Karya asli [[Fred Hoyle]] tentang nukleosintesis unsur-unsur yang lebih berat di dalam bintang muncul setelah Perang Dunia II.<ref>[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1983/fowler-autobio.html Otobiografi William A. Fowler]</ref> Karya ini menyertakan penciptaan semua unsur yang berat di dalam bintang selama proses evolusi nuklir dari komposisi mereka, mulai dari hidrogen. Hoyle mengajukan bahwa hidrogen diciptakan terus menerus di alam semesta dari vakum dan energi, tanpa keperluan akan permulaan alam semesta.
Hoyle's work explained how the abundances of the elements increased with time as the galaxy aged. Subsequently, Hoyle's picture was expanded during the 1960s by creative contributions by [[William A. Fowler]], [[Alastair G. W. Cameron]], and [[Donald D. Clayton]], and then by many others. The [[B²FH|creative 1957 review paper]] by [[Margaret Burbidge|E. M. Burbidge]], [[Geoffrey Burbidge|G. R. Burbidge]], Fowler and Hoyle (see Ref. list) is a well-known summary of the state of the field in 1957. That paper defined new processes for changing one heavy nucleus into others within individual stars, processes that could be documented by astronomers.
The Big Bang itself had been proposed in 1931, long before this period, by [[Georges Lemaître]], a Belgian physicist and Roman Catholic priest, who suggested that the evident expansion of the Universe in forward time required that the Universe contracted backwards in time, and would continue to do so until it could contract no further, bringing all the mass of the Universe into a single point, a "primeval atom", at a point in time before which time and space did not exist. Hoyle later gave Lemaître's model the derisive term of Big Bang, not realizing that Lemaître's model was needed to explain the existence of deuterium and nuclides between helium and carbon, as well as the fundamentally high amount of helium present not only in stars, but also in interstellar gas. As it happened, both Lemaître and Hoyle's models of nucleosynthesis would be needed to explain elemental abundance in the universe.