Wikipedia:Domain publik: Perbedaan revisi

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=== Karya Pemerintah Amerika Serikat ===
Karya pemerintah Amerika Serikat—definedSerikat—didefinisikan as anysebagai "workkarya preparedyang bydisediakan anoleh officerpegawai orpemerintahan employeeAmerika of the United States Government as part of thatSerikat person’sdalam officialmengemban dutiestugasnya"<ref>{{usc|17|101}}</ref> anddan includingtermasuk worksciptaan preparedyang bydibuat the governments of theoleh [[District ofDistrik Columbia]], [[Puerto RicoRiko]],<ref>{{cite web|title=Ley Núm. 55 de 2012 -Ley de Derechos Morales de Autor de Puerto Rico|url=http://www.lexjuris.com/LexLex/Leyes2012/lexl2012055.htm|website=LexJuris (Leyes y Jurisprudencia) de Puerto Rico|language=es|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201101061318/http://www.lexjuris.com/lexlex/leyes2012/lexl2012055.htm|archive-date=2020-11-01|access-date=2021-02-19|url-status=live}}</ref> anddan [[Unorganizedwilayah territory#Unitedtergabung States|USterselenggara organizedAmerika territoriesSerikat]]<ref name="Compendium313.6C1">{{cite web|date=December 22, 2014|title=Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office Practices, § 313.6(C)(1)|url=http://www.copyright.gov/comp3/docs/compendium.pdf#page=82|publisher=[[United States Copyright Office]]|page=36|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161208164533/https://www.copyright.gov/comp3/docs/compendium.pdf#page=82|archive-date=December 8, 2016|accessdate=November 8, 2016|url-status=live}}</ref>—are—tidak notdilindungi eligiblehak for copyright protectioncipta, althoughmeski thePemerintah federalFederal government candapat "receiv[e]mengalihkan anddan hold[]memegang copyrightshak transferredcipta tomelalui it by assignmentpenugasan, bequestpermohonan, ordan otherwiselain-lain".<ref name="17 USC 105">{{USC2|17|105|Subject matter of copyright: United States Government works}}</ref> ItTak isjelas notapakah clearaturan whetherini thisdapat appliesberlaku world-widedi seluruh dunia.<ref>See the [http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.html#317 CENDI Copyright FAQ list, 3.1.7] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090304232445/http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.html#317|date=2009-03-04}} and a discussion on that at the [http://blog.librarylaw.com/librarylaw/2004/09/copyright_in_go.html LibraryLaw Blog] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210219030351/https://blog.librarylaw.com/librarylaw/2004/09/copyright_in_go.html|date=2021-02-19}}</ref> TheBahkan USpemerintah governmentAS themselvesjuga statemenyatakan thatbahwa theykarya ini "maymasih assertdihakciptakan copyrightdi outsideluar ofAmerika the United States for U.S. government worksSerikat".<ref name="usgov">US Government: ''[http://www.usa.gov/copyright.shtml Copyright and Other Rights Pertaining to U.S. Government Works] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210219030426/https://www.usa.gov/government-works|date=2021-02-19}}'', retrieved 2010-10-14.</ref>
 
In practiceMaksudnya, thismateri-materi meansdari thatsitus ''much''web materialdengan ondomain <code>*.gov</code> anddan <code>*.mil</code>, asserta wellsebagian as material on somedari <code>*.us</code> web sites (such as the sites of themisalnya [[USJawatan ForestKehutanan ServiceAmerika Serikat]]), are in the publicjuga domain. Pleasepublik, note that nottetapi ''alltidak semua'' such material is in the public domain, thoughkarena:
 
* USPemerintah governmentaldapat webmenggunakan siteskarya maypihak uselain copyrightedyang works,berhak toocipta; either bymengikuti havingperizinan licensedtertentu thematau ordi underbawah aklaim "fairpenggunaan usewajar" provision. InUmumnya, general,karya suchberhak copyrightedcipta worksdalam onsitus web sitesPemerintah ofFederal thedan USlembaganya federalditandai governmentdengan andtulisan itsdi agencieskaki aresitus indicated by appropriate bylinesweb. An example areContohnya "visitor image galleries" ondi situs web [[NationalLayanan ParkTaman ServiceNasional|USJawatan NationalTaman ParkNasional ServiceAS]]. websites:Kecuali unlessada thesepenanda havebahwa somefoto indicationitu thatmemang the photographs are placed in the publicdinyatakan domain bypublik publishingdi themsitus onweb thatJawatan NPS webTaman siteNasional, thesefoto-foto imagesitu aredihakciptakan copyrightedoleh byfotografernya theirselaku photographers,pengunjung whoTaman are visitors of national parksNasional, not employeesbukan ofkaryawan thejawatan NPStersebut. AccordingMenurut totanya thejawab [[CENDI]] FAQ ondi "Frequently Asked Questions About Copyright", "CopyrightedKarya worksberhak thatcipta areyang nottidak owneddipegang byPemerintah thedapat Governmentdimasukkan shoulddalam be included on governmentsitus web sites only with permissionpemerintah ofhanya thedengan copyrightseizin ownerpemegang andhak shouldciptanya includeserta anmemberikan appropriatepernyataan copyrightyang noticesesuai."<ref>{{cite web|date=October 8, 2008|title=Frequently Asked Questions About Copyright, "3.1.9 Are Government websites provided copyright protection?"|url=http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.html#319|publisher=[[CENDI]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090304232445/http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.html#319|archive-date=March 4, 2009|accessdate=December 29, 2010|url-status=dead}}</ref>
* SomeBeberapa USpemerintah ''statenegara andbagian local''dan governmentsjuga alsopemerintah havedaerah dapat memiliki situs web sitesdengan indomain the <code>*.gov</code> domain. '''StatePemerintah anddaerah local governments'''dan usuallynegara bagian''do'' retainbiasanya amempertahankan copyrighthak oncipta theiratas workskarya-karyanya. 17 USC §105 onlyhanya placesmenyebut ''dokumen federal'' documentsyang indomain the public domainpublik.<ref name="state_pubs">Publications of US ''state'', district, county, or municipal agencies are eligible for copyright. Only works of ''federal'' agencies are exempt from copyright; see [http://library.findlaw.com/1999/Jan/1/241476.html Radcliffe & Brinson: ''Copyright Law''] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060621105337/http://library.findlaw.com/1999/Jan/1/241476.html|date=2006-06-21}}, or the [http://cendi.dtic.mil/publications/04-8copyright.html#30 CENDI Copyright FAQ list, 3.1.3].</ref> HoweverNamun, lawsundang-undang anddan/oratau courtputusan decisionsperadilan indi somenegara statesbagian maydapat placemenempatkan theirkarya workmereka in the publicke domain. Seepublik, for example,misalnya {{tl|PD-CAGov}} anddan {{tl|PD-FLGov}}.
* WorksCiptaan producedyang underdibuat aberdasarkan commissionkontrak fromdengan thepihak USketiga governmentdapat byberhak a contractor ''are'' most likely copyrightedcipta. ThisTermasuk typicallydokumen includesdari anylaboratorium documents from research labspenelitian. The [[Laboratorium Nasional Oak Ridge National Laboratory]], for instancemisalnya, isdijalankan operatedoleh by a contractor for thekontraktor [[USKementerian DepartmentEnergi ofAmerika EnergySerikat]], but that does not mean the works ittetapi producesdia arebukanlah "workskarya of the federal governmentpemerintah". ORNLKarya workslab ''are''tersebut berhak copyrightedcipta, anddan thepemerintah USmemberikan governmentlisensi isnoneksklusif granteduntuk amenggunakan non-exclusivemengumumkan license to usekembali, publish,atau and allow republicationmenerbitkan ofkembali suchkarya workstersebut. ThePernyataan preciseini termsbervariasi varyantara fromlab oneyang labsatu todengan theyang nextlain, but in generaltetapi, commercialpenggunaan re-usesecara ofkomersial theirsecara worksumum istidak prohibiteddiizinkan.<ref name="contractors">[http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.html#40 CENDI Copyright FAQ list, section 4.0] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090304232445/http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.html#40|date=2009-03-04}}, and [http://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#105 17 USC 105] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171225173213/https://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#105|date=2017-12-25}}.</ref> ThisBahkan alsoini appliesjuga toberlaku worksuntuk authoredkarya bykontraktor ''independent contractorsindependen'' oratau ''freelance writers or artistsfreelancer'', evenbahkan whenjika theirkarya workstersebut arehadir commissioneddi bysitus someweb USpemerintah government agencyfederal.<ref name="gorman_govt">Gorman, R.&nbsp;A.: ''[https://www.fjc.gov/sites/default/files/2012/Copyright.pdf Copyright Law, 2nd ed.] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171006065846/https://www.fjc.gov/sites/default/files/2012/Copyright.pdf|date=2017-10-06}}'', US [[Federal Judicial Center]], June 19, 2006, section "Government works" on pp.&nbsp;52&#x2013;54. URL last accessed 2018-10-20.</ref><ref>See [[Korean War Veterans Memorial#United States postage stamp court case]].</ref>
* EvenPemerintah theFederal USdapat federalmemegang governmenthak may hold copyrightscipta, ifjika thepemegang originalhak copyrightciptanya holdermengalihkannya assignske or transfers the copyright to the US governmentpemerintah. AContoh notableyang examplecukup ofterkenal thisadalah isbagian the obverse of themuka [[Dolar Sacagawea dollar]] coin,yang which its designerdidesain [[Glenna Goodacre]] claimedmasih copyrightmengklaim ofhak beforecipta shesebelum transferredia themengalihkannya design and copyright to theke [[United States Mint|Percetakan Uang Amerika Serikat]].<ref name="sacagawea">See "Intellectual Property Rights" in the US Mint website's privacy policy [http://www.usmint.gov/policy/index.cfm?action=TermsOfUse#rights] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070205051622/http://www.usmint.gov/policy/index.cfm?action=TermsOfUse#rights|date=2007-02-05}}.</ref> WhenBila alembaga USpemerintahan governmentAmerika agencySerikat holdsmemegang suchhak acipta transferredyang copyrightdialihkannya, itkarya maytersebut declaredapat thedilepas workke todomain be in the public domainpublik (oratau nottidak).<ref name="gorman_govt" />
 
UnderDalam USsistem law,hukum lawsAmerika themselvesSerikat, andundang-undang legaldan rulingsputusan alsomemainkan formperanan. aMahkamah specialAgung class.AS Thetelah USmemutuskan Supremebahwa Court''judicial hasopinion'' helddari thathakim judicialfederal opinionsdan ofnegara bothbagian federal andsebagai statesuatu judges—beinghukum akasus form oftidak casedilindungi law—cannothak be copyrightedcipta.<ref>See ''[[Wheaton v. Peters]]'' (1834)(opinions of US Supreme Court) and ''[[Banks v. Manchester]]'' (1888)(applying same principle to state judicial records).</ref> ItTak haspernah neverada addressedbahasan whetherbahwa copyrighthak cancipta bedapat claimedmelindungi inproduk-produk otherhukum forms of law, such asseperti [[Statute|statutesstatuta]], [[Code of lawUndang-undang|legalperaturan codesperundang-undangan]], oratau [[Municipalperaturan ordinance|municipal ordinancesdaerah]]. LowerPeradilan federaltingkat andrendah statejustru courtsmemiliki haveargumen variedberbeda onterkait whetherbentuk otherproduk-produk formshukum ofyang law,dihakciptakan beyondberdasarkan judicialputusan decisions, can be copyrightedperadilan.<ref>In ''[[Banks v. Manchester]]'', [[List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 128|128]] [[United States Reports|U.S.]] [https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/128/244 244] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181025064819/https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/128/244|date=2018-10-25}} (1888), the US Supreme Court cited a Massachusetts court's opinion in its reasoning that state court judicial opinions cannot be copyrighted: "The whole work done by the judges constitutes the authentic exposition and interpretation of the law, which, binding every citizen, is free for publication to all, whether it is a declaration of unwritten law, or an interpretation of a constitution or a statute." However, it ruled in a case later that year that a state-employed court reporter that compiled cases and law reports of the Illinois Supreme Court could copyright the portion of the compilations "which is the result of his intellectual labor", but reiterated its previous decisions that "there can be no copyright in the opinions of the judges of a court, or in the work done by them in their official capacity as judges." ''[[Callaghan v. Myers]]'', [[List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 128|128]] [[United States Reports|U.S.]] [https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/128/617/ 617] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181230080702/https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/128/617/|date=2018-12-30}} (1888). The US Supreme Court has not addressed the intersection of copyright protection for law since then. Lower courts have differed in deciding whether copyright can be claimed in works created by third parties and incorporated into state law/regulations or municipal ordinances (e.g. annotated codes, building codes). See ''[http://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201711589.pdf Code Revision Commission v. Public.Resource.Org, Inc.] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181019201033/http://media.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/pub/files/201711589.pdf|date=2018-10-19}}'', slip opinion at 13-26 (2018), ''Id''. at 19 (listing cases in various circuits).</ref><ref name="gorman_govt" /> TheKantor positionHak ofCipta theAmerika USSerikat Copyrightmenyatakan Officebahwa is that allsemua "edictsdokumen of governmentpemerintah", bothbaik domesticdomestik andmaupun foreignasing, cannottidak bedihakciptakan copyrighteddan andtak won'takan registerpernah suchsama workssekali mencatatkan ciptaan tersebut.<ref name="Compendium313.6C2">{{cite web|date=December 22, 2014|title=Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office Practices, § 313.6(C)(2) ("Government Edicts")|url=http://www.copyright.gov/comp3/docs/compendium.pdf#page=83|publisher=[[United States Copyright Office]]|page=37–38|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161208164533/https://www.copyright.gov/comp3/docs/compendium.pdf#page=83|archive-date=December 8, 2016|accessdate=November 8, 2016|quote=As a matter of longstanding public policy, the U.S. Copyright Office will not register a government edict that has been issued by any state, local, or territorial government, including legislative enactments, judicial decisions, administrative rulings, public ordinances, or similar types of official legal materials. Likewise, the Office will not register a government edict issued by any foreign government or any translation prepared by a government employee acting within the course of his or her official duties.... A work that does not constitute a government edict may be registered, even if it was prepared by an officer or employee of a state, local, territorial, or foreign government while acting within the course of his or her official duties.|url-status=dead}}</ref> SinceKarena copyrightpelindungan protectionhak iscipta automaticotomatis anddan doesn'ttidak requirememerlukan registrationpendaftaran withpada theKantor CopyrightHak OfficeCipta, theirkedudukannya positionmungkin maytidak notmengikat bedi authoritativepengadilan, insehingga astatus courthak ofcipta law,undang-undang so(termasuk theundang-undang copyrightyang statusmenyertakan oflampiran lawskarya (includingberhak lawscipta incorporatingoleh copyrightedpihak works by third-partiesketiga, e.g.misalnya buildingUU codesbangunan) remainstidak unclearjelas untilkecuali settledsudah bydiselesaikan theoleh USMahkamah SupremeAgung CourtAS.
 
The [[United States Copyright Office]], in itsDalam ''[[Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office Practices]]'', hasKantor statedHak itsCipta positionAS thatmenyatakan worksbahwa of thekarya [[US Postal Service|Jawatan Pos Amerika Serikat]] are ''not''bukanlah "workskarya of the U.S. governmentpemerintah" and thus ''are'' subject tosehingga copyrightdihakciptakan.<ref name="Compendium313.6C1" /> Works of theKarya [[UnitedJawatan StatesKantor PostPos OfficeAmerika Department]]Serikat|Departemen beforeKantor thePos formationAmerika ofSerikat]] thesebelum USdibentuknya PostalJawatan ServicePos aremasih stilldianggap consideredkarya governmentpemerintah worksdan andotomatis aredomain in the public domainpublik.{{fact|date=September 2014}}
 
Karya [[Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa]] dan lembaganya, serta [[Organisasi Negara-Negara Amerika|Organisasi Negara-negara Amerika]] juga berhak cipta. Namun beberapa dokumennya juga domain publik, lihat [[wikipedia:Domain_publik#Karya PBB|Karya PBB]].
Most other countries’ governments do hold copyrights, and their works are copyright protected. At the same time, many countries declare their edicts, as well as those of other countries, such as laws and court decisions, to be exempt from copyright. Such exemptions are typically narrowly defined and ''cannot'' be construed to mean “any publication by a government office”.
 
Works of the [[United Nations]] or its agencies or of the [[Organization of American States|OAS]] are subject to copyright.<ref name="Compendium313.6C2" /> Some UN documents ''are'' in the public domain; see [[wikipedia:Domain_publik#Works_of_the_United_Nations|Works of the United Nations]].
 
=== Karya pemerintah Indonesia ===
Di luar Amerika Serikat, pemerintah dapat memegang hak cipta atas karya pemerintah. Pada saat yang sama, banyak negara menyatakan bahwa peraturan perundang-undangan dan produk-produk hukum lainnya adalah bebas dari hak cipta. Pembebasannya seringkali berbeda tafsirannya, dan tidak selalu ditujukan kepada "setiap publikasi oleh lembaga pemerintahan”.
 
Indonesia menggunakan Pasal 42 dan 43 UU No. 28 Tahun 2014 untuk membebaskan setiap karya pemerintah. Pasal 42 menyatakan bahwa tidak ada hak cipta atas hasil rapat kerja lembaga pemerintahan, peraturan perundang-undangan (semua peraturan termasuk sampai di tingkat daerah), putusan atau proses peradilan, dan kitab suci atau simbol keagamaan. Namun tidak jelas bagaimana implementasi Pasal 43 atas karya yang dibuat selain yang disebutkan dalam pasal 42, karena makna dari "tidak ada hak cipta" dan "tidak dianggap sebagai pelanggaran hak cipta" itu sangat kelabu.
 
* §43(a) jelas menyatakan larangan modifikasi karena lambang "[[Lambang negara Indonesia|Garuda Pancasila]]" dan lagu kebangsaan "[[Indonesia Raya]]" diatur juga dalam UU Nomor 24 Tahun 2009 yang menyatakan secara eksplisit bahwa karya tersebut tidak boleh dimodifikasi untuk tujuan apa pun. Ditambah lagi, larangan komersialisasi lagu kebangsaan yang menimbulkan keambiguan (karena karya-karya [[Wage Rudolf Soepratman]] sudah domain publik dan hak ciptanya kini dipegang Negara Republik Indonesia).
* §43(b) tidak memberikan kejelasan atas modifikasi atau pembuatan turunan atas karya-karya yang memang dibuat pemerintah.
* §43(d) justru memberikan pembatasan yang sama sekali tidak ada hubungannya dengan hak cipta.
 
=== Karya yang tidak kreatif ===