MacOS: Perbedaan revisi

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[[Berkas:Mac OS X Box.jpeg|ka|Bungkusan Mac OS X.]]
'''macOS''', atau yang sebelumnya disebut '''OS X''', adalah antarmuka grafikal sistem operasi dengan antarmuka grafis yang dikembangkan dan disebarkandidistribusikan oleh [[Apple Inc.|Apple Inc]]. Sistem operasi ini disediakan untuk komputer [[Macintosh]]. Sistem operasi ini pertama kali dikeluarkan pada tahun [[2001]] dan populer di kalangan pengguna.
 
Karakter "X" adalah nomor Romawi yang berarti sepuluh, di mana versi ini adalah penerus dari sistem operasi yang digunakan sebelumnya seperti [[Mac OS Klasik|Mac OS 8]] dan [[Mac OS 9]]. Beberapa orang membacanya sebagai huruf "X" yang terdengar seperti "eks". Salah satu alasan mengapa mereka menafsir sedemikian karena tradisi untuk memberikan nama sistem operasi yang berbasis [[Unix]] dengan akhiran "x" (misalnya [[AIX]], [[IRIX]], [[Linux]], [[Minix]], [[Ultrix]], [[Xenix]]).
 
[[Mac OS X Server]] juga dirilis pada tahun 2001. Pada dasarnya versi ''Server'' ini mirip dengan versi ''standard-''nya, dengan perbedaan bahwa versi ''Server'' mencakup peranti lunak untuk keperluan manajemen dan administrasi ''workgroup'' dalam komputer berskala besar. Contoh fitur tambahan yang tersedia untuk versi ini adalah peranti lunak untuk menjalankan fungsi-fungsi seperti [[SMTP]], [[SMB]], [[LDAP]] dan [[DNS]]. Selain itu cara melisensinya juga berbeda.
Rilis terakhir macOS diumumkan pada World Wide Developer Conference (WWDC) 2019 dengan kode Catalina dengan versi 10.15
 
==Versi==
Tahapan-tahapan OS X:
{| class="wikitable"
* Mac OS X Server 1.0 kode: "Rhapsody", dirilis: Maret 1999.
|+Informasi rilis Mac OS X, OS X, dan macOS
* Mac OS X Public Beta kode: "Kodiak", dirilis: September 2000.
|-
* Mac OS X 10.0 (pemutakhiran 10.0.1-10.0.2-10.0.3-10.0.4) kode: "Cheetah", dirilis: Maret 2001.
! Versi
* Mac OS X 10.1 (pemutakhiran 10.1.1-10.1.2-10.1.3-10.1.4-10.1.5) kode: "Puma", dirilis: Oktober 2001.
! Kode
* Mac OS X Server 10.1 (pemutakhiran 10.1.1-10.1.2-10.1.3-10.1.4-10.1.5) kode: "Puma", dirilis: November 2001.
! Versi Darwin
* Mac OS X 10.2 (pemutakhiran 10.2.1-10.2.2-10.2.3-10.2.4-10.2.5-10.2.6-10.2.7-10.2.8) kode: "Jaguar", dirilis: Agustus 2002.
! Dukungan Prosesor
* Mac OS X Server 10.2 (pemutakhiran 10.2.1-10.2.2-10.2.3-10.2.4-10.2.5-10.2.6-10.2.7-10.2.8), dirilis Agustus 2002.
! Dukungan aplikasi
* Mac OS X 10.3 (pemutakhiran 10.3.1-10.3.2-10.3.3-10.3.4-10.3.5-10.3.6-10.3.7-10.3.8-10.3.9) kode: "Panther", dirilis Oktober 2003.
! Kernel
* Mac OS X Server 10.3 (pemutakhiran 10.3.1-10.3.2-10.3.3-10.3.4-10.3.5-10.3.6-10.3.7-10.3.8-10.3.9), dirilis Oktober 2003.
! Tanggal diumumkan
* Mac OS X 10.4 (pemutakhiran 10.4.1-10.4.2-10.4.3-10.4.4-10.4.5) kode: "Tiger", dirilis: April 2005.
! Tanggal dirilis
* Mac OS X Server 10.4 (pemutakhiran 10.4.1-10.4.2-10.4.3-10.4.4-10.4.5) dirilis: April 2005.
! Versi terakhir
* Mac OS X 10.5 (pemutakhiran 10.5.1-10.5.2-10.5.3-10.5.4) kode: "Leopard", dirilis: Oktober 2007
|-
* Mac OS X 10.6 (kode: "Snow Leopard"; Juni 2009)
| [[Rhapsody (operating system)|Rhapsody Developer Release]]
* Mac OS X 10.7 (kode: "Lion"; Juli 2011)
| Grail1Z4 / Titan1U
* Mac OS X 10.8 (kode: "Mountain Lion"; Juli 2012)
|
* Mac OS X 10.9 (kode: "Mavericks"; Oktober 2013)
| rowspan="6" | 32-bit PowerPC
* Mac OS X 10.10 (kode: "Yosemite"; Oktober 2014)
| rowspan="8" | 32-bit PowerPC
* Mac OS X 10.11 (kode: "El Capitan"; September 2015)
| rowspan="10" | 32-bit
* Mac OS 10.12 (kode: "Sierra"; September 2016)
| Januari 7, 1997<ref name="MacExpo97">{{cite web|url=http://product.info.apple.com/pr/press.releases/1997/q2/970107.pr.rel.macos.html|title=Apple Announces Future Macintosh Operating System (OS) Strategy and Road Map|last=|first=|date=7 January 1997|website=Apple.com|publisher=Apple Computer, Inc.|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/19990116231607/http://product.info.apple.com/pr/press.releases/1997/q2/970107.pr.rel.macos.html|archivedate=16 January 1999|url-status=dead|accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref>
* Mac OS 10.13 (kode: "High Sierra"; September 2017)
| Agustus 31, 1997
* Mac OS 10.14 (kode: "Mojave"; September 2018)
| DR2 (May 14, 1998)
* Mac OS 10.15 (kode: "Catalina"; Juni 2019)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Server 1.0]]
| Hera
|
| {{unknown}}
| March 16, 1999
| 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)
|-
|Mac OS X Developer Preview
| {{unknown}}
|
| May 11, 1998<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.cnet.com/OS-X-is-the-future-for-Apple/2100-1001_3-211065.html |title=OS X is the future for Apple |author=Davis, Jim |date=May 11, 1998 |accessdate=July 17, 2013 |website=[[CNET]] |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140913075942/http://news.cnet.com/OS-X-is-the-future-for-Apple/2100-1001_3-211065.html |archivedate=September 13, 2014 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| March 16, 1999
| DP4 (April 5, 2000)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Public Beta]]
| Kodiak<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.networkworld.com/article/2869105/software/kodiak-to-lion--10-years-of-mac-os-x.html|title=Kodiak to Lion: 10 years of Mac OS X|author=Steven Borden-Weill|date=April 15, 2011|publisher=[[Network World]]|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160617204612/http://www.networkworld.com/article/2869105/software/kodiak-to-lion--10-years-of-mac-os-x.html|archivedate=June 17, 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
| 1.2.1
| May 15, 2000<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2000/05/15Apple-Releases-Mac-OS-X-Developer-Preview-4-with-Final-API-Specs/|title=Apple Releases Mac OS X Developer Preview 4 with Final API Specs|work=Apple Newsroom|access-date=2018-09-18|language=en-US}}</ref>
| September 13, 2000
| {{n/a}}
|-
| [[Mac OS X 10.0]]
| [[Cheetah]]
| 1.3.1
| January 9, 2001<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2001/01/09Apples-Mac-OS-X-to-Ship-on-March-24/|title=Apple’s Mac OS X to Ship on March 24|work=Apple Newsroom|access-date=2018-09-17|language=en-US}}</ref>
| March 24, 2001
| 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)
|-
| [[Mac OS X 10.1]]
| [[Cougar|Puma]]
| 1.4.1 / 5
| July 18, 2001<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2001/07/18Apple-Previews-Next-Version-of-Mac-OS-X/ | title=Apple Previews Next Version of Mac OS X | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=July 18, 2001 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103072912/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2001/07/18Apple-Previews-Next-Version-of-Mac-OS-X/ | archivedate=January 3, 2018 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| September 25, 2001
| 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Jaguar|Mac OS X 10.2]]
| [[Jaguar]]
| 6
| 32/64-bit PowerPC{{ref label|g5jaguar|Note 1|none}}
| May 6, 2002<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2002/05/06Apple-Previews-Jaguar-the-Next-Major-Release-of-Mac-OS-X/ | title=Apple Previews "Jaguar", the Next Major Release of Mac OS X | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=May 6, 2002 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103133442/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2002/05/06Apple-Previews-Jaguar-the-Next-Major-Release-of-Mac-OS-X/ | archivedate=January 3, 2018 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| August 24, 2002
| 10.2.8 (October 3, 2003)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Panther|Mac OS X 10.3]]
| [[Cougar|Panther]]
| 7
| 32/64-bit PowerPC
| June 23, 2003<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2003/06/23Apple-Previews-Mac-OS-X-Panther/ | title=Apple Previews Mac OS X "Panther" | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=June 23, 2003 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103072818/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2003/06/23Apple-Previews-Mac-OS-X-Panther/ | archivedate=January 3, 2018 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| October 24, 2003
| 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Tiger|Mac OS X 10.4]]
| [[Tiger]]
| 8
| rowspan="2" | 32/64-bit PowerPC and Intel
| 32/64-bit{{ref label|tiger64bitcli|Note 2|none}} PowerPC{{ref label|rosetta|Note 3|none}} and Intel
| May 4, 2004<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2004/05/04Steve-Jobs-to-Kick-Off-Apples-Worldwide-Developers-Conference-2004-with-Preview-of-Mac-OS-X-Tiger/ | title=Steve Jobs to Kick Off Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference 2004 with Preview of Mac OS X "Tiger" | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103133653/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2004/05/04Steve-Jobs-to-Kick-Off-Apples-Worldwide-Developers-Conference-2004-with-Preview-of-Mac-OS-X-Tiger/ | archivedate=January 3, 2018 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| April 29, 2005
| 10.4.11 (November 14, 2007)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Leopard|Mac OS X 10.5]]
| [[Leopard]]
| 9
| 32/64-bit PowerPC{{ref label|rosetta|Note 3|none}} and Intel
| June 26, 2006<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2006/06/26Apple-Executives-to-Preview-Mac-OS-X-Leopard-at-WWDC-2006-Keynote/ | title=Apple Executives to Preview Mac OS X "Leopard" at WWDC 2006 Keynote | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103133415/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2006/06/26Apple-Executives-to-Preview-Mac-OS-X-Leopard-at-WWDC-2006-Keynote/ | archivedate=January 3, 2018 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| October 26, 2007
| 10.5.8 (August 5, 2009)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Snow Leopard|Mac OS X 10.6]]
| [[Snow Leopard]]
| 10
| 32/64-bit Intel
| 32/64-bit Intel<br />32-bit PowerPC{{ref label|rosetta|Note 3|none}}
| rowspan="2" | 32/64-bit<ref>{{cite web|title=Road to Mac OS X Snow Leopard: 64-bit to the Kernel|url=http://appleinsider.com/articles/08/10/28/road_to_mac_os_x_snow_leopard_64_bit_to_the_kernel|publisher=AppleInsider|accessdate=September 28, 2015|date=October 28, 2008|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150928225357/http://appleinsider.com/articles/08/10/28/road_to_mac_os_x_snow_leopard_64_bit_to_the_kernel|archivedate=September 28, 2015|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
| June 9, 2008<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2008/06/09Apple-Previews-Mac-OS-X-Snow-Leopard-to-Developers/ | title=Apple Previews Mac OS X Snow Leopard to Developers | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=June 9, 2008 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171101112448/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2008/06/09Apple-Previews-Mac-OS-X-Snow-Leopard-to-Developers/ | archivedate=November 1, 2017 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| August 28, 2009
| 10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011)
|-
| [[Mac OS X Lion|Mac OS X 10.7]]
| [[Lion]]
| 11
| rowspan="9" | 64-bit Intel
| rowspan="8" | 32/64-bit Intel
| October 20, 2010<ref>{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2010/10/20Apple-Gives-Sneak-Peek-of-Mac-OS-X-Lion/ | title=Apple Gives Sneak Peek of Mac OS X Lion | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=October 20, 2010 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103133326/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2010/10/20Apple-Gives-Sneak-Peek-of-Mac-OS-X-Lion/ | archivedate=January 3, 2018 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| July 20, 2011
| 10.7.5 (September 19, 2012)
|-
| [[OS X Mountain Lion|OS X 10.8]]
| [[Cougar|Mountain Lion]]
| 12
| rowspan="8" | 64-bit<ref>{{cite web|title=Older 64-bit Macs out of the picture for Mountain Lion|url=http://www.cnet.com/news/older-64-bit-macs-out-of-the-picture-for-mountain-lion/|website=CNET|accessdate=September 28, 2015|date=July 11, 2012|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151001022055/http://www.cnet.com/news/older-64-bit-macs-out-of-the-picture-for-mountain-lion/|archivedate=October 1, 2015|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
| February 16, 2012<ref name="PR-16-02">{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2012/02/16Apple-Releases-OS-X-Mountain-Lion-Developer-Preview-with-Over-100-New-Features/ | title=Apple Releases OS X Mountain Lion Developer Preview with Over 100 New Features | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=February 16, 2012 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171123174225/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2012/02/16Apple-Releases-OS-X-Mountain-Lion-Developer-Preview-with-Over-100-New-Features/ | archivedate=November 23, 2017 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
|July 25, 2012<ref name="PR-25-07">{{cite press release | url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2012/07/25Mountain-Lion-Available-Today-From-the-Mac-App-Store/ | title=Mountain Lion Available Today From the Mac App Store | publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]] | date=July 25, 2012 | accessdate=January 2, 2018 | url-status=live | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010183344/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2012/07/25Mountain-Lion-Available-Today-From-the-Mac-App-Store/ | archivedate=October 10, 2017 | df=mdy-all }}</ref>
|10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)
|-
| [[OS X Mavericks|OS X 10.9]]
| [[Mavericks, California|Mavericks]]
| 13
| June 10, 2013<ref>{{cite press release| url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2013/06/10Apple-Releases-Developer-Preview-of-OS-X-Mavericks-With-More-Than-200-New-Features/| title=Apple Releases Developer Preview of OS X Mavericks With More Than 200 New Features| publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]]| date=June 10, 2013| accessdate=January 2, 2018| url-status=live| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180213144553/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2013/06/10Apple-Releases-Developer-Preview-of-OS-X-Mavericks-With-More-Than-200-New-Features/| archivedate=February 13, 2018| df=mdy-all}}</ref>
|October 22, 2013
|10.9.5 (13F1112) (September 18, 2014)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://appleinsider.com/articles/14/09/17/apple-releases-os-x-1095-mavericks-with-reliability-enhancements-includes-safari-706|title=Apple releases OS X 10.9 Mavericks with reliability enhancements, includes Safari 7.0.6|publisher=appleinsider|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141218000221/http://appleinsider.com/articles/14/09/17/apple-releases-os-x-1095-mavericks-with-reliability-enhancements-includes-safari-706|archivedate=December 18, 2014|df=mdy-all}} Retrieved on December 18, 2014.</ref>
|-
| [[OS X Yosemite|OS X 10.10]]
| [[Yosemite National Park|Yosemite]]
| 14
| June 2, 2014<ref>{{cite press release| url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2014/06/02Apple-Announces-OS-X-Yosemite/| title=Apple Announces OS X Yosemite| publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]]| date=June 2, 2014| accessdate=January 2, 2018| url-status=live| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171009145210/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2014/06/02Apple-Announces-OS-X-Yosemite/| archivedate=October 9, 2017| df=mdy-all}}</ref>
|October 16, 2014
|10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015)
|-
| [[OS X El Capitan|OS X 10.11]]
| [[El Capitan]]
| 15
| June 8, 2015<ref>{{cite press release| url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2015/06/08Apple-Announces-OS-X-El-Capitan-with-Refined-Experience-Improved-Performance/| title=Apple Announces OS X El Capitan with Refined Experience & Improved Performance| publisher=[[Apple Inc.|Apple]]| date=June 8, 2015| accessdate=January 2, 2018| url-status=live| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171008132538/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2015/06/08Apple-Announces-OS-X-El-Capitan-with-Refined-Experience-Improved-Performance/| archivedate=October 8, 2017| df=mdy-all}}</ref>
|September 30, 2015
|10.11.6 (15G31) (July 18, 2016)
|-
| [[macOS Sierra|macOS 10.12]]
| [[Sierra Nevada (U.S.)|Sierra]]
| 16
| June 13, 2016<ref>{{cite press release |url=https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2016/06/apple-previews-major-update-with-macos-sierra.html |title=Apple previews major update with macOS Sierra |publisher=Apple |date=June 13, 2016 |accessdate=January 2, 2018 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180103133417/https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2016/06/apple-previews-major-update-with-macos-sierra.html |archivedate=January 3, 2018 |df=mdy-all }}</ref>
| September 20, 2016
| 10.12.6 (16G29) (July 19, 2017)
|-
| [[macOS High Sierra|macOS 10.13]]
| [[Sierra Nevada (U.S.)|High Sierra]]
| 17
| June 5, 2017
| September 25, 2017
| 10.13.6 (17G65) (July 9, 2018)
|-
| [[macOS Mojave|macOS 10.14]]
| [[Mojave Desert|Mojave]]
| 18
| June 4, 2018
| September 24, 2018
| 10.14.6 (18G84) (July 22, 2019)
|-
| [[macOS Catalina|macOS 10.15]]
| [[Santa Catalina Island (California)|Catalina]]
| 19
| 64-bit Intel
| June 3, 2019
| October 7, 2019
| 10.15.2 (19C57) (December 10, 2019)
|}
 
[[File:MacOS Version History.svg|thumb|650px|[[Timeline]] of versions]]
 
:{{note label|g5jaguar||Note 1}}[[PowerMac G5]] memiliki versi Jaguar khusus.
:{{note label|tiger64bitcli||Note 2}}Tiger tidak mendukung aplikasi dengan antarmuka 64-bit. hanya aplikasi antarmuka baris 64-bit
:{{note label|rosetta||Note 3}}Aplikasi PowerPC 32-bit didukung pada perangkat Intel menggunakan Rosseta
 
Kecuali Mac OS X Server 1.0 dan rilis beta, versi OS X diberi nama [[kucing besar]] hingga OS X 10.9 Maveriks, ketika apple beraling menggunakan lokasi di California. Sebelum dirilis, Mac OS X 10.0 memiliki kode "Cheetah" dan Mac OS X 10.1 memilliki kode "Puma" secara internal. Dengan antisipasi tinggi pada Mac OS X 10.2 "Jaguar", Apple mulai menggunakan kode sebagai bagian dari pemasaran. "Panther", "Tiger" dan "Leopard" adalah merek dagang Apple, tetapi "Cheetah", "Puma" dan "Jaguar" tidak. Apple juga mendaftarkan "Lynx" dan"Cougar" sebagai merek dagang, meski tidak digunakan sampai waktu berakhir.
 
== Pranala luar ==
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