Tata letak papan tombol: Perbedaan antara revisi

9.430 bita dihapus ,  10 tahun yang lalu
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k (r2.7.1) (bot Menambah: pt:Layout de teclado)
(Thanx a lot for your info! I really value what you’re writing here.)
* [[Maltron keyboard|Maltron layout]] [http://www.maltron.com/maltron-advantage-dual.html] (1977)
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== Tata letak keyboard untuk teks dengan alfabet non-Roman ==
<!-- Some keyboard layouts for non-Roman alphabetic scripts, most notably the Greek layout, are actually based off the QWERTY layout, in that, as far as possible, glyphs are assigned to keys which bear similar-sounding or -appearing glyphs in QWERTY. This saves learning time for those already familiar with QWERTY.
This is not a general rule, though, and many non-Roman keyboard layouts are invented from scratch.
Also, most non-Roman keyboard layouts have the capacity to be used to input Roman letters as well as the script of the language; users of non-Roman scripts frequently encounter situations where they must enter Roman script (for example, when typing in URLs or names). This may be done through a special key on the keyboard devoted to this task, or through some special combination of keys, or through software programs that don't really interact with the keyboard much.
==== [[Bahasa Arab]] ====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Arabic.png|Arabic keyboard layout]]
==== [[Bahasa Georgia]] ====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Armenian.png|Armenian keyboard layout]]
==== [[Bahasa Yunani]] ====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Greek.png|Greek keyboard layout]]
==== [[Bahasa Ibrani]] ====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Hebrew.png|Hebrew keyboard layout]]
==== [[Bahasa Rusia]] ====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Russian.png|Russian keyboard layout]]
Mereka yang tidak memiliki keyboard Sirrilik sering kali menggunakan tata letak fonetis, misalnya 'А' dituliskan dengan menggunakan tombol 'A', 'Б' dengan tombol 'B', 'Д' by dengan tombol 'D', dan seterusnya.
====[[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian]]====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Bulgarian BDS.png|Bulgarian BDS keyboard layout]]
This is the Bulgarian BDS layout.
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Bulgarian Phonetic.png|Bulgarian Phonetic keyboard layout]]
This is the Bulgarian Phonetic layout. Although not standard this layout is widely spread, because of its similarity to the QWERTY layout. Note that this is a [[Phonetic]] layout and not a [[Transliteration]] layout and as such produces cyrillic symbols.
Both layouts are in widespread use.
Transliteration using [[Roman script]] is only used in informal electronic written communication, mainly because of a long history of compatibility issues with different encodings, history of lack of native OS support and user laziness.
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Sanskrit.png|Sanskrit keyboard layout]]
====[[Thai language|Thai]]====
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Thai.png|Thai keyboard layout]]
==East Asian languages==
[[Chinese language|Chinese]] and [[Japanese language|Japanese]] require special input methods, often abbreviated to [[CJK]] [[Input method editor|IME]]s (with the K standing for [[Korean language|Korean]], which, in contrast to Chinese and Japanese, is alphabetical and therefore easy to type), due to the thousands of possible characters in these languages. Various methods have been invented to pack all these possibilities into a normal QWERTY keyboard, so East Asian keyboards are essentially the same as those in other countries. However, their input methods are considerably more complex, without one-to-one mappings between keys and characters.
In general, one needs to first narrow down the range of possibilities (most often by entering the desired character's pronunciation), and then if there remains more than one possibility, select the desired [[ideogram]] either by typing the number before the character, or using a graphical menu to select the character. The computer assists the typist by using [[heuristic]]s to guess which character is most likely desired. Although this may sound clumsy, East Asian input methods are today sufficiently sophisticated that for both beginners and experts, typing in these languages is only somewhat slower than typing English.
In Japanese, QWERTY-based [[Japanese Industrial Standard|JIS]] keyboard layout is used, and the pronunciation of each character is entered using [[Hepburn romanization]] or [[Kunrei-shiki]] romanization. There are several [[kana]]-based typing methods. ''See also'' [[Japanese language and computers]].
Chinese has the most complex and varied input methods. You can enter characters by pronunciation (like Japanese and Korean) or by structure. Most of the structural methods are the most difficult to learn, but they are extremely fast for experienced typists, as they do away with the need for selecting characters from a menu. For a detailed treatment, see [[Chinese input methods for computers]].
There exist a variety of other, slower ways a character may be entered. If the typist does not remember the pronunciation of a character, he / she can also narrow down the selection by giving its component shapes, [[radical (Chinese character)|radical]]s, and [[Stroke (Chinese character)|stroke]] count. Also, many input systems include a "drawing pad" permitting "handwriting" of a character using a [[computer mouse|mouse]]. Finally, if the typist is on a computer without CJK software installed, it may be possible to enter a character directly through its [[character encoding|encoding]] number (e.g. [[Unicode]]).
Korean, in contrast to Chinese and Japanese, types the same way as any Western language. In Korean, there are two major kinds of keyboard layouts: dubeolsik and sebeolsik. They are quite different from each other. Dubeolsik, based on the QWERTY keyboard, is more commonly used. While Korean consonants and vowels (''jamo'') are grouped together into syllabic characters when written, the language itself is actually alphabetical, and therefore typing in Korean is quite simple for someone who understands the Korean alphabet [[Hangul]]. Each ''jamo'' is assigned to a single key. As the user types letters, the computer automatically groups them into syllabic characters. Given a valid sequence of ''jamo,'' there is only one unambiguous way letters can be grouped into syllables, so this grouping is done seamlessly on-the-fly by the computer, with the result being that Korean can be typed in the same way as English or any other alphabetical language.
====[[Chinese language|Chinese]]====
=====Chinese (traditional)=====
Computers shipped in the [[Republic of China]] (Taiwan) will often use [[Zhuyin]] (bopomofo) style keyboards (United States keyboards with bopomofo labels), many also with [[Cangjie method]] key labels, as Cangjie is the standard method for speed-typing in Traditional Chinese. The bopomofo style keyboards are in [[lexicographical order]], top-to-bottom left-to-right.
::[[Berkas:Keyboard layout Chinese Traditional.png|Chinese (traditional) keyboard layout, which is an United States keyboard with Zhuyin, Cangjie and Dayi key labels]]
Remarks: The codes of 3 input methods are typically printed on Chinese (traditional) keyboard: Zhuyin (upper right); Cangjie (lower left); and [[Dayi method|Dayi]] (lower right).
::[[Berkas:Taiwan keyboard bopomofo.JPG|Chinese (traditional) keyboard layout from Taiwan for Cangjie and Zhuyin]]
Remarks: This is an example for a keyboard from Taiwan with Cangjie (blue) and Bopomofo/Zhuyin (red).
In [[Hong Kong]], both [[Chinese (Traditional)]] and [[United States|U.S.]] keyboards are found. [[Japan]]ese keyboards are occasionally found but [[United Kingdom|UK]] keyboards are rare.
See also [[British and American keyboards]], [[Technical standards in colonial Hong Kong]]
Note: A Chinese (Traditional) keyboard is the keyboard that has an United States layout, with Chinese input method labels printed on the keys. So these keyboards can be used to key in English characters, provided that [[Keyboard layout#US|United States keyboard layout]] is selected in the [[operating system]].
=====Chinese (simpified)=====
Keyboards used in the [[mainland China|mainland]] of the [[People's Republic of China]] will typically use an [[keyboard layout#US|United States]] keyboard and input Chinese characters using [[Hanyu pinyin]], which represents sounds of Chinese characters using Latin letters.
See the section on Chinese languages above, and also [[Chinese input methods for computers]].
====Dubeolsik [[Hangul]] (for [[Korean language|Korean]])====
Dubeolsik is the most common Hangul keyboard layout in use in South Korea. Pressing Ha/En key once switches between Hangul as shown, and English. There is another key to the right of the Ha/En key for [[Hanja]] input. If the typist is using a standard 104-key keyboard, the right Alt key will become the Ha/En key, and the right Ctrl key will become the Hanja key. Alternate keyboard styles exist, such as those used by IBM mainframes, but these are rarely used. Note that [[consonant]]s occupy the left side of the layout, while [[vowel]]s are on the right.
::[[Berkas:Keyboard Layout Hangul.png|Hangul keyboard layout]]
====[[Japanese language|Japanese]]====
[[Berkas:Basicjapanesekeyboard-notfinished.jpg|keyboard showing location of hiragana keys. image unfinished.]]
Usually the JIS keyboard is used. Some people type Hiragana directly, but most people prefer typing Latin alphabets, which are automatically converted to Hiragana. In both cases, Alt+Zen/Han key combination is used to switch on [[input method editor]]. Some people prefer US layout, in which case Alt+` does the role, or [[Command key|Cmd]]-Space for Macs.
See the section on [[Keyboard layout#East Asian languages|East Asian languages]] above, also [[Japanese language and computers]] and [[Japanese input methods]].
== Perbandingan tata letak alternatif ==
Pengguna anonim