhammad Naguib]]<br />18 Juni 1953
|deputy = [[Mahmoud Mekki]]
|dibentuk = 18 Juni 1953
|website = [http://{{url|www.presidency.gov.eg/ www.presidency.gov.eg]}}
}}
 
'''Presiden Republik Arab Mesir''' dipilih untuk jabatanadalah [[Kepalakepala Negaranegara]] [[Mesir]]. Di bawah [[Konstitusi Mesir]], seorang Presidenpresiden juga menjabat [[Komandan Tertinggi]]panglima untuktertinggi angkatan bersenjata dan kepala [[Eksekutifcabang (pemerintahan)|Eksekutif]]eksekutif [[Kabinet Mesir|pemerintahan Mesir]]. Presiden yang kini menjabat adalah [[Mohamed Morsi]].
 
Presiden pertama Mesir yang pertama adalah [[Muhammad Naguib]]. Ia adalah, salah satu pemimpin [[Mesir Revolusi Mesirtahun 1952]], dan mulaiyang menjabat posisi pada tanggal 18 Juni 1953, hari dimana Mesir dideklarasikan sebagai [[negara republik]].
 
Setelah [[Revolusi Mesir tahun 2011]], [[Hosni Mubarak]] yang menjabat selama [[14 Oktober]] [[1981]] hingga [[11 Februari]] [[2011]] dipaksa untuk mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya. Pada [[10 Februari]] 2011, Mubarak menyerahkan kekuasaan presiden kepada Wakil Presiden [[Omar Suleiman]], sehingga menjadikan Suleiman sebagai ''presiden de facto''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12428273|title=Egypt crisis: Army in pledge to end state of emergency|publisher=BBC News|date=11 February 2011|accessdate=11 February 2011}}</ref> Setelah pengunduran diri Mubarak, posisi Presiden Mesir secara resmi kosong dan [[Dewan Tertinggi Angkatan Bersenjata]] pimpinan [[Field Marshal]] [[Mohamed Hussein Tantawi]] mengontrol penuh kekuasaan eksekutif.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12433045|title=Egypt's Mubarak resigns as leader|publisher=BBC News|date=11 February 2011|accessdate=11 February 2011}}</ref> Pada [[30 Juni]] [[2012]], [[Mohamed Morsi]] dilantik sebagai Presiden Mesir, setelah memenangkan [[Pemilihan Umum Presiden Mesir, 2012|pemilu presiden Mesir 2012]] pada [[24 Juni]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2012/0624/Muslim-Brotherhood-s-Morsi-becomes-Egypt-s-first-civilian-president|title=Muslim Brotherhood's Morsi becomes Egypt's first civilian president|work=[[The Christian Science Monitor]]|date=24 June 2012}}</ref>
Presiden Mesir yang keempat adalah [[Hosni Mubarak]]. Hosni menjabat periode pertamanya pada tanggal 14 Oktobet 1981
 
== LihatKekuasaan pulaPresiden ==
Di bawah sistem yang diciptakan pada tahun 1980 oleh amandemen konstitusi, presiden adalah figur pimpinan eksekutif yang disebut dengan [[Perdana Menteri Mesir]]. Selama [[darurat militer]], presiden juga mengurapi dekan fakultas dan jurusan, dan juga dapat mendaftar atau menyingkirkan orang-orang di sektor swasta. Mesir telah berada dalam darurat militer sejak tahun 1981.
 
== Persyaratan untuk Meraih Jabatan ==
Pasal 75 dari [[Konstitusi Mesir]] menetapkan persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi untuk menjadi presiden. Presiden republik harus menjadi [[Hukum Kebangsaan Mesir|warga negara Mesir]], yang lahir dari orangtua Mesir dan memiliki hak-hak sipil dan politik penuh. Usia presiden tidak boleh kurang dari 40 [[Kalender Gregorian|tahun]].
 
== Pemilihan Umum ==
Prosedur pemilihan yang diambil sebelum akhir masa presiden yang sedang menjabat (''incumbent'') dengan 60 hari.
 
=== Pencalonan ===
Persyaratan tambahan yang ditetapkan dalam Pasal 76 dari konstitusi Mesir mengenai calon kantor presiden.
 
* Calon sudah harus menduduki salah satu posisi kepemimpinan puncak di partai mereka untuk jangka waktu satu tahun.
* Kandidat partai politik harus telah ditetapkan untuk jangka waktu lima tahun, dan berhasil menang 3% dari kursi di Majelis Rakyat (majelis rendah parlemen), dan 5% di Dewan Shora (majelis tinggi).
* Kandidat [[Independen (politikus)|Independen]] harus menerima dukungan dari 250 anggota yang dipilih dari badan perwakilan Mesir (sekitar 6,5% dari total 3847 perwakilan), dimana minimal 65 dukungan yang akan diperoleh dari Majelis Rakyat (yang merupakan 14%), 25 dukungan dari Dewan Syura (juga 14%) dan 10 dukungan Dewan lokal dari 14 governorat (4,5%) untuk memastikan keterwakilan geografis.
 
=== Prosedur Pemilihan ===
==== Sistem Lama ====
[[File:Presidential Standard of Egypt 1972-1984.svg|thumb|right|200px|Presidential Standard, 1972–1984]]
Sebelum amandemen [[Konstitusi Mesir|Konstitusi Mesir 1971]] pada tahun 1980, presiden republik dipilih langsung dalam sistem dua tahap yang unik. Majelis Rakyat, majelis rendah Parlemen mencalonkan salah satu dari sejumlah calon presiden. Para calon presiden memerlukan setidaknya dua pertiga mayoritas di Majelis Rakyat dalam rangka untuk melanjutkan ke tahap kedua pemilu.
 
==== Amandemen Konstitusi 2005/2007 ====
{{Tone|section|date=February 2011}}
Pada 2005 dan 2007, [[Konstitusi Mesir Provisional tahun 2011|amandemen konstitusi dibuat]]. Dalam konstitusi yang diamandemen termasuk prinsip:
 
* The election of the president of the republic by direct [[secret ballot]] from among all citizens who have the right to vote.
* Ensuring that multiple candidates be put forward for the people to choose from.
* Ensuring the credibility of the nomination process.
* Providing the opportunity for [[Politics of Egypt|political parties]] to put forward one of their leaders to contest the [[Egyptian presidential election, 2005|first presidential elections to be held in light of the amendment]].
* The establishment of a presidential election commission that would enjoy complete independence to supervise the election process.
* Carrying out the election in a single day.
* Ensuring judicial supervision over the voting process.
 
The following provisions regarding the election process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended:
 
A successful candidate must be elected by the majority of the votes. If no candidate attains such a majority, elections will be repeated after at least seven days between the two candidates having the highest votes. In case of a tie between the candidate who attained the second highest votes and a third candidate, the third candidate shall participate in the second round. The candidate who receives the highest votes in the second round shall be declared President.
 
The amendment also provides that a law will be passed to regulate the relevant election procedures. This law is expected to regulate the various aspects of the election process itself, including [[campaign finance|campaign funding]], equal access to the media, and guarantees of fair competition.
 
As required by the amendment, the law will be submitted to the [[Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt|Supreme Constitutional Court]] to opine on its constitutionality. This establishes an important precedent in [[Egyptian Judicial System|Egypt’s legal tradition]], by which the Supreme Constitutional Court shall have the right of prior review of national legislation to decide on its compatibility with the Constitution. This differs from the practice thus far by which the review process undertaken by the Court on national legislation was done by [[judicial review]] subsequent to the passage of legislation.
 
{{Egyptian presidential election, 2012}}
 
== Presidential campaign ==
{{Expand section|date=June 2008}}
 
=== Presidential Election Commission ===
The amendment to Article 76 of the constitution provides for the establishment of a “Presidential Election Commission” that would have complete independence, and would be charged with the supervision of the presidential election process.
 
The Commission will be composed of 10 members, presided by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court and four other ex officio members of the judiciary who are the most senior serving Deputy President of each of the Supreme Constitutional, the Court of Cassation, and the High Administrative Court, and the president of the Cairo Court of Appeal.
 
The rest of the Commission will be made up from five independent and neutral public figures: three to be selected by the Peoples Assembly and two to be selected by the Shoura Council.
 
Decisions of this Committee shall be passed by a majority of seven votes. This Commission will have a term of five years and will be exclusively competent to supervise the presidential election process, including accepting nominations, announcing the names of accepted candidates, supervision of election procedures, vote counting and announcement of the results.
 
It will also have final judicial competence to rule on any contesting or challenge submitted in relation to the presidential elections, and its decision will be final and subject to no appeal. The Committee will issue its own regulations and shall be competent to establish general sub-committees from among members of the judiciary, to monitor the various phases of the election process, under its supervision. The election process will be completed in one day.
 
=== Inauguration and oath of office ===
In accordance with Article 79 of the constitution, the president must take the following oath or affirmation before exercising his functions:
"I swear by Allah The Almighty to sincerely maintain the Republican system, to respect the Constitution and law, to fully care about the interests of the people, and to maintain the independence and territorial integrity of the Homeland."
 
=== Term(s) of office ===
Under the Constitution, the president serves four Gregorian years starting from the date of the announcement of result of the plebiscite. The president of the republic may be re-elected once.
 
The constitution specifies the number of terms a president shall remain in office to be limited to two terms.
 
If the president-elect is announced before the end of the incumbent president’s term, the incumbent president continues in office until the end of his term.
 
=== Succession ===
In the case of temporary incapacitation of the president, the constitution provides the president to relinquish his powers to a [[Vice President of Egypt|vice-president]]. If there is no vice president in-office, the prime minister takes office. However the person who takes office is limited in power as the new president can not dissolve the parliament, propose constitutional amendments or remove the cabinet from office.
 
In case of the vacancy of the presidential office or the permanent incapacitation of the president, the speaker of the People’s Assembly shall temporarily assume the presidency. In case the People’s Assembly is dissolved at such a time the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the presidency on condition that neither shall nominate himself for the presidency. Both are also limited in power as in they can not dissolve the parliament, remove the cabinet, or propose constitutional amendments.
 
The People’s Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of president, and a new president shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the date of the vacancy of the office.
 
Although, the constitution does not directly stipulate any role for the vice-president in the process of presidential succession, It had become a tradition for the People's Assembly to nominate the vice-president for the vacant office of the president. Both [[Sadat]] and [[Mubarak]] served as vice-presidents at the time the presidential office became vacant, however on Mubarak's succession in 1981 as president he did not appoint a vice-president until 29 January 2011 when during substantial protests demanding reforms he appointed [[Omar Suleiman]] to the role.<ref>{{cite news|last=McGreal|first=Chris|title=Mubarak deputy insists president will not bow out before Egyptian elections|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/03/omar-suleiman-egypt-protests|accessdate=28 August 2012|newspaper=The Guardian|date=3 February 2011|author2=Ian Black}}</ref>
 
=== Resignation ===
The president may resign by delivering his resignation to the People's Assembly.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
 
President [[Gamal Abdel Nasser]] submitted his resignation after the overwhelming Egyptian defeat in 1967 war with Israel, before returning to office after mass demonstrations by the Egyptian public.<ref>Aburish, Said. ''Nasser: The Last Arab''. St. Martin's Press, 2004. pp.268–269}}</ref> President Mubarak also resigned on 11 February 2011 after [[2011 Egyptian protests|eighteen days of protest]] against his regime.
 
=== Kediaman Resmi ===
Kediaman resmi dan kantor presiden adalah [[Abdeen Palace]], di Kairo Old, [[Kairo]]. Istana presiden lainnya termasuk :
* [[Heliopolis Palace]], di [[Kairo]]
* [[Ras Al-Teen Palace]], di [[Alexandria]]
* [[Montaza Palace]], di Alexandria
 
== Lihat juga ==
* [[Daftar Presiden Mesir]]
* [[Daftar Presiden Mesir terlama menjabat]]
* [[Penguasa Mesir]]
* [[Wakil Presiden Mesir]]
 
== Referensi ==
[[Kategori:Presiden Mesir| {{PAGENAME}}]]
{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
== Pranala luar ==
* [http://www.presidency.gov.eg/ Presiden Mesir]
* [http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=Ai1kaRIbESCjU8zRN7_UDpdXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTE2dWp1dXMwBGNvbG8DZQRsA1dTMQRwb3MDMQRzZWMDc3IEdnRpZANGNTYxXzgx/SIG=126i7gfk5/EXP=1134604425/**http%3a//www.arabview.com/articles.asp%3farticle=467/ Republik II Mesir]
 
[[Kategori:Presiden Mesir|*]]
[[Kategori:Pemerintahan Mesir]]
 
[[ar:رئيس مصر]]
[[arz:رئيس مصر]]
[[bg:Президент на Египет]]
[[io:Listo di prezidisti di Egiptia]]
[[ca:President d'Egipte]]
[[en:President of Egypt]]
[[fa:فهرست رئیس‌جمهورهای مصر]]
[[gl:Presidente de Exipto]]
[[he:נשיא מצרים]]
[[ka:ეგვიპტის პრეზიდენტი]]
[[arz:رئيس مصر]]
[[nl:President van Egypte]]
[[no:Liste over Egypts presidenter]]
[[pl:Prezydenci Egiptu]]
[[oc:Lista dels presidents d'Egipte]]
[[sl:Predsednik Egipta]]
[[pt:Presidente do Egipto]]
[[sv:Lista över Egyptens statsöverhuvuden]]
[[tl:Pangulo ng Ehipto]]
[[zh:埃及总统]]
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