Equisetopsida: Perbedaan antara revisi

60 bita ditambahkan ,  6 bulan yang lalu
Add 1 book for Wikipedia:Pemastian (20220309)) #IABot (v2.0.8.6) (GreenC bot
k (Bot: +{{Taxonbar|from={{subst:#invoke:WikidataIB|getQid}}}})
(Add 1 book for Wikipedia:Pemastian (20220309)) #IABot (v2.0.8.6) (GreenC bot)
== Klasifikasi ==
The horsetails and their fossil relatives have long been recognized as distinct from other seedless vascular plants.<ref name="Eames 1936">{{cite book | last=Eames | first=Arthur J. | year=1936 | title=Morphology of Vascular Plants (Lower Groups) | pages=110–115 | location=New York and London | publisher=McGraw-Hill Book Company }}</ref> Before the advent of modern [[Molecular phylogenetics|molecular studies]], the relationship of this group to other living and fossil plants was considered problematic.<ref name="Bold 1987">{{cite book | last= Bold | first= Harold C. |author2=C. J. Alexopoulos |author3=T. Delevoryas | year= 1987 | title= Morphology of Plants and Fungi | edition= 5th | pages= 371–387, 478, 506–514 | location= New York | publisher= Harper-Collins | isbn= 0-06-040839-1 }}</ref> Because of their unclear relationships, the rank botanists have assigned to the horsetails varies from [[Order (biology)|order]] to [[Division (botany)|division]]. When recognized as a separate division, the literature uses many possible names, including Arthrophyta,<ref name="Bold 1987" /> Sphenophyta,<ref name="Taylor 1993" /><ref name="Gifford and Foster">{{cite book | last=Gifford | first=Ernest M. |author2=Adriance S. Foster | year=1988 | title=Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants | edition=3rd | pages=175–207 | location=New York | publisher=W. H. Freeman and Company | isbn=0-7167-1946-0 }}</ref> or Equisetophyta. Other authors have regarded the same group as a class, either within a division consisting of the vascular plants or, more recently, within an expanded fern group. When ranked as a class, the group has been termed the Equisetopsida<ref name="Kenrick 1997">{{cite book | last= Kenrick | first= Paul |author2=Peter R. Crane |year=1997 | title= The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study | url= https://archive.org/details/originearlydiver0000kenr | pages= [https://archive.org/details/originearlydiver0000kenr/page/241 241]–242 | place= Washington, D. C. | publisher= Smithsonian Institution Press | isbn= 1-56098-730-8 }}</ref> or Sphenopsida.<ref name="Stewart and Rothwell">{{cite book | last= Stewart | first= Wilson N. |author2=Gar W. Rothwell | year= 1993 | title= Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants | url= https://archive.org/details/paleobotanyevolu0000stew | edition= 2nd | location= Cambridge | publisher= [[Cambridge University Press]] | isbn= 0-521-38294-7 }}</ref>
Recent [[phylogenetics|phylogenetic analysis]] has produced evidence that this group of plants belongs firmly within the [[fern]] [[clade]] of [[vascular plants]].<ref name="Pryer 2001">{{cite journal | last=Pryer | first=Kathleen M. |author2=Harald Schneider |author3=Alan R. Smith |author4=Raymond Cran |author5=Paul G. Wolf |author6=Jeffrey S. Hunt |author7=Sedonia D. Sipes| year=2001 | title= Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants | url=http://www.pryerlab.net/publication/fichier199.pdf | journal=Nature | volume= 409 | pages= 618–621 | pmid = 11214320 | doi=10.1038/35054555 | issue=6820 }}</ref> A 2006 classification by Smith ''et al.'' places the class Equisetopsida within an unranked clade of broadly defined ferns, as a sister to two classes more traditionally called ferns, Marattiopsida and Polypodiopsida.<ref name="Smith 2006"/>