Kucing kuwuk: Perbedaan revisi

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== Karakteristik ==
Kucing kuwuk berukuran seperti [[Kucing|kucing domestik]], tapi ia lebih ramping dengan [[kaki]] panjang dan [[selaput]] yang jelas antara [[jari]] kaki. Kepala kecil mereka ditandai dengan dua garis-garis gelap menonjol, dan moncong putih yang pendek dan sempit mereka. Terdapat dua garis-garis, yang pertama garis gelap yang memanjang dari [[mata]] ke [[telinga]], dan garis-garis putih kecil dari mata ke [[hidung]]. Bagian belakang telinga agak panjang, bulat, hitam dan putih ditengah. Tubuh dan [[tungkai]] ditandai dengan bintik-bintik hitam dengan ukuran dan warna yang berbeda, dan di sepanjang [[punggung]] ada 2-4 baris bintik-bintik memanjang. Ukuran [[ekor]] adalah setengah ukuran kepala dan badan mereka dan berbintik dengan beberapa cincin hitam yang tidak jelas dekat ujung berwarna hitam. Warna latar belakang bulu bintik-bintik mereka adalah kuning kecoklatan dengan dada dan [[perut]] putih. Namun dalam sebagian besar mereka, ukuran dan warna bintik mereka sungguh bervariasi serta dalam ukuran dan berat badan yang awalnya mereka dianggap sebagai [[Spesies]] yang berbeda. Warna bulu pada [[populasi]] selatan adalah coklat kekuniangn, tapi abu-abu perak pucat di salah satu populasi [[utara]]. Tanda hitam dapat terlihat, atau bahkan membentuk garis putus-putus, tergantung pada subspesies. Di [[tropicka]], berat kucing kuwuk {{convert|0.55|to|3.8|kg|lb|abbr=on}}, mempunyai panjang dari kepala sampai badan {{convert|38.8|to|66|cm|in|abbr=on}} dengan panjang ekor {{convert|17.2|to|31|cm|in|abbr=on}}. Di [[Cina]] utara dan [[Siberia]], berat mereka mencapai {{convert|7.1|kg|lb|abbr=on}}, dan mempunyai panjang badan sampai kepala hingga {{convert|75|cm|in|abbr=on}}; umumnya, mereka menambah berat badan sebelum [[musim dingin]] dan menjadi lebih kurus sampai [[musim semi]].<ref name=WCoW>{{cite book |author=Sunquist, M., Sunquist, F. |year=2002 |title= Wild cats of the World |publisher=University of Chicago Press |location= Chicago |pages= 225–232 |isbn= 0-226-77999-8 |url= http://books.google.com/books?id=hFbJWMh9-OAC&lpg=PP1&dq=Wild%20cats%20of%20the%20world&pg=PA226#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> Tinggi bahu sekitar {{convert|41|cm|in|abbr=on}}.
 
== Distribusi dan habitat ==
Kucing kuwuk adalah kucing kecil [[Asia]] yang memiliki distribusi yang paling luas. Persebaran mereka meluas dari wilayah [[Oblast Amur|Amur]] di [[Timur Jauh Rusia]] sampai ke [[Semenanjung Korea]], [[China]], [[Indochina]], [[Subkontinen India]], ke barat di utara [[Pakistan]], dan ke selatan di [[Filipina]] dan [[Kepulauan Sunda]] di [[Indonesia]]. Mereka ditemukan di kawasan agrikultural yang digunakan lebih memilih habitat hutan. Mereka hidup di hutan hujan tropis abadi dan perkebunan di diatas permukaan [[laut]], di [[Tumbuhan peluruh|hutan peluruh]] subtropis dan [[hutan konifer beriklim sedang]] di kaki bukit [[Himalayas]] pada ketinggian diatas {{convert|1000|m|ft|abbr=on}}.<ref name=WCoW/> Pada [[2009]], seekor kucing kuwuk terjebak oleh [[kamera jebakan]] di [[Taman Nasional Makalu-Barun]], pada ketinggian {{convert|3254|m|ft|abbr=on}}. <!--At least six individuals inhabit the survey area, which is dominated by associations of [[rhododendron]], [[oak]] and [[maple]].<ref>Ghimirey, Y., Ghimire, B. (2010) ''Leopard Cat at high altitude in Makalu-Barun National Park, Nepal''. Catnews 52: 16–17.</ref> In the northeast of their range they live close to rivers, valleys and in [[ravine]] forests, but avoid areas with more than {{convert|10|cm|in|abbr=on}} of snowfall.<ref>Geptner, V. G., Sludskii, A. A. (1972). ''Mlekopitaiuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza.'' Vysšaia Škola, Moskva. (In Russian; English translation: Heptner, V.G., Sludskii, A.A., Komarov, A., Komorov, N.; Hoffmann, R.S. (1992). [http://books.google.com/books?id=UxWZ-OmTqVoC&pg=PA328&lpg=PA328%20&source=bl&ots=RCsYKk2xt4&sig=BrK4uyJh3GQVFucEhL_jD4pUyyQ&ei=-SxdTdvRCtDCtAbkuYDgCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false ''Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol III: Carnivores (Feloidea).''] Smithsonian Institute and the National Science Foundation, Washington DC)</ref> They are rare in Pakistan’s arid treeless areas.<ref>Roberts, T.J. (1977) ''The mammals of Pakistan''. Ernest Benn, London.</ref>
 
In [[Sabah]]’s [[Tabin Wildlife Reserve]] leopard cats had average home ranges of {{convert|3.5|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.<ref>Rajaratnam, R. (2000) ''Ecology of the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis in Tabin Wildlife Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia''. PhD Thesis, Universiti Kabangsaan Malaysia.</ref> In [[Thailand]]’s [[Phu Khieu Wildlife Reserve]] 20 leopard cats were [[Radio telemetry|radio-collared]] between 1999 and 2003. Home ranges of males ranged from {{convert|2.2|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} to {{convert|28.9 |km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, and of the six females from {{convert|4.4|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} to {{convert|37.1|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.<ref name="lon05">Grassman Jr, L. I., Tewes, M. E., Silvy, N. J., Kreetiyutanont, K. (2005) ''Spatial organization and diet of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in north-central Thailand''. Journal of Zoology (London) 266: 45–54.</ref>
 
=== Distribution of subspecies ===
[[File:Lydekker - Leopard Cat (Javan variety).JPG|thumb|Illustration of Javan leopard cat from [[Richard Lydekker]]'s "A hand-book to the Carnivora", 1896]]
[[File:Tsushima Cat 001.jpg|thumb|Tsushima leopard cat]]
As of 2009, the following subspecies are recognized:<ref name=iucn /><ref name="mow09">Wilson, D. E., Mittermeier, R. A. (eds.) (2009). ''Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 1: Carnivores.'' Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1</ref>
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis bengalensis'' (Kerr, 1792) — [[India]], [[Bangladesh]], Myanmar, Thailand, the [[Malay Peninsula|Malay Peninsular]], [[Indochina]] to [[Yunnan]] in China;<ref name="ems66">Ellerman, J. R., Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). [http://www.archive.org/stream/checklistofindia00elle#page/312/mode/2up ''Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946'']. Second edition. British Museum of Natural History, London. Pp. 312–313</ref>
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis javanensis'' ([[Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest|Desmarest]], 1816) — [[Java (island)|Java]] and [[Bali]];<ref name="groves97">Groves, C. P. (1997). ''Leopard-cats, Prionailurus bengalensis (Carnivora: Felidae) from Indonesia and the Philippines, with the description of two new species''. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 62: 330 pp.</ref>
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis sumatranus'' ([[Thomas Horsfield|Horsfield]] 1821) — [[Sumatra]] and [[Tebingtinggi]];<ref name="groves97" />
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis chinensis'' ([[John Edward Gray|Gray]] 1837) — [[Taiwan]] and China except Yunnan;<ref name="ems66" />
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis horsfieldi'' (Gray 1842) — [[Kashmir]], [[Punjab, India|Punjab]], [[Kumaon division|Kumaon]], Nepal, [[Sikkim]] and [[Bhutan]];<ref name="ems66" />
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus/euptilura'', the Amur cat, ([[Daniel Giraud Elliot|Elliott]] 1871) — eastern [[Siberia]], in [[Manchuria]], in Korea<ref name="ems66" /> and on the [[Tsushima Island]] in the [[Korea Strait]];<ref name=Tamada>{{cite journal |author = Tamada, T., Siriaroonrat, B., Subramaniam, V., Hamachi, M., Lin, L.-K., Oshida, T., Rerkamnuaychoke, W., Masuda, R. |year=2006 |title = Molecular Diversity and Phylogeography of the Asian Leopard Cat, Felis bengalensis, Inferred from Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Sequences |journal = Zoological science |volume=25 |pages = 154–163 |url = http://www2.thu.edu.tw/~biology/files/writing_journal/12/121_808f5b32.pdf |doi = 10.2108/zsj.25.154 | pmid = 18533746 }}</ref>
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis'' (Brongersma 1936) — [[Borneo]];<ref name="groves97" />
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis trevelyani'' ([[Reginald Innes Pocock|Pocock]] 1939) — northern Kashmir and Punjab, and in southern [[Baluchistan]];<ref name="ems66" />
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis alleni'' ([[Henri Jacob Victor Sody|Sody]], 1949) — [[Hainan|Hainan Island]];
* [[Iriomote Cat|''Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis'']] (Imaizumi, 1967) — found exclusively on the tiny island of [[Iriomote]], one of the [[Ryukyu Islands]] in the [[Japanese Archipelago]];<ref name="imaizumi67">Imaizumi, Y. (1967). ''A new genus and species of cat from Iriomote, Ryukyu Islands.'' Journal of Mammalian Society Japan 3(4): 74.</ref>
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis heaneyi'' (Groves 1997) — the Philippine island of [[Palawan]];<ref name="groves97" />
* ''Prionailurus bengalensis rabori'' (Groves 1997) — the Philippine islands of [[Negros Island|Negros]], [[Cebu]], and [[Panay]].<ref name="groves97" />
 
The Iriomote cat (''P.b. iriomotensi''s) has been proposed as a [[Species (biology)|species]] since 1967, but following [[mtDNA]] analysis in the 1990s is now considered a subspecies of the leopard cat.<ref name="masuda95">Masuda, R., Yoshida, M. C. (1995) ''Two Japanese wildcats, the Tsushima cat and the Iriomote cat, show the same mitochondrial DNA lineage as the leopard cat Felis bengalensis''. Zoological Science 12: 655–659</ref><ref name=iucn />
 
The '''Tsushima leopard cat''' lives exclusively on Tsushima Island. Initially regarded as belonging to the Chinese leopard cat subspecies, it is now considered an isolated population of the Amur cat ''P. b. euptilurus/euptilura''.<ref name=murayama/>-->
 
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