Pengguna:Agung.karjono/Bak pasir/Timbal(II) nitrat: Perbedaan revisi

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Belerang polikation, {{Chem|S|8|2+}}, {{Chem|S|4|2+}}, dan {{Chem|S|16|2+}} dihasilkan ketika belerang direaksikan dengan oksidator lemah dalam larutan asam kuat.<ref>Shriver, Atkins. Inorganic Chemistry, Fifth Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2010; pp 416</ref> Larutan berwarna yang dihasilkan dengan melarutkan belerang dalam {{Ill|asam sulfat pekat berasap|en|oleum}} pertama kali dilaporkan pada tahun 1804 oleh C.F. Bucholz, tetapi penyebab munculnya warna dan struktur polikation yang terlibat baru ditentukan pada akhir 1960-an. {{Chem|S|8|2+}} berwarna biru tua, {{Chem|S|4|2+}} kuning, dan {{Chem|S|16|2+}} merah.<ref name= "Greenwood"/>
 
[[Trisulfur|Anion radikal]] {{Chem|S|3|-}} menghasilkan warna biru mineral [[lapis lazuli]].[[File:S@CNT.jpg|thumb|TwoDua parallelrantai sulfurbelerang chainsparalel growntumbuh insidedi a single-walldalam [[carbontabung nanotubenano karbon]] (CNT,) berdinding tunggal (a). ZigRantai S di dalam CNT berdinding ganda zig-zag (b) anddan straightlurus (c) S chains inside double-wall CNTs.<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1038/ncomms3162|pmid=23851903|pmc=3717502|title=Conducting linear chains of sulphur inside carbon nanotubes|journal=Nature Communications|volume=4|pages=2162|year=2013|last1=Fujimori|first1=Toshihiko|last2=Morelos-Gómez|first2=Aarón|last3=Zhu|first3=Zhen|last4=Muramatsu|first4=Hiroyuki|last5=Futamura|first5=Ryusuke|last6=Urita|first6=Koki|last7=Terrones|first7=Mauricio|last8=Hayashi|first8=Takuya|last9=Endo|first9=Morinobu|last10=Young Hong|first10=Sang|last11=Chul Choi|first11=Young|last12=Tománek|first12=David|last13=Kaneko|first13=Katsumi|bibcode=2013NatCo...4.2162F}}</ref>]]
 
===SulfidesSulfida===
TreatmentPerlakuan ofbelerang sulfurdengan withhidrogen hydrogen givesmenghasilkan [[hydrogenhidrogen sulfidesulfida]]. WhenKetika dissolveddilarutkan indalam waterair, hydrogenhidrogen sulfidesulfida isbersifat mildlyasam acidiclemah:<ref name=Greenwd>Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. {{ISBN|0-7506-3365-4}}.</ref>
:H<subchem>2H2S </sub=>S {{eqm}} HS<sup>−</sup>- + H<sup>+</supchem>
 
Gas hidrogen sulfida dan anion hidrosulfida sangat beracun terhadap mamalia, karena mereka menghambat kapasitas angkut oksigen hemoglobin, dan [[sitokrom]] tertentu dengan cara yang serupa dengan [[sianida]] dan [[azida]] (lihat di bawah, pada bagian ''peringatan'').
Hydrogen sulfide gas and the hydrosulfide anion are extremely toxic to mammals, due to their inhibition of the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin and certain [[cytochrome]]s in a manner analogous to [[cyanide]] and [[azide]] (see below, under ''precautions'').
 
ReductionReduksi ofunsur elementalbelerang sulfurmenghasilkan gives [[{{Ill|polisulfida|en|polysulfide]]s}}, whichyang consistmengandung ofrantai chainsatom ofbelerang sulfuryang atomsditerminasi terminateddengan withpusat S<sup>−</sup> centers:
:<chem>2 Na + S<sub>8</subS8 -> → Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>8Na2S8</subchem>
This reaction highlights a distinctive property of sulfur: its ability to [[catenation|catenate]] (bind to itself by formation of chains). [[Protonation]] of these polysulfide anions produces the [[polysulfane]]s, H<sub>2</sub>S<sub>x</sub> where x= 2, 3, and 4.<ref>Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 421.</ref> Ultimately, reduction of sulfur produces sulfide salts:
:<chem>16 Na + S<subS8 ->8</sub> → 8 Na<sub>2Na2S</subchem>S
The interconversion of these species is exploited in the [[sodium-sulfur battery]].