Computer supported cooperative work: Perbedaan revisi

(←Membuat halaman berisi 'Istilah '''Computer Supported Cooperative Work''' ('''CSCW''') pertama kali digunakan oleh Irene Greif dan Paul M. Cashman pada tahun 1984, pada sebuah workshop yang ...')
{{cquote|CSCW [is] a generic term, which combines the understanding of the way people work in groups with the enabling technologies of computer networking, and associated [[hardware]], [[software]], services and techniques.}}
==Central concerns of CSCW==
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is a design-oriented academic field bringing together social psychologists, sociologists, and computer scientists, among others. Despite the variety of disciplines, CSCW is an identifiable research field focused on understanding characteristics of interdependent group work with the objective of designing adequate computer-based technology to support such cooperative work.
Over the years, CSCW researchers have identified a number of core dimensions of cooperative work. A non-exhaustive list includes:
* ''Awareness'': individuals working together need to be able to gain some level of shared knowledge about each other's activities<ref name=dourish92>{{cite conference
| author = Dourish, P.
| coauthors = Bellotti, V.
| year = 1992
| pages = 107-114
| booktitle = Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work
| title = Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces
| publisher = ACM Press New York, NY, USA
* ''Articulation work'': cooperating individuals must somehow be able to partition work into units, divide it amongst themselves and, after the work is performed, reintegrate it<ref name=schmidt92>{{cite journal
| author = Schmidt, K.
| coauthors = Bannon, L.
| year = 1992
| title = Taking CSCW seriously
| journal = Computer Supported Cooperative Work
| number = 1
| volume = 1
| pages = 7–40
| doi = 10.1007/BF00752449
}}</ref><ref name=strauss85>{{cite journal
| author = Strauss, A.
| year = 1985
| title = Work and the Division of Labor
| journal = The Sociological Quarterly
| number = 1
| volume = 26
| pages = 1–19
| doi = 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1985.tb00212.x
* ''Appropriation'' (or tailorability): how an individual or group adapts a technology to their own particular situation; the technology may appropriated in a manner completely unintended by the designers<ref name=mackay90>{{cite conference
| author = MacKay, W.E.
| year = 1990
| title = Patterns of sharing customizable software
| conference =
| booktitle = Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work
| pages = 209-221
| publisher = ACM Press New York, NY, USA
| url =
| conferenceurl =
}}</ref><ref name=dourish03>{{cite journal
| author = Dourish, P.
| title = The Appropriation of Interactive Technologies: Some Lessons from Placeless Documents
| journal = Computer Supported Cooperative Work
| volume = 12
| number = 4
| year = 2003
| pages = 465–490
| publisher = Kluwer Academic Publishers
| address = Norwell, MA, USA
| doi = 10.1023/A:1026149119426
}}</ref><ref name=schmidt91>{{cite journal
| author = Schmidt, K.
| title = Computer Support for Cooperative Work in Advanced Manufacturing
| journal = International Journal of Human Factors in Manufacturing
| volume = 1
| number = 4
| year = 1991
| pages = 303–320
| doi = 10.1002/hfm.4530010402
These concepts have largely been derived through the analysis of systems designed by researchers in the CSCW community, or through studies of existing systems (for example, Wikipedia). CSCW researchers that design and build systems try to address core concepts in novel ways. However, the complexity of the domain makes it difficult to produce conclusive results; the success of CSCW systems are often so contingent on the peculiarities of the social context that it is hard to generalize. Consequently, CSCW systems that are based on the design of successful ones may fail to be appropriated in other seemingly similar contexts for a variety of reasons that are nearly impossible to identify ''a priori'' <ref name=grudin88>{{cite conference
| author = Grudin, J.
| year = 1988
| title = Why CSCW applications fail: problems in the design and evaluation of organization of organizational interfaces
| booktitle = Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work
| pages = 85-93
| publisher = ACM Press New York, NY, USA
}}</ref>. CSCW researcher [[Mark Ackerman]] calls this "divide between what we know we must support socially and what we can support technically" the socio-technical gap and describes CSCW's main research agenda to be "exploring, understanding, and hopefully ameliorating" this gap <ref name=Ackerman00>{{cite journal
| author = "Ackerman, M."
| title = The Intellectual Challenge of CSCW: The gap between social requirements and technical feasibility
| year = 2000
| journal = Human-Computer Interaction
| volume = 15
| pages = 179–203
| doi = 10.1207/S15327051HCI1523_5
This whole section is very strange and, at points, not true, so I've commented it out and tried to represent its main points in the re-write above. --[[User:Leafman]]
Within a single organization one can distinguish several types of co-operative works. These types correspond to the design of different kind of systems and tools. The first type of co-operation is co-ordination: action of individuals gives meaning to the action of others and the others’ actions contribute to an individual action to achieve a final outcome. Co-ordination needs synchronization of persons, actions and the consistency of the individual actions with respect to the whole process. Another kind of co-operation is collaboration: is a process where individuals work together in the execution of a certain action to produce a final product. At the end of the process the single contribution cannot be isolated anymore because the final result is the sum of all the individual contribution. In collaboration processes common understanding of the objectives and shared knowledge are fundamental. The third type is co-decision: people contribute to take a joint decision. In co-decision context’s status consideration are relevant: all the participants may have the same qualification and position in the decision process or may give contributions on the basis of their specific role. Credibility, shared knowledge and common understanding are critical factors in these contexts as well. Of course, combinations of these co-operative processes might be needed to accomplish a task, involving a greater or lesser degree of shared knowledge or synchronization.
During the last decade, the public and private sectors have invested in CSCW tools. Many of these implementations have been very successful, but some of them have been the opposite, even if the firms have been almost identical in structure and organization. Again one could identify several factors that make CSCW a success in one firm, but could lead to failure in other.
As mentioned there could be many reasons for CSCW to fail and stopping it for living up to its name, however at least there are three main causes: 1) the disparity of those who do the job and those who get the benefits; 2) the lack of management intuition for CSCW applications; 3) the extreme difficulty of evaluating these applications. Beyond this one can see several other critical factors that may fail the very nature of CSCW applications. Some of these are social reasons which again are an interesting factor for psychologists, awareness reasons which may be of interest for sociologists, functionality of the application which may interest technologists etc.
Traditionally CSCW applications have been expensive and locked into a firm’s intranet or extranet. Many modern CSCW applications have moved onto the internet for several reasons. Firstly, the internet is a medium which is accessible anywhere at anytime. This makes it easier for people to communicate, coordinate and do collaborative tasks independent of global boundaries. Nevertheless, the internet gives an enormous opportunity for new vendors of CSCW applications to market and make people use their free trial versions. Due to security risks, many companies choose to use intranet solutions instead of internet application.
==CSCW Matrix==