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| name = Songtsän Gampo
| title = Raja Tibet
| image = [[ImageBerkas:Songstengampo.jpg|300px]]
| caption =
| reign =
| full name = Songtsän Gampo
| native_lang1 = [[Tibetan script|Tibetan]]
| native_lang1_name1= <span style="font-family:'Tibetan Machine Uni'">[[ImageBerkas:Songtsän Gampo name.svg]]</span>
| native_lang2 = [[Wylie transliteration]]
| native_lang2_name1= Srong-btsan sGam-po
|}}
 
''' Songtsän Gampo''' ([[Bahasa Tibet]]: <span style="font-family:'Tibetan Machine Uni'">[[ImageBerkas:Songtsän Gampo name.svg]]</span>, [[Transliterasi Wylie|Wylie]]: '''''Srong-btsan sGam-po''''', 605 or 617? - 649) adalah seorang pendiri [[Kerajaan Tibet]] (Bahasa Tibet: ''Bod'' ; [[Hanyu]]: 吐蕃 ; [[Pinyin]]: ''Tubo'' /''Tufan'' ), yang berdasarkan tradisi merupakan penguasa ke-33 dalam susunan dinasti-nya. Dalam [[sejarah Cina]] namanya dikenal sebagai ''Qizonglongzan''.<ref>{{en}} Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. ''Tibet: A Political History'' (1967), p. 25. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.</ref>
 
Tanggal kelahiran dan tanggal penahbisan kekuasaanya tidaklah pasti. Dalam catatan sejarah [[Tibet]], secara umum ia dianggap lahir pada tahun [[617]] (satu tahun sebelum [[Dinasti Tang]], ketika [[Raja Gaozu|Gaozu]] menjadi raja di [[Cina]]). Oleh karena anggapan penahbisan pada saat ia berusia tiga-belas tahun (usia dua-belas tahun berdasarkan pendapat Negara Barat), berdasarkan perhitungan penahbisan pada tahun 629.<ref>{{en}} Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. ''Tibet: A Political History'' (1967), p. 25. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.</ref><ref>Beckwith, Christopher I. The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia (1987), p. 19 and note 31). Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-02469-3.</ref>
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==Introduction of Buddhism==
[[ImageBerkas:King Songsten Gampo's statue in his meditation cave at Yerpa.jpg||thumb|left|200px|A statue of Songtsän Gampo in a cave at [[Yerpa]]]]
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Songtsän Gampo is traditionally credited with being the first to bring [[Buddhism]] to the [[Tibetan people]]. He is also said to have built many Buddhist temples, including the [[Jokhang]] in [[Lhasa]], the city which he is credited in one tradition with founding and establishing it as his capital.<ref>Anne-Marie Blondeau, Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History,' in Françoise Pommaret(ed.) ''Lhasa in the seventeenth century: the capital of the Dalai Lamas,'' Brill Tibetan Studies Library, 3, Brill 2003, pp.15-38, pp15ff. </ref> <ref>Amund Sinding-Larsen, ''The Lhasa atlas: : traditional Tibetan architecture and townscape,'' Serindia Publications, Inc., 2001 p.14</ref> and [[Changzhug]] in [[Nêdong County|Nêdong]]. During his reign, the translation of Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Tibetan began.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kagyuoffice.org/buddhism.10pillars.html|title=Buddhism - Kagyu Office|date=2009-01-10}}</ref>
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=====The Conquest of Zhang Zhung=====
[[ImageBerkas:SongstanGampo.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Emperor Songtsän Gampo with Princesses Wen Cheng and Bhrikuti Devi]]
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There is some confusion as to whether Central Tibet conquered [[Zhang Zhung]] during the reign of Songtsän Gampo or in the reign of [[Trisong Detsän]], (r. 755 until 797 or 804 CE).<ref>Karmey, Samten G. (1975). "'A General Introduction to the History and Doctrines of Bon", p. 180. ''Memoirs of Research Department of The Toyo Bunko'', No, 33. Tokyo.</ref> The records of the [[Tang]] Annals do, however, seem to clearly place these events in the reign of Songtsän Gampo for they say that in 634, Yangtong (Zhang Zhung) and various [[Qiang people|Qiang]] tribes "altogether submitted to him." Following this he united with the country of Yangtong to defeat the 'Azha or [[Tuyuhun]], and then conquered two more tribes of Qiang before threatening Songzhou with an army of (according to the Chinese) more than 200,000 men (100,000 according to Tibetan sources)<ref name="Powers168 9" />. He then sent an envoy with gifts of gold and silk to the Chinese emperor to ask for a Chinese princess in marriage and, when refused, attacked Songzhou. According to the Tang annals, he finally retreated and apologised and later the emperor granted his request,<ref name="Lee7 9">Lee 1981, pp. 7-9</ref><ref name="Pelliot3 4">Pelliot 1961, pp. 3-4</ref> but the histories written in Tibet all say that the Tibetan army defeated the Chinese, and that the Tang emperor delivered a bride under threat of force.<ref name="Powers168 9">Powers 2004, pp. 168-9</ref>
He next attacked and defeated the [[Dangxian]], or "Western Xia" people (who later formed the [[Tangut]] state in 942 CE), the [[Bailan]], and other [[Qiang people|Qiang]] tribes.<ref>Bushell, S. W. "The Early History of Tibet. From Chinese Sources." ''Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society'', Vol. XII, 1880, pp. 443-444.</ref><ref>Beckwith, Christopher I. 1987. ''The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages''. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02469-3, pp. 22-23.</ref> The Bailan people, were bounded on the east by the Tanguts and on the west by the [[Domi]]. They had been subject to the Chinese since 624.<ref>Bushell, S. W. "The Early History of Tibet. From Chinese Sources." ''Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society'', Vol. XII, 1880, p. 528, n. 13</ref>
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After a successful campaign against China in the frontier province of [[Songzhou]] in 635&ndash;6635–6 (''OTA'' l. 607),<ref>Bushell, S. W. "The Early History of Tibet. From Chinese Sources." ''Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society'', Vol. XII, 1880, p. 444.</ref> the Chinese emperor agreed to send a Chinese princess for Songtsän Gampo to marry.
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Circa 639, after Songtsän Gampo had a dispute with his younger brother Tsänsong (''Brtsan-srong''), the younger brother was burnt to death by his own minister Khäsreg (''Mkha’s sregs'') (possibly at the behest of his older brother, the emperor).<ref name="Richardson1965">Richardson, Hugh E. (1965). "How Old was Srong Brtsan Sgampo," ''Bulletin of Tibetology'' 2.1. pp. 5-8.</ref><ref>OTA l. 8-10</ref>
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:"Dolma, or Drolma ([[Sanskrit language|Sanskrit]] ''Tara''). The two wives of Emperor Srong-btsan gambo are worshipped under this name. The Chinese princess is called Dol-kar, of "the white Dolma," and the Nepalese princess Dol-jang, or "the green Dolma." The latter is prayed to by women for fecundity."<ref>Das, Sarat Chandra. (1902), ''Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet''. Reprint: Mehra Offset Press, Delhi. 1988, p. 165, note.</ref>
[[ImageBerkas:IMG 1026 Lhasa Jokhang.jpg|thumb|left|300px|The [[Jokhang]] Temple, home of the most venerated statue in Tibet, the original complex built by this emperor.]]
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The ''Tangshu'' or ''[[Book of Tang]]'' adds that Songstän Gampo thereupon built a city for the Chinese princess, and palace for her within its walls.
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== Songtsän Gampo's family and wives ==
[[ImageBerkas:Sonsten Gampo with 2 princesses.JPG|thumb|280px|Songtsän Gampo with Princesses Wen Cheng and Bhrikuti Devi, [[Gyantse]]]]
Some [[Dunhuang]] documents say that, as well as his sister Sad-mar-kar (or Sa-tha-ma-kar), Songtsän Gampo had a younger brother who was betrayed and died in a fire, sometime after 641. Apparently, according to one partially damaged scroll from Dunhuang, there was hostility between Sa-tha-ma-kar and Songtsän Gampo's younger brother, bTzan-srong, who, as a result, was forced to settle in gNyal (an old district to the southeast of Yarlung and across the 5,090 metre (16,700 ft) Yartö Tra Pass, which bordered on modern [[Bhutan]] and [[Arunachal Pradesh]] in India). But little, if anything, else is known about this brother.<ref>''Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project''. 1986. Dharma Publishing, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3, p. 216.</ref><ref>Choephel, Gedun. ''The White Annals''. Translated by Samten Norboo. (1978), p. 77. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala, H.P., India.</ref>
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Songtsän Gampo's only son, [[Gungsrong Gungtsen]] (Gung-srong gung-btsan), was born to Mangza Tricham (Mang bza' Khri lcham or Mang bza' Khri-mo-mnyen lDong-steng), Princess of Mang, from Tolung (sTod lung), a valley to the west of Lhasa.<ref>''Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project''. 1986. Dharma Publishing, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3, p. 215, 224-225.</ref><ref>Gyaltsen, Sakyapa Sonam (1312-1375). ''The Clear Mirror: A Traditional Account of Tibet's Golden Age'', p. 188. Translated by McComas Taylor and Lama Choedak Yuthob. (1996) Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, New York. ISBN 1-55939-048-4.</ref><ref>Stein, R. A. ''Tibetan Civilization'' 1962. Revised English edition, 1972, Faber & Faber, London. Reprint, 1972. Stanford University Press, p. 63. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1 cloth; ISBN 0-8047-0901-7 pbk.</ref>
[[ImageBerkas:SongstenGampoandwives.jpg|thumb|left|280px|Songtsen Gampo (centre) Princess Wencheng (right) and Bhrikuti Devi of Nepal (left)]]
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Some accounts say that when Gungsrong Gungtsen reached the age of thirteen (twelve by Western reckoning), his father, Songtsän Gampo, retired and he ruled for five years (which could have been the period when Songtsän Gampo was working on the new constitution). Gungsrong Gungtsen is also said to have married 'A-zha Mang-mo-rje when he was thirteen and they had a son, [[Mangsong Mangtsen]] (r. 650-676 CE). Gungsrong Gungtsen is said to have only ruled for five years when he died at eighteen. His father, Songtsän Gampo, took the throne again.<ref>Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. (1967). ''Tibet: A Political History'', p. 27. Yale University Press. New Haven and London.</ref> Gungsrong Gungtsen is said to have been buried at Donkhorda, the site of the royal tombs, to the left of the tomb of his grandfather [[Namri Songtsen]] (gNam-ri Srong-btsan). The dates for these events are very unclear.<ref>''Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project''. 1986. Dharma Publishing, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3, p. 215, 224-225.</ref><ref>Gyaltsen, Sakyapa Sonam (1312-1375). ''The Clear Mirror: A Traditional Account of Tibet's Golden Age'', p. 192. Translated by McComas Taylor and Lama Choedak Yuthob. (1996) Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, New York. ISBN 1-55939-048-4.</ref><ref>Stein, R. A. ''Tibetan Civilization'' 1962. Revised English edition, 1972, Faber & Faber, London. Reprint, 1972. Stanford University Press, p. 63. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1 cloth; ISBN 0-8047-0901-7 pbk.</ref>
Songtsän Gampo was followed by his grandson, [[Mangsong Mangtsen]], probably in 650 CE.
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[[ImageBerkas:Jokhang Square, the first destination or drop-off for most tourists.jpg|thumb|center|1000px|[[Jokhang]] as it stands today]]
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*Lee, Don Y. ''The History of Early Relations between China and Tibet: From Chiu t'ang-shu, a documentary survey'' (1981) Eastern Press, Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 0-939758-00-8
*Pelliot, Paul. ''Histoire ancienne du Tibet'' (1961) Librairie d'Amérique et d'orient, Paris
*Powers, John. ''History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China'' (2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-01951742670-19-517426-7
*Richardson, Hugh E. (1965). "How Old was Srong Brtsan Sgampo" ''Bulletin of Tibetology'' 2.1. pp 5-8.-->
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