Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat: Perbedaan antara revisi

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'''Deklarasi Kemerdekaan''' adalah suatu [[akta]] dari [[Kongres Kontinental Kedua]] yang diadopsi pada [[4 Juli]] [[1776]] yang menyatakan bahwa [[Tiga Belas Koloni]] [[merdeka]] dari [[Britania Raya]]. Deklarasi ini, yang sebagian besar ditulis oleh [[Thomas Jefferson]], menjelaskan pembenaran atau justifikasi untuk melepaskan diri, dan merupakan pengembangan dari [[Resolusi Lee]] tertanggal [[2 Juli]] yang untuk pertama kalinya menyatakan kemerdekaan AS. Salinan deklarasi ini ditandatangani oleh para delegasi pada [[2 Agustus]] dan saat ini dipamerkan di ''[[National Archives and Records Administration]]'' di [[Washington, D.C.]] Deklarasi ini dianggap sebagai salah satu dokumen pendirian Amerika Serikat dan tanggal 4 Juli dirayakan sebagai [[Hari Kemerdekaan (Amerika Serikat)|Hari Kemerdekaan]].
 
==Publikasi dan reaksi==
== Pranala luar ==
[[Gambar:Johannes Adam Simon Oertel Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, N.Y.C. ca. 1859.jpg|thumb|left|Lukisan [[Johannes Adam Simon Oertel]] ''Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, N.Y.C.'' {{lang-id|Merobohkan Patung Raja George III}}, sekitar [[1859]], menggambarkan warga menghancurkan patung Raja George setelah Deklarasi dibacakan di Kota [[New York]] pada [[9 Juli]] [[1776]].]]
 
Setelah Kongres menyetujui kata-kata akhir Deklarasi pada [[4 Juli]], salinan tulisan tangan itu dikirim beberapa blok ke percetakan [[John Dunlap]]. Sepanjang malam, Dunlap mencetak sekitar 200 [[selebaran]] untuk distribusi. Tak lama, Deklarasi dibacakan kepada khalayak dan dicetak ulang di koran-koran di seluruh 13 [[negara bagian]]. Pembacaan publik resmi pertama dari dokumen tersebut adalah [[John Nixon (ahli keuangan)|John Nixon]] dihalaman [[Balai Kemerdekaan (Amerika Serikat)|Balai Kemerdekaan]] pada [[8 Juli]]; pembacaan publik juga terjadi pada hari itu di [[Trenton, New Jersey]] dan [[Easton, Pennsylvania]].<ref name="Maier156">Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156.</ref> Terjemahannya dalam [[Bahasa Jerman]] diterbitkan di Philadelphia pada [[9 Juli]].<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 72.</ref>
 
<!--President of Congress John Hancock sent a broadside to General [[George Washington]], instructing him to have it proclaimed "at the Head of the Army in the way you shall think it most proper".<ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 155.</ref> Washington had the Declaration read to his troops in [[New York City]] on July 9, with the British forces not far away. Washington and Congress hoped the Declaration would inspire the soldiers, and encourage others to join the army.<ref name="Maier156"/> After hearing the Declaration, crowds in many cities tore down and destroyed signs or statues representing royalty. An equestrian statue of King George in New York City was pulled down and the lead used to make musket balls.<ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156–57.</ref>
 
[[Gambar:William Whipple.jpg|thumb |150px |right |[[William Whipple]], signer of the Declaration of Independence, freed his slave believing he could not fight for liberty and own a slave.]]
British officials in North America sent copies of the Declaration to Great Britain.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 73.</ref> It was published in British newspapers beginning in mid-August; translations appeared in European newspapers soon after.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 70.</ref> The [[North Ministry]] did not give an official answer to the Declaration, but instead secretly commissioned pamphleteer [[John Lind (barrister)|John Lind]] to publish a response, which was entitled ''Answer to the Declaration of the American Congress''.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 75.</ref> British Tories denounced the signers of the Declaration for not applying the same principles of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" to African Americans.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Jessup |first=John J. |title=America and the Future |magazine=Life |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=cVAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=How+a+policy+of+Freedom+can+be+vigorously+applied&hl=en&ei=5_piTqfSL5PZiAKfn9jMCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=How%20a%20policy%20of%20Freedom%20can%20be%20vigorously%20applied&f=false |page=105 |date=September 20, 1943 |accessdate=09-03-2011}}</ref> [[Thomas Hutchinson (governor)|Thomas Hutchinson]], the former royal governor of Massachusetts, also published a rebuttal.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 74.</ref> These pamphlets challenged various aspects of the Declaration. Hutchinson argued that the American Revolution was the work of a few conspirators who wanted independence from the outset, and who had finally achieved it by inducing otherwise loyal colonists to rebel.<ref>Bailyn, ''Ideological Origins'', 155–56.</ref> Lind's pamphlet had an anonymous attack on the concept of [[natural rights]], written by [[Jeremy Bentham]], an argument which he would repeat during the [[French Revolution]].<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 79–80.</ref> Both pamphlets asked how the American slaveholders in Congress could proclaim that "all men are created equal" without freeing their own slaves.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 76–77.</ref>
 
Enslaved African Americans also heard the call to liberty and freedom. Tens of thousands of slaves left plantations in the South and farms in the North to join the British lines, or to escape during the disruption of war. The British kept their promise and evacuated thousands of [[Black Loyalists]] with their troops in the closing days of the war, for resettlement as freedmen in Nova Scotia, Jamaica or England. Four to five thousand African Americans served in the Continental Army fighting for American Independence. The revolutionary government freed slaves who enlisted with the Continentals; 5% of George Washington's forces consisted of African-American troops.
 
[[William Whipple]], a signer of the Declaration of Independence who had fought in the war, freed his slave, [[Prince Whipple]], because of revolutionary ideals. In the postwar decades, so many other slaveholders also freed their slaves that from 1790-1810, the percentage of free blacks in the Upper South increased to 8.3 percent from less than one percent of the black population. <ref>Peter Kolchin, ''American Slavery, 1619-1877'' (1993), pp. 77-79, 81</ref> Most Northern states abolished slavery; although with gradual emancipation, slaves were still listed in some mid-Atlantic state censuses in 1840.
 
Having fought for independence, after the war freedmen faced housing and job discrimination, were denied voting rights in several states, and needed passes to travel between the states.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Quarles |first=Benjamin |title=Black America at the Time of the Revolutionary War |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=znUlZTIWfrEC&pg=PA44&dq=Black+America+at+the+time+Benjamin+Quarles&hl=en&ei=jeJiToRuj9iIAojy8bYK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Black%20America%20at%20the%20time%20Benjamin%20Quarles&f=false |magazine=Ebony |pages=44, 45, 48 |date=August 1975 |accessdate=09-03-2011}}</ref>-->
 
== Referensi ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Pranala luar ==
* {{en}} [http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/declaration.html Declaration of Independence] di National Archieves and Records Administration
* {{en}} {{gutenberg|no=16780|name=The Declaration of Independence}}
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