Equisetopsida: Perbedaan antara revisi

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'''Equisetopsida''', atau '''Sphenopsida''' di kalangan [[paleobotani]], adalah salah satu [[Kelas (biologi)|kelas]] [[tumbuhan berpembuluh]] yang masih lestari hingga kini namun dengan temuan fosil berusia sampai ke kala [[Devon (periode)|Devon]]. Anggotanya yang banyak dikenal adalah [[paku ekor kuda]] (''Equisetum'').<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=horsetail | title = horsetail | work = Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary }}</ref><ref name="Allaby 1999">{{cite book|last= Allaby|first= Ailsa|author2=Michael Allaby|year= 1999|title= "Sphenopsida." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences |url= https://archive.org/details/dictionaryofeart00alla}}</ref><ref name=Judd>{{cite book|last1=Judd|first1=W.S.|last2=Campbell|first2=C.S.|last3=Kellogg|first3=E.A.|last4=Stevens|first4=P.F.|last5=Donoghue|first5=M.J.|year=2002|title=Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach.|publisher=Sinauer Associates, Inc.|location=Sunderland, Massachusetts|isbn=0878934030|page=193 }}</ref>. Kebanyakan anggotanya menyukai tempat yang becek / berair, dengan daun yang sangat tereduksi sehingga fotosintesis dilakukan oleh batang, yang umumnya beruas dan berbentuk berkas-berkas kaku.
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The Equisetopsida were formerly regarded as a separate [[division (biology)|division]] of spore plants and also called '''Equisetophyta''', '''Arthrophyta''' or '''Sphenophyta'''; today they have been recognized as rather close relatives of the typical ferns ([[Pteridopsida]]) and form a specialized lineage of the [[Pteridophyta]].<ref name="Smith 2006">{{cite journal | doi=10.2307/25065646 | last=Smith | first=Alan R.|author2=Kathleen M. Pryer |author3=Eric Schuettpelz |author4=Petra Korall |author5=Harald Schneider |author6=Paul G. Wolf | year=2006 | title= A classification for extant ferns | url=http://www.pryerlab.net/publication/fichier749.pdf | journal=Taxon | volume= 55 | issue=3 | pages= 705–731 | jstor=25065646 }}</ref>
Recent [[phylogenetics|phylogenetic analysis]] has produced evidence that this group of plants belongs firmly within the [[fern]] [[clade]] of [[vascular plants]].<ref name="Pryer 2001">{{cite journal | last=Pryer | first=Kathleen M. |author2=Harald Schneider |author3=Alan R. Smith |author4=Raymond Cran |author5=Paul G. Wolf |author6=Jeffrey S. Hunt |author7=Sedonia D. Sipes| year=2001 | title= Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants | url=http://www.pryerlab.net/publication/fichier199.pdf | journal=Nature | volume= 409 | pages= 618–621 | pmid = 11214320 | doi=10.1038/35054555 | issue=6820 }}</ref> A 2006 classification by Smith ''et al.'' places the class Equisetopsida within an unranked clade of broadly defined ferns, as a sister to two classes more traditionally called ferns, Marattiopsida and Polypodiopsida.<ref name="Smith 2006"/>
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Hubungan antarkelompok di dalam Equisetopsida menurut salah satu versi ditunjukkan dengan kladogram berikut.<ref>{{cite web|title=Introduction to the Sphenophyta|url=http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/sphenophyta/sphenophyta.html|publisher=University of California Museum of Paleontology|accessdate=31 July 2011}}</ref>.
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