Bahasa Tionghoa Baku: Perbedaan revisi

3 bita ditambahkan ,  3 bulan yang lalu
k
Ke istilah Tionghoa/Tiongkok sesuai dengan Keppres 12 tahun 2014.
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k (Ke istilah Tionghoa/Tiongkok sesuai dengan Keppres 12 tahun 2014.)
 
Dalam bahasa Inggris, pemerintah Tiongkok dan Hong Kong menggunakan '''Putonghua''',<ref name=CCGcon>Chinese Central Government Official Web Portal. "[http://english.gov.cn/2005-08/05/content_20813.htm Constitution] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130726154413/http://english.gov.cn/2005-08/05/content_20813.htm |date=2013-07-26 }}". 2012. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref><ref name=gov-hk>{{cite web|title=About Hong Kong|url=http://www.info.gov.hk/info/hkbrief/eng/ahk.htm|publisher=[[Government of Hong Kong]]|accessdate={{date|9 April 2013}}|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090226065201/http://www.info.gov.hk/info/hkbrief/eng/ahk.htm|archivedate={{date|Feb 26 2009}}| date=April 2007 }}</ref> '''Bahasa Tionghoa Putonghua''',<ref name=CCGlang>Chinese Central Government Official Web Portal. "[http://english.gov.cn/2006-02/08/content_182616.htm Spoken and Written Languages] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120501171455/http://english.gov.cn/2006-02/08/content_182616.htm |date=2012-05-01 }}". 2012. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref> '''Bahasa Tionghoa Mandarin''', dan '''Mandarin''',<ref>Chinese Central Government Official Web Portal. "[http://english.gov.cn/2011-01/21/content_1789560.htm State Councilor urges more efforts to popularize Chinese language] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131109074411/http://english.gov.cn/2011-01/21/content_1789560.htm |date=2013-11-09 }}". 21 January 2011. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref><ref>Chinese Central Government Official Web Portal. "[http://english.gov.cn/2005-08/16/content_23691.htm Languages] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130725061022/http://english.gov.cn/2005-08/16/content_23691.htm |date=2013-07-25 }}". 8 November 2012. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref><ref>Chinese Central Government Official Web Portal. "[http://english.gov.cn/2012-08/30/content_2214012.htm China-US relations pioneer praised in Beijing meeting] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131109071104/http://english.gov.cn/2012-08/30/content_2214012.htm |date=2013-11-09 }}". 30 August 2012. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref> sementara padanannya di Taiwan,<ref name=TWforaff>Taiwanese Government Entry Point. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "[http://www.taiwan.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=105400&ctNode=1918&mp=999 Languages]". 24 May 2013. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref><ref name=TWcult>Taiwan Culture Portal. Ministry of Culture. "[http://www.culture.tw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=592&Itemid=258 About Taiwan] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131101093601/http://www.culture.tw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=592&Itemid=258 |date=2013-11-01 }}". 2012. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref> Singapura,<ref>Ministry of Defense Singapore. PACC PAMS Singapore. "[http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/atozlistings/army/microsites/paccpams/abt_spore/spore-glance.html About Singapore]". 28 July 2011. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref><ref>Singapore Tourism Board. "[http://www.visitsingapore.com/travel-guide-tips/about-singapore/people-of-singapore/ Singapore Culture, Language, and People]". 2013. Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref> dan Malaysia,<ref>Official Portal of the Government of Malaysia. "[https://www.malaysia.gov.my/en/about-malaysia?subCatId=3208956&type=2&categoryId=3208945 About Malaysia: Language] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131109071044/https://www.malaysia.gov.my/en/about-malaysia?subCatId=3208956&type=2&categoryId=3208945 |date=2013-11-09 }}". Accessed 6 November 2013.</ref> menggunakan '''Mandarin'''.
 
Istilah ''Guoyu'' sebelumnya telah digunakan oleh penguasa non-Han di ChinaTiongkok untuk merujuk pada bahasa mereka, namau pada 1909 Kementerian Pendidikan Qing secara resmi menerapkannya pada [[Mandarin (lingua franca imperial akhir)|Mandarin]], suatu [[lingua franca]] berdasarkan [[Bahasa Mandarin|varietas bahasa Tionghoa utara]], menyatakannya sebagai "bahasa nasional" yang baru.{{sfnp|Norman|1988|pp=133–134}}
 
Istilah ''Putonghua'' juga memiliki sejarah panjang, meski tidak resmi. Ia digunakan paling awal pada 1906 dalam tulisan oleh [[Zhu Wenxiong]] untuk membedakan bahaasa Tionghoa modern dan standar dari [[bahasa Tionghoa Klasik]], dan [[bahasa Tionghoa lisan|varietas bahasa Tionghoa]] lainnya.
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