Ford Mustang: Perbedaan antara revisi

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== Generasi pertama (1965–1973) ==
<!-- officially they are 1965, only called 1964 1/2 UNOFFICIALLY -->
[[File:Ford Mustang serial number one.jpg|thumb|"1964½" Mustang convertible serial No. 1, sold to [[Stanley Tucker]] who was given the one millionth Mustang in exchange for his historic car<ref>{{cite book |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=g-76CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA38 |title=The Complete Book of Ford Mustang: Every Model Since 1964½ |first=Mike |last=Mueller |publisher=Motorbooks |year=2015 |isbn=9780760346624 |access-date=September 14, 2020 |archive-date=January 13, 2022 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20220113131630/https://books.google.com/books?id=g-76CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA38 |url-status=live }}</ref>]]
 
{{main|Ford Mustang (first generation)}}
 
[[Lee Iacocca]]'s assistant general manager and chief engineer, [[Donald N. Frey]] was the head engineer for the [[Ford Mustang I|T-5 project]]—supervising the overall development of the car in a record 18 months<ref>{{cite magazine|url= http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,843628,00.html |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20071205213156/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,843628,00.html |url-status= dead |archive-date= December 5, 2007 |title=The Thinker (Detroit Style) |magazine=Time |date=April 21, 1967 |access-date=November 9, 2015}}</ref>—while Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Drummon |first1=Meghan |title=Who is Gale Halderman? |url=https://www.cjponyparts.com/resources/gale-halderman-bio |website=cjponyparts.com |date=February 5, 2020 |access-date=December 28, 2020 |archive-date=January 25, 2021 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20210125232946/https://www.cjponyparts.com/resources/gale-halderman-bio |url-status=live }}</ref> The T-5 prototype was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine [[Roadster (automobile)|roadster]]. This vehicle employed the German [[Ford Taunus V4 engine]].
 
The original [[Ford Mustang I|1962 Ford Mustang I]] two-seater concept car had evolved into the 1963 Mustang II four-seater concept car which Ford used to pretest how the public would take interest in the first production Mustang. The 1963 Mustang II concept car was designed with a variation of the production model's front and rear ends with a roof that was {{convert|2.7|in|mm|0|abbr=on}} lower.<ref>{{cite book|last=Mueller |first=Mike |title=Mustang, the Complete Book of Every Model since 1964½ |publisher=Motorbooks/MBI |year=2010 |isbn=978-0-7603-3830-8}}</ref> It was originally based on the [[automobile platform|platform]] of the second-generation North American [[Ford Falcon (North America)|Ford Falcon]], a [[compact car]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Iacocca |first=Lee |title=Iacocca: An Autobiography |publisher=Bantam |year=1969 |isbn=978-0-553-25147-0 |chapter=VI}}</ref> Gale Halderman’s side view design is the basis for the first clay model.<ref name="Drummond-Halderman">{{cite web |last1=Drummond |first1=Meghan |title=Gale Halderman - Drawing the First Mustang |url= https://www.cjponyparts.com/resources/gale-halderman-bio |website=CJ Pony Parts |access-date=4 May 2022 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20210125232946/https://www.cjponyparts.com/resources/gale-halderman-bio |archive-date=25 January 2021 |date=February 5, 2020}}</ref><ref name= HonUn>{{cite web| url= https://www.honoraryunsubscribe.com/gale-halderman/ | title= Gale Halderman| website= Honorary Unsubscribe |publisher=This is True | first= Randy| last= Cassingham | date= 3 May 2020 | access-date= 11 May 2020}}</ref>
 
=== Non-traditional (1964½) introduction ===
[[File:1965 Ford Mustang Fastback (15595256971).jpg|thumb|1965 "fastback", introduced in September 1964 for the 1965 model year]]
 
The Ford Mustang began production five months before the normal start of the 1965 production year. The early production versions are often referred to as "1964½ models" but all Mustangs were advertised, VIN coded and titled by Ford as 1965 models, though minor design updates in August 1964 at the formal start of the 1965 production year contribute to tracking 1964½ production data separately from 1965 data (see data below).<ref>{{cite book|last=Sessler |first=Peter C. |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=V2LMsWZxU5EC&pg=PA11 |title=Mustang: 1964½–2003 |publisher=MBI Publishing |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-7603-1373-2 |page=11 |access-date=January 2, 2016}}</ref> with production beginning in [[Dearborn, Michigan]], on March 9, 1964;<ref>{{cite book |last=Corcoran |first=Tom |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=agweV3UT930C&pg=PA15 |title=Mustang 1964½–1968 |publisher=MBI Publishing |year=1994 |isbn=978-0-87938-630-6 |page=15 |access-date=September 11, 2015 |archive-date=January 13, 2022 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20220113131634/https://books.google.com/books?id=agweV3UT930C&pg=PA15 |url-status=live }}</ref> the new car was, on 15 April 1964, first sold to the public,<ref name= HonUn/> before it was even introduced on April 17, 1964,<ref>{{cite book|last1=Diamond |first1=Jay |title=Principles of Marketing |last2=Pintel |first2=Gerald |publisher=Prentice Hall |year=1991 |isbn=978-0-13-714668-0 |page=198}}</ref> at the [[1964 New York World's Fair|New York World's Fair]].<ref name="Patton">{{cite journal|last=Patton |first=Phil |date=October 2006 |title=The Car of the Year (And a Half) |url= http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2006/5/2006_5_52.shtml |journal=American Heritage |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20080828154601/http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2006/5/2006_5_52.shtml |archive-date=August 28, 2008 |access-date=April 3, 2014}}</ref> Body styles available included a two-door hardtop and convertible, with a "2+2" fastback added to the line in September 1964. A Wimbledon White (paint code P)<ref name="Flory" /> convertible with red interior was used as [[product placement]] when the ''James Bond'' movie ''[[Goldfinger (film)|Goldfinger]]'' was released September 17, 1964, at its London premiere, where [[Bond girl]] [[Tania Mallet|Tilly Masterson]] was in a spirited chase with James driving an [[Aston Martin DB5]] in the Swiss Alps. A Tropical Turquoise (paint code O)<ref name="Flory" /> coupe was again used in the next film ''[[Thunderball (film)|Thunderball]]'' at its Tokyo premiere 9 December 1965 with Bond girl [[Fiona Volpe]] as she drives James to meet the villain [[Emilio Largo]] at his compound at a very high speed across [[The Bahamas]].
 
Favorable publicity articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, the day the car was "officially" revealed.<ref name=":0">{{cite web |url= http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1965-1966-ford-mustang.htm |title=1965 1966 Ford Mustang |authors=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide'' |date=February 4, 2007 |website=auto.howstuffworks.com |access-date=April 27, 2012 |archive-date=April 30, 2012 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120430024800/http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1965-1966-ford-mustang.htm |url-status=live }}</ref><ref name=":1">{{cite press release|url= http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=18037 |title=Innovative Marketing and PR Helped Build the Mustang Legend |publisher=Ford Motor Company Media |access-date=April 27, 2012 |url-status=dead |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20090611100027/http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=18037 |archive-date=June 11, 2009 }}</ref> A four-seat car with full space for the front bucket seats and a rear bench seat was standard. A "fastback 2+2", first manufactured on August 17, 1964, enclosed the [[Trunk (automobile)|trunk]] space under a sweeping exterior line similar to the second series [[Chevrolet Corvette (C2)|Corvette Sting Ray]] and European [[sports car]]s such as the [[Jaguar E-Type]] coupe.
 
=== Price and record-breaking sales ===
[[File:1967 Ford Mustang coupe (2015-07-03) 01.jpg|thumb|1967 hardtop]]
 
To achieve an advertised [[list price]] of {{USD|2,368|year=1965}},{{inflation-fn|US}} the Mustang was based heavily on familiar yet simple components, many of which were already in production for other Ford models.<ref>{{cite journal |url= http://www.hemmings.com/hmn/stories/2005/02/01/hmn_feature7.html |journal=Hemmings Motor News |date=February 2005 |title=1964 1/2-1966 Mustang |first=George |last=Mattar |access-date=June 19, 2015 |archive-date=November 24, 2020 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20201124124524/https://www.hemmings.com/hmn/stories/2005/02/01/hmn_feature7.html |url-status=live }}</ref> Many (if not most) of the interior, [[chassis]], [[suspension (vehicle)|suspension]], and drivetrain components were derived from those used on [[Ford Falcon (North American)|Ford's Falcon]] and [[Ford Fairlane (North American)|Fairlane]]. This use of common components also shortened the learning curve for assembly and repair workers, while at the same time allowing dealers to pick up the Mustang without also having to invest in additional spare parts inventory to support the new car line. Original sales forecasts projected less than 100,000 units for the first year.<ref name="google30">[[#Mueller|Mueller]], p. 30</ref> This mark was surpassed in three months from rollout.<ref name="Flory" /> Another 318,000 would be sold during the model year (a record),<ref name="Flory" /> and in its first eighteen months, more than one million Mustangs were built.<ref name="google30" />
 
=== Upgrades ===
Several changes were made at the traditional opening of the new model year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some models, the introduction of [[Alternator (auto)|alternators]] to replace [[Electrical generator#Vehicle-mounted generators|generators]], an upgrade of the six-cylinder engine from {{convert|170|to|200|cid|l|1|abbr=on}} with an increase from {{convert|101|to|120|hp|kW|abbr=on|0}}, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from {{convert|260|to|289|cid|l|1|abbr=on}} with an increase from {{convert|164|to|210|hp|kW|abbr=on|0}}. The rush into production included some unusual quirks, such as the horn ring bearing the 'Ford Falcon' logo covered by a trim ring with a 'Ford Mustang' logo. These characteristics made enough difference to warrant designation of the 121,538 early versions as "1964½" Mustangs, a distinction that has endured with purists.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/04/16/457244.html |title=The Great Mustang Debate: 1964 or 1965 |website=Theautochannel.com |date=April 16, 2009 |access-date=April 6, 2016 |archive-date=July 29, 2010 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20100729052132/http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/04/16/457244.html |url-status=live }}</ref>
 
[[File:Ford Mustang Boss 302 1969 (5756269860).jpg|thumb|A 1969 SportsRoof]]
 
Ford's designers began drawing up larger versions even as the original was achieving sales success, and while "Iacocca later complained about the Mustang's growth, he did oversee the 1967 redesign."<ref name=mike/> From 1967 until 1973, the Mustang got bigger but not necessarily more powerful.<ref>{{cite book |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=kYU5zb1ZaoMC&pg=PA16 |title=Mustangs |first=Michael |last=Portman |isbn=9781433947544 |year=2011 |publisher=Gareth Stevens |page=16 |access-date=April 6, 2016 |archive-date=August 1, 2020 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20200801155835/https://books.google.com/books?id=kYU5zb1ZaoMC&pg=PA16 |url-status=live }}</ref> The Mustang was [[Facelift (automotive)|facelifted]], giving the Mustang a more massive look overall and allowing a big block engine to be offered for the first time. Front and rear end styling was more pronounced, and the "twin cove" instrument panel offered a thicker crash pad and larger gauges. Hardtop, fastback, and convertible body styles continued as before. Around this time, the Mustang was paired with a Mercury variant, called the [[Mercury Cougar|Cougar]], which used its own styling cues, such as a "prowling cat" logo and hidden quad headlamps. New safety regulations by the U.S. [[National Highway Traffic Safety Administration]] (NHTSA) for 1967 included an energy-absorbing steering column and wheel, 4-way emergency flashers, and a dual-circuit hydraulic braking system, and softer interior knobs. The 1968 models received revised side scoops, steering wheel, and gasoline caps. Side marker lights were also added that year, and cars built after January 1, 1968, included shoulder belts for both front seats on coupes. The 1968 models also introduced a new {{convert|302|CID|L|1|abbr=on}} V8 engine, designed with Federal emissions regulations in mind.
 
The 1969 restyle "added more heft to the body as width and length again increased. Weight went up markedly too."<ref name=mike>[[#Mueller|Mueller]], p. 59</ref> Due to the larger body and revised front end styling, the 1969 models (but less so in 1970) had a notable aggressive stance. The 1969 models featured "quad headlamps" which disappeared to make way for a wider grille and a return to standard headlamps in the 1970 models. This switch back to standard headlamps was an attempt to tame the aggressive styling of the 1969 model, which some felt was too extreme and hurt sales, but 1969 production exceeded the 1970 total.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://fast_wheels.tripod.com/production.htm |title=Mustang – Production Numbers |website=Fast_wheels.tripod.com |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20130426081626/http://fast_wheels.tripod.com/production.htm |archive-date=April 26, 2013 |access-date=April 6, 2016}}</ref>
 
=== Models ===
Starting in 1969, to aid sales and continue the winning formula of the Mustang, a variety of new performance and decorative options became available, including functional (and non-functional) air scoops, cable and pin hood tie-downs, and both wing and chin spoilers. Additionally, a variety of performance packages were introduced that included the [[Ford Mustang Mach 1|Mach 1]], the [[Boss 302 Mustang|Boss 302]], and [[Boss 429]]. The two Boss models were to homologate the engines for racing. The 1969 Mustang was the last year for the GT option (although it did return on the third-generation Mustang for the 1982 model year). A fourth model available only as a hardtop, the Grandé, saw success starting in 1969 with its soft ride, "luxurious" trim, {{convert|55|lb|kg}} of extra sound deadening, and simulated wood trim.
 
[[File:Ford Mustang 1973 (4620270434).jpg|thumb|A 1973 Sportsroof]]
 
=== Sales fluctuation ===
Developed under the watch of [[Semon Knudsen|S. "Bunkie" Knudsen]], Mustang evolved "from speed and power" to the growing consumer demand for bigger and heavier "luxury" type designs.<ref name="taylor17">{{cite book |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=O4cgtFh_asEC&pg=PA17 |title=Mustang Restoration Handbook |first1=Don |last1=Taylor |first2=Tom |last2=Wilson |page=17 |publisher=Penguin Group |year=1987 |isbn=978-0-89586-402-4 |access-date=September 11, 2015 |archive-date=January 13, 2022 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20220113131644/https://books.google.com/books?id=O4cgtFh_asEC&pg=PA17 |url-status=live }}</ref> "The result was the styling misadventures of 1971–73 ...the Mustang grew fat and lazy,"<ref name="taylor17"/> "Ford was out of the go-fast business almost entirely by 1971."<ref>[[#Mueller|Mueller]], p. 61.</ref> "This was the last major restyling of the first-generation Mustang."<ref name="sessler72">{{cite book |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=l_1ngoGACCUC&pg=PA72 |title=Ford Mustang Buyer's and Restoration Guide |first1=Peter C. |last1=Sessler |first2=Nilda |last2=Sessler |page=72 |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-7906-1326-0 |publisher=Sams Technical Publishing |access-date=September 11, 2015 |archive-date=August 1, 2020 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20200801155755/https://books.google.com/books?id=l_1ngoGACCUC&pg=PA72 |url-status=live }}</ref> "The cars grew in every dimension except height, and they gained about {{convert|800|lb|kg}}."<ref name="sessler72"/> "The restyling also sought to create the illusion that the cars were even larger."<ref name="sessler72"/> The 1971 Mustang was nearly {{convert|3|in|round=5}} wider than the 1970, its front and rear track was also widened by {{convert|3|in||round=5}}, and its size was most evident in the SportsRoof models with its nearly flat rear roofline<ref>[[#Mueller|Mueller]], p. 62</ref> and cramped interior with poor visibility for the driver.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1971-1972-1973-ford-mustang8.htm |authors=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide'' |title=Criticism of the 1971 Ford Mustang |date=February 11, 2007 |website=auto.howstuffworks.com |access-date=April 27, 2012 |archive-date=April 15, 2012 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120415063720/http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1971-1972-1973-ford-mustang8.htm |url-status=live }}</ref> Performance decreased with sales continuing to decrease<ref>{{cite web |url= http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1971-1972-1973-ford-mustang10.htm |authors=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide'' |title=The 1972 Ford Mustang |date=February 11, 2007 |website=auto.howstuffworks.com |access-date=April 27, 2012 |archive-date=April 21, 2012 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120421141156/http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1971-1972-1973-ford-mustang10.htm |url-status=dead }}</ref> as consumers switched to the smaller [[Ford Pinto|Pintos]] and [[Ford Maverick (Americas)|Mavericks]]. A displeased Iacocca summed up later: "The Mustang market never left us, we left it."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1971-1972-1973-ford-mustang12.htm |authors=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide'' |title=The 1973 Ford Mustang |date=February 11, 2007 |website=auto.howstuffworks.com |access-date=April 27, 2012 |archive-date=April 20, 2012 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120420072025/http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1971-1972-1973-ford-mustang12.htm |url-status=live }}</ref>
 
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== Referensi ==
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