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penting; it comprised a floating [[Pontoon (boat)|pontoon]] base with a superstructure of two hollow towers joined by a deck upon which other structures could be added. The fort was towed to a position above the [[Rough Sands]] sandbar, where its base was deliberately flooded to allow it to sink to its final resting place on the sandbar. The location chosen was approximately 7 nautical miles from the coast of [[Suffolk]], outside the then [[three-mile limit|three-mile territorial water]] claim of the United Kingdom and therefore in [[international waters]].<ref name=seaswaterways /> The facility (called Roughs Tower or HM Fort Roughs) was occupied by 150–300 [[Royal Navy]] personnel throughout World War II; not until well after the war, in 1956, were the last full-time personnel taken off HM Fort Roughs.<ref name=seaswaterways />
 
===Pendudukan oleh Roy Bates
dan pembentukan Sealand===
[[Berkas:Royal Standard of the Prince of Sealand.svg|left|thumb|Royal Standard Pangeran Sealand.]]
 
Pada tanggal 2 September
1967, benteng diduduki
oleh Mayor [[Paddy Roy
Bates]], a British subject and pirate radio broadcaster, who ejected a competing group of pirate broadcasters.<ref name="Micronations">{{cite book|title=Micronations|author=John Ryan, George Dunford & Simon Sellars|publisher=[[Lonely Planet]]|year=2006|isbn=1-74104-730-7|page=9}}</ref> Bates bermaksud untuk
menyiarkan stasiun radio
bajak lautnya, [[Radio Essex (stasiun radio bajak laut)|Radio Essex]], dari platform.<ref>{{Cite news
| last = Gould
| first = Jack
| author-link =
| publication-date =
| date = 24 Maret 1966
| year =
| title = Radio: British Commercial Broadcasters Are at Sea; Illegal Programs Are Beamed From Ships
| periodical = New York Times
| series =
| publication-place =
| place =
| publisher=
| volume =
| issue =
| pages =
| url =
| issn =
| doi =
| oclc =
| accessdate =18 October 2008
| postscript = <!--None-->
}}
</ref>
 
In 1968, British workmen entered what Bates claimed to be his territorial waters in order to service a navigational buoy near the platform. Michael Bates (son of Paddy Roy Bates) tried to scare the workmen off by firing warning shots from the former fort. As Bates was a [[British subject]] at the time, he was summoned to court in England on firearms charges following the incident.<ref>{{cite news |title=Welcome to Sealand. Now Bugger Off |url=http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.07/haven.html|publisher=[[Wired News]] |date=July 2000|accessdate=11 November 2007}}</ref> But the court ruled that as the platform (which Bates was now calling "Sealand") was outside British jurisdiction, being beyond the then three-mile limit of the country's waters,<ref>''Regina v. Paddy Roy Bates and Michael Roy Bates'', The Shire Hall, Chelmsford, 25 October 1968. {{cite web |url=http://www.seanhastings.com/havenco/sealand/judgement.html |title=Regina v. Paddy Roy Bates and Michael Roy Bates|accessdate=11 November 2007|publisher=The Shire Hall, Chelmsford |work=}}</ref> the case could not proceed. In 1975, Bates introduced a constitution for Sealand, followed by a flag, a national anthem, a currency and passports.<ref name=autogenerated3>{{cite web|url=http://www.sealandgov.org/history.html |title=The Principality of Sealand |publisher=Sealandgov.org |date= |accessdate=21 November 2011}}</ref>
 
In August 1978, while Bates and his wife were in England, [[Alexander Achenbach]], who describes himself as the Prime Minister of Sealand, hired several German and Dutch mercenaries to spearhead an attack of Roughs Tower.<ref name=LP11>{{cite book | title = Micronations | author=John Ryan, George Dunford & Simon Sellars | publisher=[[Lonely Planet]] | year = 2006 | isbn=1-74104-730-7 | page = 11}}</ref> They stormed the tower with [[speedboats]], [[jet skies]] and [[helicopters]], and took Bates' son hostage. Bates was able to retake the tower and capture Achenbach and the mercenaries. Achenbach, a German lawyer who held a Sealand passport, was charged with [[treason]] against Sealand<ref name="LP11"/> and was held unless he paid [[German mark|DM]]&nbsp;75,000 (more than US$35,000 or £23,000).<ref>{{cite news|title=Attempt to free captive from private 'island' fails|date=5 September 1978|page=3|work=The Times}}</ref> The governments of the Netherlands, Austria and Germany petitioned the British government for his release, but the United Kingdom disavowed his imprisonment, citing the 1968 court decision.<ref name="sealandgov.org"/> Germany then sent a diplomat from its London embassy to Roughs Tower to negotiate for Achenbach's release. Roy Bates relented after several weeks of negotiations and subsequently claimed that the diplomat's visit constituted ''de facto'' recognition of Sealand by Germany.<ref name="LP11"/>
 
Following his repatriation, Achenbach and Gernot Pütz established a "[[government in exile]]", sometimes known as the Sealand Rebel Government, or Sealandic Rebel Government, in Germany.<ref name="LP11"/> Achenbach's appointed successor, Johannes Seiger, continues to claim via his website that he is Sealand's legitimate ruling authority.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://principality-of-sealand.eu/welcome_e.html |title=Homepage of Sealandic Government in Exile |accessdate=13 November 2007 |publisher=Sealandic Government in Exile}}</ref>
 
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