William Tyndale: Perbedaan revisi

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'''William Tyndale''' (±[[1494]] – [[1536]]) adalah seorang pembaharu [[Protestan]] pada abad ke-16 dan cendekiawan yang menerjemahkan [[Alkitab]] ke [[Bahasa Inggris Baru Awal]] pada masanya. Walaupun ada beberapa kitab dalam Alkitab yang telah diterjemahkan sebagian atau lengkap dalam Bahasa Inggris Kuna pada sekitar abad ke-14, terjemahan Tyndale adalah yang pertama yang diterjemahkan langsung dari naskah dalam bahasa Ibrani dan Yunani, dan yang pertama kalinya dalam sejarah sebagai terjemahan yang diperbanyak menggunakan [[mesin cetak]] sehingga dapat dibagikan secara luas. Pada tahun 1535, Tyndale ditangkap, dipenjarakan di kastil [[Vilvoorde]] di luar [[Brussel (kota)|Brussel]] selama lebih dari setahun, diadili atas tuduhan [[ajaran sesat]], dan dieksekusi dengan cara dibakar.
 
Sebagian besar karya Tyndale pada akhirnya menjadi bagian dari [[Alkitab Versi Raja James]] (atau "Versi Resmi") yang dipublikasikan pada 1611. Alkitab Versi Raja James ini dikerjakan oleh 54 cendekiawan independen, ditujukan untuk merevisi edisi bahasa Inggris yang ada pada saat itu, dan naskahnya diambil sebagian besar dari terjemahan Tyndale.
Tyndale was admitted to the Degree of [[Bachelor of Arts]] at [[Oxford University]]. In 1512, the same year he became a [[subdeacon]]. He was made [[Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)|Master of Arts]] in July 1515, three months after he had been ordained into the priesthood{{Fact|date=August 2007}}. The MA degree allowed him to start studying [[theology]], but the official course did not include the study of scripture. This horrified Tyndale, and he organised private groups for teaching and discussing the scriptures{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
 
He was a gifted linguist (fluent in [[French language|French]], [[Greek language|Greek]], [[Biblical Hebrew language|Hebrew]], [[German language|German]], [[Italian language|Italian]], [[Latin]], [[Spanish language|Spanish]] in addition to his native [[English language|English]]) and subsequently went to [[University of Cambridge|Cambridge]] (possibly studying under [[Desiderius Erasmus|Erasmus]], whose 1503 ''Enchiridion Militis Christiani'' — "Handbook of the Christian Knight" — he translated into English). It is also believed that he met [[Thomas Bilney]] and [[John Frith]] at Cambridge{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
 
Tyndale became chaplain in the house of Sir John Walsh at [[Little Sodbury]] in about 1521, and tutor to his children. His opinions involved him in controversy with his fellow clergymen, and around 1522 he was summoned before the Chancellor of the [[Anglican Diocese of Worcester|Diocese of Worcester]] on a charge of [[heresy]]{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
Following the publication of Tyndale's New Testament, [[Thomas Cardinal Wolsey|Cardinal Wolsey]] condemned Tyndale as a heretic and demanded his arrest{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
 
[[ImageBerkas:Bust Of William Tyndale.jpg|thumb|right|160px|Sculpted Head Of William Tyndale from [[St Dunstan-in-the-West]] Church London]]
 
Tyndale went into hiding, possibly for a time in Hamburg, and carried on working. He revised his New Testament and began translating the [[Old Testament]] and writing various treatises. In 1530, he wrote ''The Practyse of Prelates'', opposing [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]]'s divorce on the grounds that it was unscriptural and was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts. This resulted in the king's wrath being directed at him: he asked the emperor [[Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor|Charles V]] to have Tyndale apprehended and returned to England{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
*Adapted from J.I. Mombert, "[http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc12/htm/ii.xv.x.htm Tyndale, William]," in Philip Schaff, Johann Jakob Herzog, et al, eds., ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge,'' New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1904, reprinted online by the [http://www.ccel.org/ Christian Classics Ethereal Library]. Additional references are available there.
*David Daniell, ''William Tyndale'', [[Oxford Dictionary of National Biography]], Oxford University Press, 2004
*William Tyndale, ''The New Testament'', (Worms, 1526; Reprinted in original spelling and pagination by [[British Library|The British Library]], 2000 ISBN 071230-7123-4664-3)
*William Tyndale, ''The New Testament'', (Antwerp, 1534; Reprinted in modern English spelling, complete with Prologues to the books and marginal notes, with the original Greek paragraphs, by Yale University Press, 1989 ISBN 0-300-04419-4)
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