Erasmus Darwin: Perbedaan revisi

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*John Darwin, rector of Elston (28 September 1730–24 May 1805)
 
He was educated at [[Chesterfield]] Grammar School, then later at [[St John's College, Cambridge|St John's College]], [[University of Cambridge|Cambridge]].<ref>{{Venn|id=DRWN750E|name=Darwin, Erasmus}}</ref> He obtained his medical education at the [[University of Edinburgh Medical School]]. Whether Darwin ever obtained the formal degree of [[Doctor of Medicine|MD]] is not known.
 
Darwin settled in 1756 as a physician at Nottingham, but met with little success and so moved the following year to [[Lichfield]] to try to establish a practice there. A few weeks after his arrival, using a novel course of treatment, he restored the health of a young man whose death seemed inevitable. This ensured his success in the new locale. Darwin was a highly successful physician for more than fifty years in the [[English Midlands|Midlands]]. [[George III of the United Kingdom|George III]] invited him to be [[Physician to the King|Royal Physician]], but Darwin declined. In [[Lichfield]], Darwin wrote "didactic poetry, developed his system of evolution, and invented amongst other things, an organ able to recite the [[Lord's Prayer]], the [[Creed]], and the [[Ten Commandments]]".<ref>Pevsner N. 1951. ''The Buildings of England: Nottinghamshire''. Penguin, Harmondsworth. p67</ref>
 
=== Zoönomia ===
Darwin's most important scientific work is ''[[Zoönomia]]'' (1794–1796), contains a system of [[pathology]], and a chapter on '[[Generation]]'. In the latter, he anticipated some of the views of [[Jean-Baptiste Lamarck]], which foreshadowed the modern theory of [[evolution]]. Erasmus Darwin's works were read and commented on by his grandson [[Charles Darwin]] the naturalist. Erasmus Darwin based his theories on [[David Hartley (philosopher)|David Hartley]]'s psychological theory of [[associationism]].<ref>Allen, Richard C. 1999. ''David Hartley on human nature''. Albany, N.Y.: [[SUNY Press]]. ISBN 0-7914-4233-0</ref> The essence of his views is contained in the following passage, which he follows up with the conclusion that one and the same kind of living filament is and has been the cause of all organic life:
 
<blockquote>Would it be too bold to imagine, that in the great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which <small>THE GREAT FIRST CAUSE</small> endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end! <ref>[http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15707/15707-h/15707-h.htm#sect_XXXIX Erasmus Darwin, ''Zoonomia'': Project Gurenberg text XXIX.4.8]</ref> </blockquote>
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Darwin's final long poem, ''The Temple of Nature'', was published posthumously in 1803. The poem was originally titled ''The Origin of Society''. It is considered his best poetic work. It centres on his own conception of [[evolution]]. The poem traces the progression of life from micro-organisms to civilized society.
 
His poetry was admired by [[William Wordsworth|Wordsworth]], although [[Samuel Taylor Coleridge|Coleridge]] was intensely critical, writing, "I absolutely nauseate Darwin's poem".<ref>http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/21/featuresreviews.guardianreview30</ref> It often made reference to his interests in science; for example botany and [[steam engine]]s.
 
<blockquote>''Roll on, ye Stars! exult in youthful prime,<br />Mark with bright curves the printless steps of Time;<br />Near and more near your beamy cars approach,<br />And lessening orbs on lessening orbs encroach; —<br />Flowers of the sky! ye too to age must yield,<br />Frail as your silken sisters of the field!<br />Star after star from Heaven's high arch shall rush,<br />Suns sink on suns, and systems systems crush,<br />Headlong, extinct, to one dark center fall,<br />And Death and Night and Chaos mingle all!<br />— Till o'er the wreck, emerging from the storm,<br />Immortal Nature lifts her changeful form,<br />Mounts from her funeral pyre on wings of flame,<br />And soars and shines, another and the same.''</blockquote>
 
 
=== Inventions ===
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