Syurahbil bin Hasanah: Perbedaan revisi

5.484 bita dihapus ,  1 bulan yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
(Hapus templat {{sedang ditulis}})
Tag: Suntingan perangkat seluler Suntingan peramban seluler
'''Syurahbil bin Hasanah''' ({{lang-ar|شرحبيل بن حسنة}}) <ref>Ath-Thabaqat al-Kubra, Ibnu Sa'ad juz 4 hlm 119</ref><ref>Al-Isti'ab fi Ma'rifat al-Ashab, Al-Hafizh Ibnu Abdil Barr juz 2/hlm 255</ref> adalah seorang [[sahabat Nabi]] [[Muhammad]] dan salah satu imigran [[Kekaisaran Ethiopia|Abyssinia]] pada saat hijrah kedua. Dia adalah salah satu pemimpin pasukan [[Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah]] dan penakluk [[Lembah Yordania|Lembah Yordan]].<ref name="ReferenceA">Ibnu Manzhur: Mukhtashar Tarikh Dimasyq 3192/1</ref>
{{Infobox Military Person|name=Syurahbil bin Hasanah|allegiance=[[Kekhalifahan Rasyidin]] (632–639)|death_place=[[Imwas|Amwas]]|death_date=639|battles=*[[Perang Riddah]]
**[[Pertempuran Yamamah]]
*[[Penaklukan Suriah oleh Muslim]]
**[[Pertempuran Busrah]]
**[[Pertempuran Ajnadayn]]
**[[Pertempuran Fahl]]
**Pengepungan [[Beit She'an|Baysan]]
**Penaklukan [[Palestina (wilayah)|Palestina]] bagian utara|relations=*Abdullah bin Mutha bin Amr (ayah)
*Hasanah (ibu)}}
'''Abu Abdullah Syurahbil bin Hasanah''' ({{lang-ar|أبو عبد الله شُرَحبيل بن حسَنة}}‎) adalah seorang pemeluk [[Islam]] awal, seorang [[sahabat Nabi]] dan seorang [[panglima]] selama [[Penaklukan Suriah oleh Muslim]].
 
== Kehidupan awal ==
Ayah Syurahbil adalah Abdullah bin Mutha bin Amr, seorang anggota suku [[Orang Arab|Arab]] dari suku [[Bani Kindah|Kindah]].<ref name=Bosworth508>Bosworth 1997, hlm. 508.</ref> Syurahbil dinamai sesuai dengan nama ibunya, Hasanah.<ref name=Bosworth508/> Melalui garis keturunan ibunya kemudian, ia terhubung dengan [[suku Quraisy]] klan [[Bani Zuhrah]] dan [[Bani Jumah]] di [[Mekkah]].<ref name=Bosworth508/> Syurahbil adalah pemeluk Islam awal dan termasuk diantara sahabat Nabi [[Muhammad]].<ref name=Bosworth508/> Syurahbil termasuk bagian dari rombongan yang ikut [[Hijrah kedua ke Abisinia|hijrah]] ke [[Kekaisaran Aksum|Abisinia]] dari Mekkah untuk menghindari penyiksaan dari kaum kafir Quraisy.<ref name=Bosworth508/>
 
== Karier militer ==
[[Berkas:Mohammad adil-Muslims Invasion of Syria.PNG|thumb|200px|Jalan tentara Syurahbil di Palestina]]
=== Pertempuran bersama Muhammad dan perang Riddah ===
Syurahbil kemudian ikut serta dalam [[Ghazi|pertempuran]] melawan orang-orang kafir selama masa Muhammad. Setelah Muhammad wafat pada tahun 632, banyak suku Arab yang telah memeluk [[Islam]] kemudian [[murtad]] dan menolak kepemimpinan kaum [[Muslimin]].<ref name=Bosworth508/> [[Khalifah]] [[Abu Bakar Ash-Shiddiq|Abu Bakar]] (memerintah 632-634) kemudian melancarkan [[Perang Riddah]] di seluruh [[Jazirah Arab|Arab]] untuk menundukkan suku-suku tersebut.<ref name=Bosworth508/> Selama perang tersebut, Syurahbil berperang di pihak Muslim sebagai wakil komandan [[Khalid bin Walid]] dalam pertempuran Aqraba atau [[pertempuran Yamamah]] di [[Najd]] tengah.<ref name=Bosworth508/>
 
=== Penaklukan Suriah ===
{{see also|Penaklukan Suriah oleh Muslim}}
[[Berkas:Shrine of Sharhabeel ibn Hasana 04.JPG|thumb|200px|Shrine of Shurahbil ibn Hasana, [[Jordan]]]]
After the Muslim victory in the Ridda wars, Shurahbil was appointed a commander of one of the four Muslim armies dispatched to [[Muslim conquest of the Levant|conquer the Levant]] from the [[Byzantine Empire]] and its [[Arab Christian]] allies.<ref name=Bosworth508/><ref>Donner 1981, hlm. 114.</ref> Shurahbil's army was 7,000-strong and its zone of operations corresponded to the territory of [[Palaestina Secunda]].<ref name=Bosworth508/> There are scant details about Shurahbil's campaigns.<ref name=Bosworth508/> His initial assignment was to the region that corresponds with modern-day southern [[Jordan]] possibly to keep in check the [[Quda'a]] tribes which had embraced, broken and reconciled with the nascent Muslim state based in Medina in the previous years.<ref>Donner 1981, hlm. 116.</ref> According to the histories of [[Ibn Ishaq]] and [[al-Waqidi]], Shurahbil was present during the siege of [[Bosra]], led by Khalid ibn al-Walid in May 634.<ref name=Donner129>Donner 1981, hlm. 129.</ref> It was the first major Syrian city to be conquered by the Muslims.<ref name=Donner129/>
 
Later, in July, Shurahbil served as a deputy of [[Amr ibn al-As]] in the decisive victory against the Byzantines at the [[Battle of Ajnadayn]], which also saw significant Muslim losses, between [[Ramla]] and [[Bayt Jibrin]].<ref name=Donner129/> The Muslims apparently pursued the Byzantines northward and defeated them at the [[Battle of Fahl]] in December 634/January 635 where Shurahbil was also a deputy commander.<ref>Donner 1981, hlm. 130.</ref> According to 8th-century historian [[Sayf ibn Umar]], Abu Ubayda left Shurahbil and ibn al-‘As in charge of [[Pella, Jordan|Fahl]] (Pella) and they proceeded to besiege [[Beit She'an|Baysan]] which ultimately surrendered after minor clashes over the course of several days.<ref>Donner 1981, hlm. 137.</ref> Shurahbil likely played a commanding role in the Muslim capture of [[Jerash|Gerasa]] (Jerash) and the [[Golan Heights|Golan]] region between late 634 and early 635 as well.<ref name=Bosworth508/>
 
Setelah tentara Bizantium dikalahkan di [[Pertempuran Yarmuk]], Syurahbil diperintahkan untuk menaklukkan [[Palestina (wilayah)|Palestina]] utara.<ref name=Bosworth508/><ref name=Donner152153>Donner 1981, hlm. 152–153.</ref> Ia berhasil menaklukan wilayah tersebut dengan pengecualian [[Kaisarea]], yang kemudian ditaklukan oleh jenderal Muslim lainnya setelah pengepungan beberapa tahun.<ref name=Donner152153/>
 
== Wafat ==
Syurahbil wafat pada tahun 639 karena [[wabah Amwas]] di Palestina tengah bersama satu dari empat komandan Muslim utama lainnya, [[Yazid bin Abi Sufyan]].<ref name=Bosworth508/> Menurut sejarawan abad ke-9 [[Ahmad bin Yahya bin Jabir al-Baladzuri|al-Baladzuri]], ia berusia 69 tahun, sedangkan sejarawan abad ke-13 [[Ali bin al-Atsir|Ibnu al-Atsir]] menulis bahwa ia meninggal pada usia 67.<ref name=Bosworth508/>
 
== Referensi ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Daftar pustaka ==
*{{EI2|article=Shuraḥbīl b. Ḥaṣana|last=Bosworth|first=C. E.|authorlink=Clifford Edmund Bosworth|volume=9}}
*{{cite book|last1=Donner|first1=Fred M.|authorlink=Fred M. Donner|title=The Early Islamic Conquests|date=1981|publisher=Princeton University Press|location=Princeton|isbn=978-1-4008-4787-7|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=l5__AwAAQBAJ&pg=}}
* {{cite journal |last1=Perlman |first1=Yaara |title=The Tribal Affiliations of Shuraḥbīl ibn Ḥasana |journal=Journal of Near Eastern Studies |date=April 2020 |volume=79 |issue=1 |pages=113–124 |doi=10.1086/707614 | ref=harv}}
 
{{Authority control}}
10.720

suntingan