Konsili Konstantinopel II: Perbedaan revisi

12 bita ditambahkan ,  10 tahun yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
'''Konsili Ekumenis Kelima''' (Konsili Konstantinopel Kedua) adalah sebuah [[Konsili Ekumenis]] [[Kristen]] yang diselenggarakan di [[Konstantinopel]] (5 Mei - 2 Juni 553), yang dihimpunkan oleh [[Kaisar Yustinianus]]. Konsili ini dihadiri oleh sebagian besar [[uskup]] [[Timur]]; hanya enam uskup [[Barat]] (Kartaginia) yang hadir. Konsili ini dipimpin oleh [[Eutikius]], [[Patriarkh]] dari Konstantinopel. Persidangan ini pada kenyataannya hanyalah tahap terakhir dari konflik yang panjang dan penuh kekerasan yang dimulai oleh edik dari [[Yusninianus]] pada [[543]] melawan [[Origen]]isme (P.G., LXXXVI, 945-90). Kaisar diyakinkan bahwa [[Nestorianisme]] terus memperoleh kekuatannya dari tulisan-tulisan dari [[Teodorus dari Mopsuestia]] (meninggal 428), [[Teodoret dari Cyrus]] (meninggal 457), dan [[Ibas (uskup Asyur)|Ibas dari Edesa]] (meninggal 457), juga dari penghargaan pribadi yang dimiliki kedua orang penulis gerejawi yang disebutkan pertama, yang diberikan oleh banyak orang. Kejadian-kejadian yang menyebabkan konsili ini diselenggarakan akan diuraikan lebih mendalam dalam artikel-artikel mengenai [[Paus Vigilius]] dan dalam [[Pertikaian Tiga Pasal]]; di sini hanya akan disinggung secara singkat.
 
<!--Dari [[25]] [[Januari]] [[547]], Paus Vigilius ditahan dengan paksa di Konstantinopel. Sebelumnya ia telah menolak ikut serta dalam mengutuk Keiga Pasal itu (yakni, pernyataan [[anatema]] singkat terhadap Teodorus dari Mopsuestia dan tulisan-tulisannya, terhadap Teodoret dari Cyrus dan tulisan-tulisannya, terhadap St. [[Kiril dari Alexandria]] dan [[Konsili Efesus]], dan terhadap surat yang ditulis oleh Ibas dari Edesa kepada Maris, Uskup dari Hardaschir di Persia). Belakangan (melalui ''Judicatum''nya, 11 April [[548]]) Vigilius mengutuk Ketiga Pasal itu (doktrin yang dipersoalkan memang layak dikecam), namun ia dengan tegas menyatakan otoritas [[Konsili Khalsedon]] (451) di mana Teodoret dan Ibas - namun baru setelah Nestorius dikutuk - telah dipulihkan ke dalam jabatan mereka; di Barat muncul ketidakpuasan oleh langkah ini yang tampaknya melemah di hadapan seemed a weakening before the civil power in purely ecclesiastical matters and an injustice to men long dead and judged by God; it was all the more objectionable as the Western ([[Latin]]) mind had no accurate knowledge of the theological situation among the Greeks of that day. In consequence of this Vigilius had persuaded Justinian to return the aforesaid papal document and to proclaim a truce on all sides until a general council could be called to decide these controversies. Both the emperor and the Greek bishops violated this promise of neutrality; the former, in particular, publishing ([[551]]) his famous edict, "Homologia tes pisteos", condemning anew the Three Chapters, and refusing to withdraw the same.
 
For his dignified protest Vigilius thereupon suffered various personal indignities at the hands of the civil authority and nearly lost his life; he retired finally to [[Chalcedon]], in the very church of St. Euphemia where the great council had been held, whence he informed [[Christendom]] of the state of affairs. Soon the Eastern bishops sought reconciliation with him, induced him to return to the city, and withdrew all that had hitherto been done against the Three Chapters; the new patriarch, [[Eutychius]], successor to [[Mennas]], whose weakness and subserviency were the immediate cause of all this violence and confusion, presented (6 Jan., [[553]]) his professor of faith to Vigilius and, in union with other Eastern bishops, urged the calling of a general council under the presidency of the pope. Vigilius was willing, but proposed that it should be held either in [[Italy]] or in [[Sicily]], in order to secure the attendance of Western bishops. To this Justinian would not agree, but proposed, instead, a kind of commission made up of delegates from each of the great [[Patriarchate|patriarchates]]; Vigilius suggested that an equal number be chosen from the East and the West; but this was not acceptable to the emperor, who thereupon opened the council by his own authority on the date and in the manner mentioned above. Vigilius refused to participate, not only on account of the overwhelming proportion of Eastern bishops, but also from fear of violence; moreover, none of his predecessors had ever taken part personally in an Eastern council. To this decision he was faithful, though he expressed his willingness to give an independent judgment on the matters at issue. Eight sessions were held, the result of which was the final condemnation of the Three Chapters by the 165 bishops present at the last session (2 June, [[553]]), in fourteen anathematisms similar to the thirteen previously issued by Justinian.
503

suntingan