Motilitas: Perbedaan revisi

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[[Berkas:Binucleated cell overlay.tiff|300px|jmpl|[[Sitokinesis|Pembelahan sel.]] Semua sel dapat dianggap motil karena dapat membelah menjadi dua sel anakan.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Clegg|first1=Chris|title=Edexcel biology for AS|url=https://archive.org/details/edexcelbiologyfo0000cleg|date=2008|publisher=Hodder Murray|location=London|isbn=978-0-340-96623-5|page=[https://archive.org/details/edexcelbiologyfo0000cleg/page/111 111]|edition=6th|chapter=3.2 Cells make organisms|quote=Division of the cytoplasm, known as cytokinesis, follows telophase. During division, cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts '''become distributed''' evenly between the cells. In animal cells, division is by '''in-tucking''' of the plasma membrane at the equator of the spindle, ''''pinching'''' the cytoplasm in half (Figure 3.15). In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus forms vesicles of new cell wall materials which '''collect along the line of the equator''' of the spindle, known as the cell plate. Here, the '''vesicles coalesce''' forming the new plasma membranes and cell walls between the two cells (Figure 3.17).}}</ref>]]
[[Berkas:Subcellular-and-supracellular-mechanical-stress-prescribes-cytoskeleton-behavior-in-Arabidopsis-elife01967v001.ogv|300px|jmpl|[[Sitoskeleton]] [[Eukariota|eukariotik]] menginduksi sel untuk bergerak melalui permukaan cair dan lebih, membelah menjadi sel-sel baru, dan sitoskeleton membimbing pengangkutan organel dalam sel. Video ini menunjukkan sitoskeleton yang diwarnai dari potongan melintang daun ''[[Arabidopsis thaliana]]''.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Alberts|first1=Bruce|last2=Johnson|first2=Alexander|last3=Lewis|first3=Juian|last4=Raff|first4=Martin|last5=Roberts|first5=Keith|last6=Walter|first6=Peter|title=Molecular biology of the cell|url=https://archive.org/details/molecularcellbio00lodi_484|date=2008|publisher=Garland Science|location=New York|isbn=0-8153-4106-7|page=[https://archive.org/details/molecularcellbio00lodi_484/page/n958 965]|edition=5th|chapter=16|quote="For cells to function properly, they must organize themselves in space and interact mechanically with their environment... Eucaryotic cells have developed... the cytoskeleton... pulls the chromosomes apart at mitosis and then splits the dividing cell into two... drives and guides intracellular traffic of organelles... enables cells such as sperm to swim and others, such as fibroblasts and white blood cells, to crawl across surfaces."}}</ref>]]
 
Motilitas adalah kemampuan suatu [[organisme]] untuk bergerak secara independen, menggunakan energi [[Metabolisme|metabolik]].<ref name="rupress">{{cite web|title=Motility|url=http://jcb.rupress.org/content/jcb/91/3/148s.full.pdf|accessdate=10 March 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Online Etymology Dictionary|url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=motility|quote="capacity of movement," 1827, from French motilité (1827), from Latin mot-, stem of movere "to move" (see move (v.)).}}</ref> Ini berbeda dengan mobilitas, yang menggambarkan kemampuan suatu objek untuk dipindahkan. Motilitas [[Determinisme genetik|ditentukan secara genetik]],<ref>{{cite book|last1=Nüsslein-Volhard|first1=Christiane|title=Coming to life: how genes drive development|date=2006|publisher=Kales Press|location=[San Diego, CA]|isbn=0979845602|page=75|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=n19wkrmFJhwC&pg=PA73&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false|chapter=6 Form and Form Changes|quote=During development, '''any change in cell shape is preceded by a change in gene activity'''. It is the cell's origin and environment that determine which transcription factors are active within a cell, and, hence, which genes are turned on, and which proteins are produced.}}</ref> tetapi mungkin dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan. Sebagai contoh, [[otot]] memberikan hewan motilitas tetapi konsumsi [[hidrogen sianida]] (faktor lingkungan dalam kasus ini) akan mempengaruhi [[fisiologi]] otot yang menyebabkan otot tersebut menjadi kaku dan pada akhir-nya mengarah ke [[Rigor mortis]].<ref>{{cite book|last1=Fullick|first1=Ann|title=Edexcel A2-level biology|date=2009|publisher=Pearson|location=Harlow|isbn=978-1-4082-0602-7|page=138|chapter=7.1|quote='''Cyanide is well known in murder''' mysteries - and has been used in real murders too. The poison acts on cytochrome oxidase in the electron transport chain, preventing the production of ATP. The cells of the body cannot function without their energy supply, so the '''muscles spasm and the victim cannot breathe'''.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Fullick|first1=Ann|title=Edexcel A2-level biology|date=2009|publisher=Pearson|location=Harlow|isbn=978-1-4082-0602-7|page=67|chapter=6.1|quote=As the muscles run out of ATP, the muscle fibres become permanently contracted and lock solid. '''This produces a stiffening effect which is known as rigor mortis.'''}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=E. Cooper|first1=Chris|last2=C. Brown|first2=Guy|title=The inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase by the gases carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide: chemical mechanism and physiological significance|journal=Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes|date=October 2008|volume=40|issue=5|pages=533–539|url=https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10863-008-9166-6|doi=10.1007/s10863-008-9166-6}}</ref> Selain [[lokomosi hewan]], kebanyakan [[hewan]] adalah motil (beberapa bergerak dengan [[Lokomosi hewan#Lokomosi pasif|lokomosi pasif]]) – istilah ini berlaku untuk [[bakteri]] dan [[mikroorganisme]] lainnya, dan untuk beberapa [[organisme multiseluler]], serta beberapa mekanisme aliran cairan di organ dan jaringan multiseluler. Hewan laut yang motil umumnya disebut sebagai hewan yang berenang bebas,<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Krohn|first1=Martha M.|last2=Boisdair|first2=Daniel|title=Use of a Stereo-video System to Estimate the Energy Expenditure of Free-swimming Fish|journal=Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences|date=May 1994|volume=51|issue=5|pages=1119–1127|doi=10.1139/f94-111|url=http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/f94-111#.VdyM27yqqko}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Cooke|first1=Steven J.|last2=Thorstad|first2=Eva B.|last3=Hinch|first3=Scott G.|title=Activity and energetics of free-swimming fish: insights from electromyogram telemetry|journal=Fish and Fisheries|date=March 2004 |volume=5|issue=1|pages=21–52|doi=10.1111/j.1467-2960.2004.00136.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-2960.2004.00136.x/abstract|quote=We encourage the continued development and refinement of devices for monitoring the activity and energetics of free-swimming fish}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Carey|first1=Francis G.|last2=Lawson|first2=Kenneth D.|title=Temperature regulation in free-swimming bluefin tuna|journal=Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A|date=February 1973|volume=44|issue=2|pages=375–392|doi=10.1016/0300-9629(73)90490-8|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0300962973904908|quote=Acoustic telemetry was used to monitor ambient water temperature and tissue temperature in free-swimming bluefin tuna (''Thunnus thynnus'' Linneaus {{sic}}, 1758) over periods ranging from a few hours to several days.}}</ref> dan organisme non-[[parasit]] yang motil disebut sebagai hewan yang hidup bebas.