Gollum: Perbedaan revisi

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image_character = [[Berkas:Gollum by saulone.jpg|150px]]|
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character_name = Gollum |
'''Gollum''' merupakan seorang karakter hobbit fiksi dalam [[legendarium]] [[J. R. R. Tolkien]]. Ia pertama kali diperkenalkan dalam buku [[The Hobbit]], dan kemudian menjadi karakter penting dalam ketiga buku [[The Lord of the Rings]]. {{clear}}
 
==Referensi==
<!-- ==Character overview==
 
Originally known as '''Sméagol''', this character was later named ''Gollum'' after the noise of his grotesque, guttural, choking, cough. His life was extended far beyond its natural limits by the effects of possessing the [[One Ring]]. His one desire was to possess the Ring which had enslaved him. He pursued the ring for 76 years after having lost it to [[Bilbo Baggins]].
 
During his centuries under the Ring's influence, he developed a sort of [[Dissociative identity disorder|split personality]]: "Sméagol" still vaguely remembered things like friendship and love, while "Gollum" was a slave to the Ring and would kill anyone who tried to take it. In ''[[The Two Towers]]'', [[Samwise Gamgee]] named the good personality "Slinker" (for his fawning, eager-to-please demeanour), and the bad personality "Stinker" (for obvious reasons). The two personalities often quarrelled when Gollum talked to himself (as the Narrator put it in ''The Hobbit'', "through never having anyone else to speak to") and Gandalf claimed he both loved and hated himself.
 
== Appearances ==
 
===The Hobbit===
 
Gollum is first introduced in ''The Hobbit'', where the protagonist [[Bilbo Baggins]] stumbled upon Gollum's lair and found the Ring which Gollum had lost in the network of caves leading to the lake.
 
Gollum had lived under the Misty Mountains for many years, living on a small island in the centre of a lake at the roots of a mountain. He survived on cave fish, which he caught from his small boat, and small [[Orc (Middle-earth)|goblins]] who strayed too far from the stronghold of the [[Great Goblin]]. Over the years, his eyes adapted to the dark and became 'lamp-like', shining with a sickly pale light in the dark.
 
After the famous [[Riddle#Riddle Game|Riddle Game]], he pretended to want to show Bilbo the way out as promised, but actually desired to kill and eat the Hobbit. When he went to get his "birthday present", he found it was gone. He suddenly realized the answer to Bilbo's last riddle — ''"What have I got in my pocket?"'' — and flew into a rage. Bilbo inadvertently discovered the Ring's power of invisibility as he fled, allowing him to follow Gollum undetected to a back entrance of the cave system. As Bilbo escaped, Gollum cried out, ''"Thief! Thief, Baggins! We hates it, we hates it, we hates it forever!"''
 
In the first edition of ''The Hobbit'', Gollum did not appear quite as wretched or murderous, and indeed showed Bilbo the way out after losing the riddle-game. Tolkien changed his characterization in the Second edition, to fit the concept of the ruling Ring which he had developed during the writing of ''The Lord of the Rings''. Tolkien then explained that the version given in the first edition was a lie that Bilbo made up to tell the [[Dwarf (Middle-earth)|Dwarves]] and Gandalf.
 
===The Lord of the Rings===
====The Fellowship of the Ring====
''[[The Fellowship of the Ring]]'', the first volume of ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', introduces the idea that Gollum had once been a member of the secluded branch of the early [[Stoor]]ish [[Hobbit]]s and had been named Sméagol. The early years of Gollums life with his extended family under a [[matriarch]], his grandmother.<ref>{{ME-ref|letters|#214}}</ref> On Sméagol's birthday, he and his relative<ref>{{ME-ref|letters|#214}}</ref> [[Déagol]] went fishing in the [[Gladden Fields]] north of [[Lothlórien]]. There, Déagol found the Ring after being pulled into the water by a fish. Sméagol demanded it as a birthday present and strangled Déagol when the latter refused him. Sméagol accordingly used the Ring for thieving, spying and antagonizing his friends and relatives. He was soon given the name 'Gollum' and banished by his people, then under the influence of the Ring, retreated to a deep cavern in the [[Misty Mountains]].<ref>{{ME-ref|FotR|p. 234}}</ref> The Ring's malign influence twisted his body and mind, and prolonged his life well beyond its natural limits.
 
Gandalf explains that after the events in ''The Hobbit'' Gollum left the Mountains and pursued Bilbo a few years later, but the trail was cold. He made his way to the edge of [[Mordor]], where he met the monstrous [[spider]] [[Shelob]] and became her spy, worshipping her and bringing her food. He was eventually captured by Sauron's forces and [[torture]]d, but he revealed only the words 'Baggins' and 'Shire'. His testimony alerted the [[Dark Lord]] of Mordor to the existence and significance of Hobbits in general and the Baggins family in particular. He was freed, but was soon caught by Gandalf and [[Aragorn]], who interrogated him about the Ring and placed him in the care of the [[Wood Elves]] of [[Mirkwood]]. He escaped custody and descended into [[Moria (Middle-earth)|Moria]], possibly trying to get through the mountains to the Shire.
 
Gollum began quietly following the [[Fellowship of the Ring (characters)|Fellowship of the Ring]] in Moria, and was spotted or heard by [[Frodo Baggins]] (nephew and heir of the hated Bilbo, as well as the Bearer of the Ring) and Gandalf on several occasions. Gollum continued trailing the Fellowship to the edge of [[Lórien]]. Gollum began following them again as they left and followed them all the way to [[Rauros]], then pursued Frodo and Sam across the [[Emyn Muil]] when they struck out on their own towards Mordor.
 
====The Two Towers====
In ''The Two Towers'', Gollum confronted them in Emyn Muil and nearly strangled Sam, but Frodo subdued him with his Elvish sword, [[Sting (Middle-earth)|Sting]]. Frodo tied an Elvish rope around Gollum's ankle as a leash, but the mere touch of the rope pained him. Taking pity on the wretched creature, just as Bilbo once did, Frodo made Gollum swear to help them. Agreeing to the oath, Gollum swore by the "precious" itself, and Frodo released him. The unlikely company, guided by Gollum, made their way to the [[Black Gate (Middle-earth)|Black Gate]], the main entrance to Mordor.
 
Frodo's kindness brought out (or strengthened) the "Sméagol" personality, and he made at least some effort to keep his promise. Sam, however, despised Gollum upon sight, and often warned Frodo of the creature's deception and slipperiness.
 
When they reached the Black Gate and found it well-guarded, Gollum led them toward an alternate entrance into Mordor. Along the way, Frodo and Sam were seized by [[Faramir]] — Gollum slipped away uncaught (but not unseen) and followed them. When Frodo allowed Faramir to briefly take Gollum prisoner, however, Gollum felt betrayed and his "bad" personality took control once again. Faramir found out that Gollum was taking them to [[Cirith Ungol]], and warned Frodo and Sam of the evil of that place, as well as the basic treachery he sensed in Gollum.
 
Frodo, Sam, and Gollum left Faramir and began climbing the stairs to Cirith Ungol in the border-mountains of the [[Ephel Dúath]]. Gollum slipped away and visited the giant spider Shelob, planning to feed the Hobbits to her and then get the Ring for himself when she was done. When he returned, the Hobbits were asleep, and the sight of Frodo sleeping nearly moved Gollum to repent. However, Sam woke up and spoke harshly to him, and the opportunity for redemption was lost. Gollum followed through with his plan and led Frodo and Sam into [[Torech Ungol|Shelob's Lair]]. There, Frodo was bitten by the spider, taken prisoner by Orcs, and hauled to the Tower of Cirith Ungol.
 
====The Return of the King====
In ''[[The Return of the King]]'', Sam rescued Frodo and they made their way across Mordor. The two finally arrived, against all odds, at the volcano [[Orodruin]], or Mount Doom. Gollum secretly followed them all the way, seeking a chance to surprise them and take the Ring. When Frodo and Sam had almost reached their destination, the emaciated Gollum attacked them, but Frodo threw him down. Frodo then used the Ring to lay a curse on Gollum; that Gollum would be thrown into the fires of Mount Doom if he ever touched Frodo again. Sam faced Gollum on his own, letting Frodo continue up the mountain to finish their mission. Sam could not bring himself to kill him, out of pity and sheer disgust. He then turned his back on the beaten (but still wily) creature and followed Frodo.
 
Moments later, Frodo stood on the edge of the [[Orodruin|Crack of Doom]], but was unwilling to destroy the Ring, claiming it for himself and putting it on. Gollum struck again, and struggled with the invisible Frodo. Finally, Gollum bit off Frodo's finger and seized the Ring. He gloated over his prize, dancing madly over the edge. However the Ring's curse was true and Gollum stepped too far and fell into the fires of Mount Doom, taking the Ring with him with a last cry of "''Precious!''" Thus, the Ring was destroyed and Sauron utterly defeated.
 
====The Appendices====
The appendices of ''The Lord of the Rings'' explain that Gollum had lived for nearly 600 years.
 
== Adaptations ==
===Film===
[[Berkas:gollum3.jpg|thumb|100px|Gollum ([[Brother Theodore]]) in the ''[[The Hobbit (film)|The Hobbit]]'' (1977).]]
[[Berkas:BakshiGollum.JPG||thumb|100px|Gollum ([[Peter Woodthorpe]]) in ''[[The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)|The Lord of the Rings]]'' (1978).]]
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<div class="thumbcaption">Gollum/Sméagol ([[Andy Serkis]]) in the [[The Lord of the Rings film trilogy|''The Lord of the Rings'' film trilogy]] (2001-03).</div>
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In the [[Rankin/Bass]] animated versions of ''[[The Hobbit]]'' (1977) and ''[[The Return of the King]]'' (1980), Gollum is voiced by comedian [[Brother Theodore|"Brother" Theodore Gottlieb]].
 
In [[Ralph Bakshi]]'s animated film of ''[[The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)|The Lord of the Rings]]'' (1978) the voice of Gollum was supplied by [[Peter Woodthorpe]]. Here Gollum was animated through [[rotoscoping]].
 
In [[Peter Jackson]]'s [[The Lord of the Rings film trilogy|''Lord of the Rings'' film trilogy]], Gollum is a [[Computer generated imagery|CGI]] character voiced by actor [[Andy Serkis]]. Barely glimpsed in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (film)|The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'' (2001), he becomes a central character in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (film)|The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers]]'' (2002) and ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (film)|The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'' (2003). The CGI character was built around Serkis' facial features, voice and acting choices. Andy Serkis based his voice on sounds made by his cat.<ref>Serkis, Andy (2003), Gollum: how we made movie magic, London: Harper Collins, pg 4, ISBN 0-618-39104-5</ref> Using a digital puppet created by [[Jason Schleifer]] and [[Bay Raitt]] at [[Weta Digital]], animators created Gollum's performance using a mixture of [[motion capture]] data recorded from Serkis and the traditional animation process of [[keyframing]]. The laborious process of digitally "painting out" Serkis' image and replacing it with the digital Gollum's required a large number of digital artists.
 
In ''The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King'', Serkis himself appears in a [[flashback (literary technique)|flashback]] scene as Sméagol before his degeneration into Gollum. This scene was originally earmarked for ''The Two Towers'', but was held back because it was felt audiences would relate better to the original Sméagol once they were more familiar with who he became. The decision to include this scene meant that Raitt and Jamie Beswarick had to redesign Gollum's face for the second and third movies so that it would more closely resemble Serkis'. The brief glimpses in ''The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' are of an earlier model of Gollum.
 
Gollum's split personality is emphasized in Jackson's films; screenwriters [[Fran Walsh]] and [[Philippa Boyens]] included scenes in ''The Two Towers'' and ''The Return of the King'' in which "Gollum" and "Sméagol" argue, with Serkis slightly altering his voice and body language to play the two as separate entities. While Tolkien wrote similar scenes, the conflict between the two personalities is more intense in the films; "Sméagol" even "banishes" "Gollum" for a while after Frodo shows him kindness. The animators further delineated the two personalities through facial expressions and changing eyes — small, narrow [[pupil]]s for "Gollum", and large, round ones for "Sméagol".
 
A minor controversy arose when Serkis was not nominated for an [[Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor]]. Serkis and Gollum appeared on the 2003 [[MTV Movie Awards]], when Gollum won "Best Virtual Performance" and went on to deliver an obscenity-laden acceptance speech in character.<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0364913/quotes Quotes from the 2003 [[MTV Movie Awards]] - Internet Movie Database]</ref> This clip can be found as an [[easter egg (media)|easter egg]] in the ''The Two Towers'' [[DVD]]. [[Wizard (magazine)|''Wizard Magazine'']] rated Jackson's Gollum as the 62nd greatest villain of all time, from among 100 villains from film, television, comics and video games.<ref>''Wizard'' #177</ref>
These film adaptations have varied in how they depicted Gollum visually. In Bakshi's film, Gollum is dark, bald and gangly. The Jackson films depicted Gollum similarly, though pale. In contrast, in the Rankin/Bass adaptations, he is a pale green, frog-like creature with huge, pupil-less eyes.
 
===Stage===
[[Berkas:Gollum_pic_CSC.jpg|thumb|100px|Gollum ([[Aretta Baumgartner]]) in the Cincinnati production of ''[[The Lord of the Rings (musical)|The Lord of the Rings]]'' (2002).]]
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In [[Canada]], Gollum was portrayed by [[Michael Therriault]] in the three-hour production of ''The Lord of the Rings'', which opened in 2006 in [[Toronto]].
 
In the United States, Gollum was portrayed by [[Aretta Baumgartner]] in the [[Cincinnati]] productions of ''The Fellowship of the Ring'' (2001), ''The Two Towers'' (2002), and ''The Return of the King'' (2003) for [[Clear Stage Cincinnati]]. Baumgartner received a 2002 Cincinnati Entertainment Award for her portrayal of Gollum in ''The Two Towers''. At [[Chicago]]'s [[Lifeline Theatre]], Gollum was played by [[Phil Timberlake]] in ''The Two Towers'' (1999) and [[Robert Kauzlaric]] in ''The Return of the King'' (2001).
 
===Radio===
In [[BBC]]'s 1981 [[The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series)|radio serial]], Peter Woodthorpe reprised his role as Gollum.
 
===Comics===
Gollum appears in a three-part comic book adaptation of ''The Hobbit'', scripted by Chuck Dixon and Sean Deming and illustrated by David Wenzel. It was first published by [[Eclipse Comics]] in 1989. A reprint collected in one volume was released by [[Del Rey Books]] in 2001.
 
==In other media==
 
In [[Sierra Entertainment]]'s ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring]]'', a [[real-time strategy game]] based solely on the book, Gollum is a playable hero unit for the Minions of Sauron. [[Legolas]] and a guard of archers track him through Mirkwood, fighting giant spiders along the way.
 
In ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'' video game by [[Surreal Software]], also based only on the book, Gollum appears in a cutscene when the Fellowship of the Ring is within Moria, and is shown half hidden behind debris muttering to himself. He also appears during the final level at [[Amon Hen]]; when the user is playing as Aragorn, Gollum appears on a cliff edge muttering to himself and walks away, and then does the same on another cliff edge. Then the player heads to a small island and a cutscene can be shown with a conversation between Aragorn and Gollum, in which Gollum throws a fish at him; it becomes his weapon for the final mission, as well as the most powerful weapon in the game.
He also appears in [[Electronic Arts]]' games based on the Jackson films. In the real-time strategy game ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth]]'', Gollum is a playable hero unit for Mordor. In its sequel, ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II]]'', which is also based on the book, he is not playable. Instead, he walks around the map cloaked, carrying the Ring. When killed, he drops the Ring for a player to claim. When the Ring is returned to the player's fortress, they may summon a special "Ring Hero" — [[Galadriel]] for good factions and Sauron for evil. He also appears in the action game based on ''The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King'', accompanying Frodo and the player as the game progresses, but at Mount Doom becomes the final boss, whom the player must throw into the lava below. In the Game Boy version of ''The Return of the King'' he is a playable bonus character.
 
==Physical appearance==
 
In the first edition of ''The Hobbit'' Tolkien made no reference to his size, leading several illustrators to portray him as being very large.<ref>Anderson, Douglas ''The Annotated Hobbit'', "Riddles in the Dark".</ref> Tolkien realized the omission, and clarified in later editions that he was of average hobbit size and in "The Lord of the Rings", there is a reference to Sam being "little less in height" than him.
 
Tolkien describes Gollum as either dark, bone-white or sallow (pale yellow). In a manuscript written to guide illustrators to the appearance of his characters, Tolkien explained this by saying that Gollum had pale skin, but wore dark clothes and was often seen in poor light.<ref>{{ME-ref|RC|pg 447}}</ref> ''The Hobbit'' states he has pockets, in which he keeps a tooth-sharpening-rock, [[Orc (Middle-earth)|goblin]] teeth, wet shells, and a scrap of bat wing. Despite these details, he is generally depicted wearing a loincloth or naked in illustrations and adaptations.
 
He was also very thin and only had six teeth,<ref>"Teeth! teeth! my preciousss; but we has only six!" {{ME-ref|hobbit||"Riddles in the Dark"}}</ref> Comparing him to Shelob, Tolkien writes he is "rather like a spider himself, or perhaps like a starved frog."
 
==Characteristics==
 
Bearing the One Ring increases Gollum's senses, especially hearing and smell.{{Fact|date=January 2008}} Gollum's toughness is said to stem from his hobbit roots. Gollum hates sunlight, and avoids it if possible. He is emaciated and gaunt, but possesses a vicious, wiry strength; Aragorn states "his malice gives him a strength hardly to be imagined." In ''The Two Towers'', Gollum's grip is described as "soft, but horribly strong" as Gollum wrestles with Sam Gamgee. He is an expert swimmer after centuries of diving to catch fish.{{Fact|date=January 2008}} Gollum prefers to eat meat raw. He refuses to eat anything Elvish because it apparently burns him when he touches it. He is also not above cannibalism, threatening to kill and eat Bilbo in ''The Hobbit''.
 
==Name==
Sméagol's "real" name in [[Westron]] (one of Tolkien's invented languages) is ''Trahald'', of the meaning "burrowing, worming in" or "apt to creep into a hole". In both Westron and Old English, Sméagol's name is related to [[Smaug]]'s: Smaug's name in "true Dalish" was ''Trâgu'', and the Trah- stem in Trahald and Trâgu is thus a [[cognate]] of the [[Germanic languages|Germanic]] stem present in both Sméagol and Smaug (with a meaning of squeezing through a hole). Tolkien gave the Old English word '''''smygel''''', "burrow" as a basis for the name; the word is also related to the Hobbit-language word ''smial'', which also means "burrow".
 
=== Pronunciation ===
In the 1981 [[BBC]] [[radio]] adaptation, Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film and in the Peter Jackson movies, ''Sméagol'' is {{pronEng|ˈsmiːgɒl}}, although his recordings of ''The Lord of the Rings,'' Tolkien pronounced it either {{IPA|/ˈsmiːgɒl/}} or {{IPA|/ˈsmiːægɒl/}}. Tolkien had a habit in his writing putting [[diacritic]]s in varying places, as can also be seen in the name ''[[Eärendil]]'', which also occurs spelled ''Ëarendil''. "Sméagol" bears strong resemblance to [[Old English language|Old English]] ''smēaġan'', a verb meaning "to ponder". If this was Tolkien's intention, then the acute may have been meant to substitute for the [[macron]]. In any case, when trying to pronounce ''Sméagol'', it should be kept in mind that the pronunciation rules given in the Appendices for ''The Lord of the Rings'' are for the [[Elvish language]]s, and not for (Old) English representing [[Westron]] and related languages.
 
==References==
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