Panchen Lama: Perbedaan antara revisi

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The present (11th) incarnation of the Panchen Lama is a matter of controversy: the [[People's Republic of China]] asserts it is [[Qoigyijabu]] ([[Gyancain Norbu]]), while the current Dalai Lama, [[Tenzin Gyatso]] (Bstan-'dzin Rgya-mtsho), named [[Gedhun Choekyi Nyima]] on [[May 14]], [[1995]]. The latter vanished from public eye shortly after being named. Chinese authorities state that Gedhun Choekyi Nyima has been taken into protective custody, but there is no information regarding from what, or from whom, he must be protected, where he is being held, or under what conditions.
 
The recognition of Panchen Lamas has always been a matter involving the Dalai Lama <ref>[[:et :Ya Hanzhang]], Biographies of the Tibetan Spiritual Leaders Panchen Erdenis. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1987. pg 350.</ref><ref>[http://www.savetibet.org/documents/pdfs/2004ReligionReport.pdf When the sky fell to earth]</ref>. The [[Choekyi Gyaltsen|10th Panchen Lama]] himself declared, as cited by an official Chinese review that "according to Tibetan tradition, the confirmation of either the Dalai or Panchen must be mutually recognized."<ref>Panchen-lama. 1988. "On Tibetan Independence." China Reconstructs (now named China Today) (January): Vol. 37, No. 1. pp 8–15.</ref> The involvement of China in this affair is seen by some as a political ploy to try to gain control over the recognition of the next Dalai Lama (see below), and to strengthen their hold over the future of Tibet and its governance. China claims however, that their involvement does not break with tradition in that the final decision about the recognition of both the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama traditionally rested in the hands of the Chinese emperor. For instance, after 1792 and the use of [[Golden Urn]], 10th, 11th and 12th Dalai Lama had all been recognized by Chinese emperors and after [[Qing Dynasty]], [[Republic of China]] took over the role and certified the current [[Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama|14th Dalai]] and the previous [[Choekyi Gyaltsen|10th Panchan]]. <ref>See [[Melvyn Goldstein]]'s book "A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State". University of California Press. ISBN 05200759000-520-07590-0. Emperors of the [[Qing Dynasty]] certified and approved the choices of both Dalai and Panchan Lamas. For example, the tradition of using the Golden Urn, which is unrelated to the religious or spiritual proceedings preferred by Tibetan Buddhists, had been introduced in the year 1792 by the [[Qianlong Emperor]] of China to deal with a previous controversy. After the Qing Dynasty, [[Republic of China]]'s government took over the role. Both the current [[Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama|Dalai XIV]] and the previous [[Choekyi Gyaltsen|Panchan X]] were certified by the Republic of China's government.</ref>
 
==Relation to the Dalai Lama Lineage==
! !! Name !! Life span !! [[Tibetan language|Tibetan]]/[[Wylie transliteration|Wylie]] !! [[Tibetan Pinyin|PRC transcription]] !! Other transliterations
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| 1. || [[Khedrup Je]] || 1385–1438<ref name="posthum">The title Panchen Lama was conferred posthumously on the first two Panchen Lamas.</ref> || མཁས་གྲུབ་རྗེ་་<{{br>}}''Mkhas-grub Rje'',་<{{br>}}མྷས་གྲུབ་དགེལེགས་དཔལ་བཟང་<{{br>}}''Mkhas-grub Dge-legs Dpal-bzang-po'' || Kaichub Gêlêg Baisangbo || Khädrup Je, Khedrup Gelek Pelsang, Kedrup Geleg Pelzang, Khedup Gelek Palsang, Khedrup Gelek Pal Sangpo
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| 2. || [[Sönam Choklang]] || 1438–1505<ref name="posthum"/> || བསོད་ནམས་ཕྱོག་ཀྱི་གླང་པོ་་<{{br>}}''Bsod-nams Phyogs-glang'',་<{{br>}}བསོད་ནམས་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གླང་པོ་<{{br>}}''Bsod-nams Phyogs-kyi Glang-po'' || Soinam Qoilang, <{{br>}}Soinam Qoigyi Langbo || Sonam Choglang, Soenam Choklang
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| 3. || [[Ensapa Lobsang Döndrup]] || 1505–1568<ref name="posthum"/> || དབེན་ས་པ་བློ་བཟང་དོན་དྲུཔ་་<{{br>}}''Dben-sa-pa Blo-bzang Don-grub'' || Wênsaba Lobsang Toinchub || Gyalwa Ensapa, Ensapa Lozang Döndrup, Ensapa Losang Dhodrub
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| 4. || [[Lobsang Chökyi Gyalsten]] || 1570–1662 || བློ་བཟང་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་་<{{br>}}''Blo-bzang Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshan'' || Lobsang Qoigyi Gyaicain || Losang Chökyi Gyältsän, Lozang Chökyi Gyeltsen, Lobsang Choekyi Gyaltsen, Lobsang Choegyal, Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen
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| 5. || [[Lobsang Yeshe]] || 1663–1737 || བློ་བཟང་ཡེ་ཤེས་་<{{br>}}''Blo-bzang Ye-shes'' || Lobsang Yêxê || Lobsang Yeshi, Losang Yeshe
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| 6. || [[Lobsang Palden Yeshe]] || 1738–1780 || བློ་བཟང་གྤལ་ལྡན་ཡེ་ཤེས་་<{{br>}}''Blo-bzang Gpal-ldan Ye-shes'' || Lobsang Baidain Yêxê || Palden Yeshe, Palden Yeshi
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| 7. || [[Palden Tenpai Nyima]] || 1782–1853 || གྤལ་ལྡན་བསྟན་པའི་ཉི་མ་་<{{br>}}''Gpal-ldan Bstan-pa'i Nyi-ma'' || Dainbai Nyima || Tänpä Nyima, Tenpé Nyima, Tempai Nyima, Tenpey Nyima
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| 8. || [[Tenpai Wangchuk]] || 1855?–1882 || བསྟན་པའི་དབང་ཕྱུག་་<{{br>}}''Bstan-pa'i Dbang-phyug'' || Dainbai Wangqug || Tänpä Wangchug, Tenpé Wangchuk, Tempai Wangchuk, Tenpey Wangchuk
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| 9. || [[Thubten Chökyi Nyima]] || 1883–1937 || ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ་་<{{br>}}''Thub-bstan Chos-kyi Nyi-ma'' || Tubdain Qoigyi Nyima || Choekyi Nyima, Thubtän Chökyi Nyima
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| 10. || [[Choekyi Gyaltsen|Lobsang Trinley Lhündrub Chökyi Gyaltsen]] || 1938–1989 || བློབཟང་ཕྲིན་ལས་ལྷུན་གྲུབ་<{{br>}}ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་་<{{br>}}''Blo-bzang Phrin-las Lhun-grub Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshan '' || Lobsang Chinlai Lhünchub Qoigyi Gyaicain || Choekyi Gyaltsen, Chökyi Gyeltsen, Choekyi Gyaltse, Trinley Choekyi Gyaltsen, Lozang Trinlä Lhündrup Chökyi Gyältsän
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|rowspan=2| 11. || [[Gedhun Choekyi Nyima]]<ref name="11thPanchen">The [[Tibetan government-in-exile]] under the [[14th Dalai Lama]] recognizes [[Gedhun Choekyi Nyima]] as the 11th Panchen Lama; the government of the [[People's Republic of China]] recognizes [[Qoigyijabu]] as the 11th Panchen Lama.</ref> || 1989– || དགེ་འདུན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ་་<{{br>}}''Dge-'dun Chos-kyi Nyi-ma'' || Gêdün Qoigyi Nyima || Gendün Chökyi Nyima, Gendhun Choekyi Nyima
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|| [[Gyancain Norbu]]<ref name="11thPanchen" /> || 1990– || ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་་<{{br>}}''Chos-kyi Rgyal-po'' || Qoigyijabu || Choekyi Gyalpo, Chökyi Gyälbo, Gyaincain Norbu, Gyaltsen Norbu
|}
 
 
==References and footnotes==
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== ExternalPranala linksluar ==
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*[http://www.tibet-society.org.uk/pbackground.html Tibet Society UK - The Background To The Panchen Lama] from http://www.tibet-society.org.uk/
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