Agnostisisme: Perbedaan antara revisi

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'''Agnostisisme''' adalah oke suatu pandangan bahwa ada atau tidaknya [[Tuhan]] atau hal-hal [[supranatural]] adalah suatu yang tidak diketahui atau tidak dapat diketahui.<ref name="Hepburn">{{cite encyclopedia |title=Agnosticism |first=Ronald W. |last=Hepburn |publisher=MacMillan Reference USA (Gale) |editor=Donald M. Borchert |origyear=1967 |year=2005 |edition=2nd |encyclopedia=[[Encyclopedia of Philosophy|The Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] |volume=1 |page=92 |isbn=0-02-865780-2 |quote=In the most general use of the term, agnosticism is the view that we do not know whether there is a God or not.}} (halaman 56 dalam edisi 1967)</ref><ref name="RoweRoutledge">{{cite encyclopedia |url= |title=Agnosticism |first=William L. |last=Rowe |authorlink=William L. Rowe |encyclopedia=[[Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] |isbn=978-0-415-07310-3 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |year=1998 |editor=Edward Craig |quote=In the popular sense, an agnostic is someone who neither believes nor disbelieves in God, whereas an atheist disbelieves in God. In the strict sense, however, agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God exists or the belief that God does not exist. In so far as one holds that our beliefs are rational only if they are sufficiently supported by human reason, the person who accepts the philosophical position of agnosticism will hold that neither the belief that God exists nor the belief that God does not exist is rational.}}</ref><ref>{{cite dictionary |dictionary=OED Online, 3rd ed. |entry=agnostic, agnosticism |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=September 2012 <!--|accessdate=July 22, 2013--> |quote='''agnostic'''. : '''A'''. n[oun]. :# A person who believes that nothing is known or can be known of immaterial things, especially of the existence or nature of God. :# In extended use: a person who is not persuaded by or committed to a particular point of view; a sceptic. Also: person of indeterminate ideology or conviction; an equivocator. : '''B.''' adj[ective]. :# Of or relating to the belief that the existence of anything beyond and behind material phenomena is unknown and (as far as can be judged) unknowable. Also: holding this belief. :# a. In extended use: not committed to or persuaded by a particular point of view; sceptical. Also: politically or ideologically unaligned; non-partisan, equivocal. '''agnosticism''' n. The doctrine or tenets of agnostics with regard to the existence of anything beyond and behind material phenomena or to knowledge of a First Cause or God.}}</ref> Definisi lain yang diberikan adalah pandangan bahwa "alasan yang dimiliki manusia tidak mampu memberikan dasar rasional yang cukup untuk membenarkan keyakinan bahwa Tuhan itu ada atau keyakinan bahwa Tuhan itu tidak ada.<ref name="RoweRoutledge"/>
Seorang ahli [[biologi]] [[Inggris]], [[Thomas Henry Huxley]] mencetuskan kata ''agnostic'' pada tahun 1869, dengan mengatakan bahwa "secara sederhana ini memiliki makna bahwa seseorang tidak sepatutnya mengatakan kalau dirinya tahu atau percaya pada sesuatu yang mana dirinya tidak memiliki dasar ilmiah untuk mengaku tahu atau percaya." Beberapa pemikir sebelumnya telah menulis karya-karya yang isinya mengangkat cara pandang agnostik, beberapa diantaranya adalah [[Sanjaya Belatthaputta]], seorang filsuf India dari abad ke 5 [[Sebelum Masehi|SM]], yang mengungkapkan agnostisisme akan kehidupan setelah mati.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Samaññaphala Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Life |others=a part of the Digha Nikaya translated in 1997 by Thanissaro Bhikkhu |quote=If you ask me if there exists another world (after death),&nbsp;... I don't think so. I don't think in that way. I don't think otherwise. I don't think not. I don't think not not. |archiveurl= |archivedate=February 9, 2014 |deadurl=no |df=mdy }}</ref><ref name="Bhaskar 1972">Bhaskar (1972).</ref><ref name="Ridgeon2003">{{cite book |author=Lloyd Ridgeon |title=Major World Religions: From Their Origins To The Present |url= |date=March 13, 2003 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |isbn=978-0-203-42313-4 |pages=63–}}</ref> dan [[Protagoras]], seorang filsuf Yunani abad 5 [[SM]], yang mengungkapkan agnostisisme terhadap keberadaan "Tuhan-Tuhan".<ref name="Protagoras">{{cite encyclopedia|url= |title=The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy&nbsp;– Protagoras (c. 490&nbsp;– c. 420 BCE) |accessdate=July 22, 2013 |archiveurl= |archivedate=February 2, 2014 |quote=While the pious might wish to look to the gods to provide absolute moral guidance in the relativistic universe of the Sophistic Enlightenment, that certainty also was cast into doubt by philosophic and sophistic thinkers, who pointed out the absurdity and immorality of the conventional epic accounts of the gods. Protagoras' prose treatise about the gods began "Concerning the gods, I have no means of knowing whether they exist or not or of what sort they may be. Many things prevent knowledge including the obscurity of the subject and the brevity of human life." |deadurl=no |df=mdy }}</ref><ref name="patri">{{cite web|url= |title=Progress of Atheism in India: A Historical Perspective |publisher=Atheist Centre 1940–1990 Golden Jubilee |date=February 1990 |accessdate=June 29, 2014 |author=Patri, Umesh and Prativa Devi |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 29, 2014 |deadurl=yes |df=mdy }}</ref><ref name="Treharne2012">{{cite book |author=Trevor Treharne |title=How to Prove God Does Not Exist: The Complete Guide to Validating Atheism |url= |year=2012 |publisher=Universal-Publishers |isbn=978-1-61233-118-8 |pages=34 ff.}}</ref><ref name="Schwab2012">{{cite book |author=Helmut Schwab |title=Essential Writings: A Journey Through Time: A Modern "De Rerum Natura" |url= |date=December 10, 2012 |publisher=iUniverse |isbn=978-1-4759-6026-6 |pages=77 ff.}}</ref>