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{{terjemah|Inggris}}
{{Bible translation infobox
| translation_title=Alkitab Versi Raja James
| full_name=Versi RajaKing James Version
| abbreviation=KJV
| complete_bible_published=1611
| john_3:16=For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
|}}
'''Alkitab Versi Raja James '''({{lang-en|'''King James Version'''}}, umumnya disingkat '''KJV)'''; disebut juga '''Authorized Version''' atau '''King James Bible''') adalah sebuahsuatu [[Alkitabterjemahan]] [[terjemahanAlkitab]] ke dalam [[bahasa Inggris]], yang pekerjaannya diperintahkan oleh Raja [[James I dari Inggris]] untuk [[Gereja Anglikan|Gereja Inggris]]. Alkitab ini pertama kali diterbitkan pada [[1611]], dan mempunyai dampak yang sangat mendalam bukan hanya terhadap kebanyakan terjemahan bahasa Inggris yang dibuat sesudahnya, tetapi juga terhadap pemakaian [[bahasa Inggris]] baku serta [[sastra Inggris|kesusastraan Inggris]] pada umumnya. Karya para pengarang terkenal seperti [[John Bunyan]], [[John Milton]], [[Herman Melville]], [[John Dryden]], dan [[William Wordsworth]] penuh dengan inspirasi yang tampaknya diperoleh dari Versi Raja James. Alkitab-alkitab modern bahasa Inggris seperti [[New American Standard Bible]] dan [[English Standard Version]] umumnya adalah revisi terhadap teks Alkitab ini. Versi Raja James juga sangat mempengaruhi Alkitab lainnya seperti [[New International Version]] yang tidak mengklaim dirinya sebagai revisi atas teks ini.
 
<!--Though often referred to as the '''Authorised Version (AV)''', it was never officially sanctioned by the English monarchy or the clerical hierarchy of the Church of England. The name ''Authorised Version'' was particularly used in the [[United Kingdom]], where the name ''King James Version'' was known only as "what the Americans call it" until the AV's recent decline in popularity in its homeland. It has no worldwide copyright, but its reproduction is perpetually restricted in certain parts of the [[United Kingdom]] under the [[royal prerogative]]. The King James Version, despite its age, is largely comprehensible to the average reader today. It is considered to be an instrumental founding block of [[Early Modern English]], and remains one of the most widely-read literary works of all time.
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== Latar Belakang ==
{{EnglishTranslations}}
 
[[Berkas:King_James_I.jpg|left|frame|Ketidakpuasan raja [[James I dari Inggris]] atas [[Geneva Bible]] dari kelompok [[puritanisme]] mendorong penyusunan terjemahan Alkitab bahasa Inggris Versi Raja James.]]
== Background ==
 
[[Protestantisme]] yang berasal dari [[Martin Luther]] berpegang pada pandangan bahwa Alkitab adalah sumber tunggal ajarannya (lihat asas ''[[sola scriptura]]'') dan karenanya perlu diterjemahkan dalam bahasa daerah sehari-hari. Penerjemahan Alkitab ke dalam bahasa daerah merupakan pernyataa politis sekaligus agamawi, baik itu dilakukan oleh kelompok pribadi maupun disponsori oleh kerajaan dan pemerintah. Terjemahan bahasa Inggris yang dibuat oleh [[John Wyclif]] beserta pengikutnya, dan kemudian oleh [[William Tyndale]], merupakan pembuka jalan [[Reformasi Protestan]] di [[Inggris]] dan [[Skotlandia]].
{{EnglishTranslations}}
 
Pada saat Versi Raja James disusun, sudah ada tradisi penerjemahan Alkitab ke dalam bahasa Inggris selama hampir 100 tahun, tidak terhitung sejumlah terjemahan "Old English Bible" yang dibuat pada awal [[Abad Pertengahan]], sebelum [[Gereja Katolik Roma]] mewajibkan untuk hanya menggunakan Alkitab [[bahasa Latin]] [[Vulgata]]. Alkitab versi Raja James merupakan revisi dari terjemahan oleh William Tyndale.
[[Berkas:King_James_I.jpg|left|frame|[[James I of England|King James I]]'s dissatisfaction with the [[Geneva Bible]]'s [[puritan|puritanism]] led to the creation of the King James Bible.]]
 
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[[Protestantism]] derived from [[Martin Luther]] the idea that the Bible was the sole source of doctrine (see ''[[sola scriptura]]'') and as such should be translated into the local [[vernacular]]. The act of [[Bible translation]] into any vernacular was a political as well as a religious statement, and remained so whether the Bible translation was a private endeavour, or sponsored by a monarch and his government. The English translations made by [[John Wyclif]]'s followers, and later by [[William Tyndale]], were the opening salvos of the [[Protestant Reformation]] in [[England]] and [[Scotland]].
When his [[New Testament]] appeared in [[1525]], Tyndale was a "Lutheran" to the extent that [[religious denomination|denominational]] labels had meaning in [[1525]], in other words, a supporter of [[Martin Luther|Luther]]'s movement to reform the whole Christian community. Tyndale's translation was deliberately provocative in a number of ways; he rendered [[Greek language|Greek]] ''presbuteros'', traditionally translated as "[[priest]]", as "[[elder]]" — a literal translation that slighted the connection between the Catholic [[clergy]] and the former biblical texts; in a similar fashion he translated ''ekklesia'', traditionally "[[church]]", as "[[congregation]]"; these renditions were at the basis of a notorious controversy between Tyndale and Sir [[Thomas More]], who took the establishment's side. In the preface, the translators of the King James note: ''“we have on the one side avoided the scrupulosity of the Puritans, who leave the old Ecclesiastical words, and betake them to other, as when they put WASHING for BAPTISM, and CONGREGATION instead of CHURCH:”.'' Still, despite these controversial renderings, the merits of Tyndale's work and prose style made his translation the basis for most of the subsequent renditions into [[Early Modern English]], even though Tyndale himself was [[burning at the stake|burned at the stake]] for [[heresy]]. With these controversial translations lightly edited, Tyndale's New Testament and [[Pentateuch]] became the basis for the [[Great Bible]], the first "authorized version" issued by the Church of England in the reign of King [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]].
 
By the time the King James Version was written, there was already a tradition going back almost a hundred years of Bible translation into English (not counting the [[Old English Bible translations]] that had been made in the [[Early Middle Ages]], before the [[Roman Catholic Church]] started mandating the exclusive use of the Latin [[Vulgate]]). The King James Bible represents a revision of Tyndale's translation. When his [[New Testament]] appeared in [[1525]], Tyndale was a "Lutheran" to the extent that [[religious denomination|denominational]] labels had meaning in [[1525]], in other words, a supporter of [[Martin Luther|Luther]]'s movement to reform the whole Christian community. Tyndale's translation was deliberately provocative in a number of ways; he rendered [[Greek language|Greek]] ''presbuteros'', traditionally translated as "[[priest]]", as "[[elder]]" — a literal translation that slighted the connection between the Catholic [[clergy]] and the former biblical texts; in a similar fashion he translated ''ekklesia'', traditionally "[[church]]", as "[[congregation]]"; these renditions were at the basis of a notorious controversy between Tyndale and Sir [[Thomas More]], who took the establishment's side. In the preface, the translators of the King James note: ''“we have on the one side avoided the scrupulosity of the Puritans, who leave the old Ecclesiastical words, and betake them to other, as when they put WASHING for BAPTISM, and CONGREGATION instead of CHURCH:”.'' Still, despite these controversial renderings, the merits of Tyndale's work and prose style made his translation the basis for most of the subsequent renditions into [[Early Modern English]], even though Tyndale himself was [[burning at the stake|burned at the stake]] for [[heresy]]. With these controversial translations lightly edited, Tyndale's New Testament and [[Pentateuch]] became the basis for the [[Great Bible]], the first "authorized version" issued by the Church of England in the reign of King [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]].
 
When [[Mary I of England|Mary I]] took the throne, she sought to re-establish [[Roman Catholicism]] as the established church. Some English Protestant leaders, fleeing the "fires of [[Smithfield, London|Smithfield]]" instituted by Queen Mary, established an English-speaking Protestant colony at [[Geneva]]. With the help of [[Theodore Beza]], successor to [[John Calvin]] as leader of the [[Reformed churches|Reformed church]] there, they created the [[Geneva Bible]]. This translation, which first appeared in [[1560]], was a revision of Tyndale's and the [[Great Bible]], which was furnished copiously with Protestant annotations and references. By the time [[Elizabeth I of England|Elizabeth I]] took the throne, the flaws of the [[Great Bible]] were apparent; those parts of it not translated by [[Tyndale]] were translated from the Latin [[Vulgate]] rather than the original languages. In [[1568]] the established church responded with the [[Bishops' Bible]], but their version failed to displace the Geneva version as the most popular English version.
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== Proyek ==
 
Pada bulan Mei 1601 Raja [[James VI dari Skotlandia]] menghadiri sidang Sinode Am Gereja Skotlandia ("''General Assembly of Church of Scotland''" di St. Columba's Church, [[Burntisland]], [[Fife]]. Di sana muncul proposal untuk membuat terjemahan baru Alkitab ke dalam bahasa Inggris. Dua tahun kemudian raja itu naik tahta kerajaan Inggris dengan gelar raja [[James I dari Inggris]].
== The Project ==
 
Penyusunan Alkitab Versi Raja James pertama kali dikemukakan dalam konferensi di [[Hampton Court]], yang diselenggarakan oleh raja pada tahun [[1604]] untuk mendamaikan berbagai keluhan agama. Menurut saksi mata, Dr [[John Rainolds]] "mengusulkan kepada raja agar dibuat terjemahan Alkitab yang baru, karena yang diizinkan pada pemerintahan raja Henry VIII dan Edward VI tidak tepat dan tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan terhadap aslinya."
In May 1601 King [[James VI of Scotland]] attended the [[General Assembly of the Church of Scotland]] at St. Columba's Church in [[Burntisland]], [[Fife]], and proposals were put forward for a new translation of the Bible into [[English]]. Two years later he acceded to the throne of England.
 
Rainolds menyampaikan tiga contoh persoalan pada terjemahan yang ada saat itu: "Pertama, [[Surat Galatian]][[Galatia 4| iv. 25 (4:25)]]. Kata Yunani ''susoichei'' tidak diterjemahkan dengan tepat, karena tidak mencerminkan makna kata maupun maksud rasul penulisnya, maupun situasi tempatnya. Kedua, [[Kitab Mazmur]][[Mazmur 105| cv. 28 (105:28)]], ‘They were not obedient;’ (Mereka tidak patuh) aslinya adalah, ‘They were not disobedient’ (Mereka bukan tidak patuh). Ketiga, [[Mazmur 106|Mazmur cvi. 30 (106:30)]], ‘Then stood up Phinees and prayed,’ (Maka Pinehas berdiri dan berdoa) dalam [[bahasa Ibrani]] berbunyi, ‘menjalankan keadilan.’"
The King James Version was first conceived at the [[Hampton Court]] conference, which the new king called in [[1604]] to settle various religious grievances. According to an eyewitness account, Dr [[John Rainolds]] "moved his majesty that there might be a new translation of the Bible, because those which were allowed in the reign of king Henry the Eight and Edward the Sixt were corrupt and not answerable to the truth of the original."
 
Raja James I mengusulkan agar terjemahan baru dibuat untuk mendamaikan pertikaian. Ia berharap terjemahan baru ini dapat menggantikan [[Geneva Bible]] yang mengandung catatan yang dianggap bersifat menyerang kepercayaan masyarakat umum. Setelah [[Bishop of London]] menambahkan kualifikasi bahwa tidak ada catatan kaki boleh ditambahkan pada Alkitab baru dari Rainold, raja mengutip dua bagian dari terjemahan Geneva yang catatannya dianggapnya menyerang. Raja James I memberi instruksi kepada para penerjemah untuk mencegah adanya catatan yang menimbulkan polemik dan untuk menjamin bahwa terjemahan baru ini mengikuti prinsip ajaran ("ecclesiology") dari [[Gereja Anglikan|Church of England (Gereja Anglikan Inggris)]]. Bermula dari edisi perdana tahun 1611, selanjutnya muncul 4 edisi dari Versi Raja James pada tahun 1629, 1638, 1762, dan 1769. Edisi tahun 1769 ini kemudian paling umum disebut Alkitab versi Raja James (King James Version atau KJV).
Rainolds offered three examples of problems with existing translations: "First, [[Epistle to Galatians|Galatians]] iv. 25. The Greek word ''susoichei'' is not well translated as now it is, bordereth neither expressing the force of the word, nor the apostles sense, nor the situation of the place. Secondly, [[Psalms|psalm]] cv. 28, ‘They were not obedient;’ the original being, ‘They were not disobedient.’ Thirdly, psalm cvi. 30, ‘Then stood up Phinees and prayed,’ the [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] hath, ‘executed judgment.’"
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Instruksi Raja James meliputi persyaratan bahwa:
[[King James I|King James]] proposed that a new translation be commissioned to settle the controversies; he hoped a new translation would replace the [[Geneva Bible]] and its offensive notes in the popular esteem. After the [[Bishop of London]] added a qualification that no marginal notes were to be added to Rainold’s new Bible, the king cited two passages in the Geneva translation where he found the notes offensive. King James gave the translators instructions, which were designed to discourage polemical notes, and to guarantee that the new version would conform to the [[ecclesiology]] of the [[Church of England]]. Eventually four different editions of the King James Version were produced in 1629, 1638, 1762, and 1769. It is the 1769 edition which is most commonly cited as the King James Version (KJV).
 
King James's instructions included requirements that:
 
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The King James Version was translated by 54 scholars (although only 51 are known) working in six committees, two based in each of [[University of Oxford|Oxford University]], [[University of Cambridge|Cambridge University]], and [[Westminster]]. They worked on certain parts separately; then the drafts produced by each committee were compared and revised for harmony with each other. The scholars were not paid for their translation work, but were required to support themselves as best they could. Many were supported by the various colleges at Oxford and Cambridge.
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=== CommitteesTim penerjemah ===
Penerjemahan dilakukan oleh sejumlah tim ("''Committee''") dengan tugas masing-masing:
 
:'''First Westminster Company''', translating(= fromKelompok Westminster Pertama), menerjemahkan [[GenesisKitab Kejadian]] tosampai [[Books ofKitab Kings|2 KingsRaja-raja]]:
::[[Lancelot Andrewes]], [[John Overall (Bishop)|John Overall]], [[Hadrian à Saravia]], Richard Clarke, John Laifield, Robert Tighe, Francis Burleigh, Geoffry King, Richard Thompson, William Bedwell
 
:'''First Cambridge Company''', translated(=Kelompok fromCambridge Pertama), menerjemahkan [[BooksKitab of Chronicles|1 ChroniclesTawarikh]] to thesampai [[SongKitab ofKidung SolomonAgung]]:
::Edward Lively, John Richardson, [[Lawrence Chaderton]], Francis Dillingham, Roger Andrews, Thomas Harrison, Robert Spaulding, Andrew Bing
 
:'''First Oxford Company''' (=Kelompok Oxford Pertama), translatedmenerjemahkan [[BookKitab of Isaiah|IsaiahYesaya]] throughsampai [[Book ofKitab Malachi|MalachiMaleakhi]]
::John Harding, John Reynolds, Thomas Holland, Richard Kilby, Miles Smith, Richard Brett, Daniel Fairclough
 
:'''Second Oxford Company''' (=Kelompok Oxford Kedua), translatedmenerjemahkan theKitab-kitab [[GospelInjil]]s, [[ActsKisah ofPara the ApostlesRasul]], and thedan [[Book ofKitab RevelationWahyu]]:
::Thomas Ravis, [[George Abbot (Archbishop of Canterbury)|George Abbot]], Richard Eedes, Giles Tomson, [[Henry Savile]], John Peryn, Ralph Ravens, John Harmar
 
:'''Second Westminster Company'''(=Kelompok Westminster Kedua), translatedmenerjemahkan surat-surat thepara [[Epistle]]srasul:
::William Barlow, John Spencer, Roger Fenton, Ralph Hutchinson, William Dakins, Michael Rabbet, Thomas Sanderson
 
:'''Second Cambridge Company''' (=Kelompok Cambridge Kedua), translatedmenerjemahkan thekitab-kitab [[ApocryphaApokrif]]:
::John Duport, William Brainthwaite, Jeremiah Radcliffe, [[Samuel Ward (scholar)|Samuel Ward]], Andrew Downes, John Bois, John Ward, John Aglionby, Leonard Hutten, Thomas Bilson, [[Richard Bancroft]]
 
InPada Januarybulan [[Januari]] [[1609]] asuatu Panitia Pemeriksa Umum ("''General Committee of Review''") metberkumpul atdi [[ balai "Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers|" atau "Stationers' Hall", London]] tountuk reviewmemeriksa thenaskah completedyang manuscriptssudah fromlengkap thedari sixenam companieskelompok tersebut. ThePanitia ini committeeterdiri includeddari [[John Bois]], [[Andrew Downes]], [[John Harmer]], anddan lainnya yang othershanya knowndiketahui onlydari byinisial theirnama initialsmereka, includingtermasuk "AL" (whokemungkinan mayadalah be [[Arthur Lake, Bishop of Bath and Wells|Arthur Lake]]).
 
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==Pengaruh sastra==
Some have claimed that the playwright [[William Shakespeare]] was involved in the translation, pointing to [[Psalms]] 46 as proof, where, counting 46 words from the beginning, one comes upon the word "shake", and counting 46 words backwards from the end, one comes upon the word "spear". Most scholars dismiss claims of Shakespeare's involvement in translating the King James Version, and in particular reject such purported evidence as this example. Notably, the Geneva Bible and several other earlier translations contained the same coincidence, despite several of them being published before or just shortly after Shakespeare's birth. [http://av1611.com/kjbp/ridiculous-kjv-bible-corrections/psalm-46-Shakespeare-in-KJV.html]
 
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