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{{Anarkisme}}
{{Forms of government}}
'''Anarkisme''' adalah filsafat politik yang menganjurkan masyarakat tanpa negara atau sering didefinisikan sebagai lembaga sukarela yang mengatur diri sendiri.<ref>"ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy</ref><ref>"In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Petr_Kropotkin___Anarchism__from_the_Encyclopaedia_Britannica.html Peter Kropotkin. "Anarchism" from the Encyclopædia Britannica]</ref><ref>"Anarchism." The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. p. 14 "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable."</ref><ref>Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. p. 85</ref> Tapi beberapa penulis telah mendefinisikan sebagai lembaga yang lebih spesifik berdasarkan asosiasi bebas non-hierarkis.<ref>"as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government associated with the nation state." Judith Suissa. ''Anarchism and Education: a Philosophical Perspective''. Routledge. New York. 2006. p. 7</ref><ref name="iaf-ifa.org"/><ref>"That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist." [[Peter Kropotkin]]. [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Petr_Kropotkin__Anarchism__its_philosophy_and_ideal.html Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal]</ref><ref>"anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society." [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/The_Anarchist_FAQ_Editorial_Collective__An_Anarchist_FAQ__03_17_.html#toc2 "B.1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?"] in [[An Anarchist FAQ]]</ref> Anarkisme berpegangan pada konsep bahwa negara menjadi tidak diinginkan, tidak perlu, atau berbahaya.<ref name="definition">
 
'''Anarkisme''' atau dieja '''anarkhisme''' adalah filsafat politik yang menganjurkan masyarakat tanpa negara atau sering didefinisikan sebagai lembaga sukarela yang mengatur diri sendiri.<ref>"ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy</ref><ref>"In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Petr_Kropotkin___Anarchism__from_the_Encyclopaedia_Britannica.html Peter Kropotkin. "Anarchism" from the Encyclopædia Britannica]</ref><ref>"Anarchism." The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. p. 14 "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable."</ref><ref>Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. p. 85</ref> Tapi beberapa penulis telah mendefinisikan sebagai lembaga yang lebih spesifik berdasarkan asosiasi bebas non-hierarkis.<ref>"as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government associated with the nation state." Judith Suissa. ''Anarchism and Education: a Philosophical Perspective''. Routledge. New York. 2006. p. 7</ref><ref name="iaf-ifa.org"/><ref>"That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist." [[Peter Kropotkin]]. [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Petr_Kropotkin__Anarchism__its_philosophy_and_ideal.html Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal]</ref><ref>"anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society." [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/The_Anarchist_FAQ_Editorial_Collective__An_Anarchist_FAQ__03_17_.html#toc2 "B.1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?"] in [[An Anarchist FAQ]]</ref> Anarkisme berpegangan pada konsep bahwa negara menjadi tidak diinginkan, tidak perlu, atau berbahaya.<ref name="definition">
{{cite journal |last=Malatesta|first=Errico|title=Towards Anarchism|journal=MAN!|publisher=International Group of San Francisco|location=Los Angeles|oclc=3930443|url=http://www.marxists.org/archive/malatesta/1930s/xx/toanarchy.htm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20121107221404/http://marxists.org/archive/malatesta/1930s/xx/toanarchy.htm|archivedate=7 November 2012 |deadurl=no|authorlink=Errico Malatesta |ref=harv}}
{{cite journal |url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070514.wxlanarchist14/BNStory/lifeWork/home/
 
== Etimologi ==
 
Anarkisme berasal dari kata dasar "anarki" dengan imbuhan ''-isme''. Kata anarki merupakan kata serapan dari ''anarchy'' (bahasa Inggris) atau ''anarchie'' (Belanda/Jerman/Prancis), yang berakar dari kata [[bahasa Yunani]], ''anarchos/anarchein''. Ini merupakan kata bentukan ''a-'' (tidak/tanpa/nihil/negasi) yang disisipi /n/ dengan ''archos/archein'' (pemerintah/kekuasaan atau pihak yang menerapkan kontrol dan otoritas - secara koersif, represif, termasuk perbudakan dan tirani); maka, ''anarchos/anarchein'' berarti "tanpa pemerintahan" atau "pengelolaan dan koordinasi ''tanpa'' hubungan memerintah dan diperintah, menguasai dan dikuasai, mengepalai dan dikepalai, mengendalikan dan dikendalikan, dan lain sebagainya". Bentuk kata "anarkis" berarti orang yang mempercayai dan menganut anarki, sedangkan akhiran ''-isme'' sendiri berarti paham/ajaran/[[ideologi]].
 
 
=== Teori politik ===
 
Anarkisme adalah teori [[politik]] yang bertujuan untuk menciptakan masyarakat tanpa [[hierarki]]s (baik dalam [[politik]], [[ekonomi]], maupun [[sosial]]). Para [[Anarkis]] berusaha mempertahankan bahwa [[anarki]], ketiadaan aturan-aturan, adalah sebuah format yang dapat diterapkan dalam sistem sosial dan dapat menciptakan kebebasan individu dan kebersamaan sosial. [[Anarkis]] melihat bahwa tujuan akhir dari kebebasan dan kebersamaan sebagai sebuah kerja sama yang saling membangun antara satu dengan yang lainnya. Atau, dalam tulisan Bakunin yang terkenal:
 
 
=== Anarkisme dan kekerasan ===
 
Dalam sejarahnya, para anarkis dalam berbagai gerakannya kerap kali menggunakan kekerasan sebagai metode yang cukup ampuh dalam memperjuangkan ide-idenya, seperti para anarkis yang terlibat dalam kelompok Nihilis di Rusia era Tzar, [[Leon Czolgosz]], [[grup N17]] di Yunani. Slogan para anarkis Spanyol pengikutnya [[Durruti]] yang berbunyi:
 
 
== Sejarah dan dinamika filsafat anarkisme ==
 
Anarkisme sebagai sebuah ide yang dalam perkembangannya juga menjadi sebuah filsafat yang juga memiliki perkembangan serta dinamika yang cukup menarik.
 
=== Anarkisme dan Marxisme ===
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Anarkisme dan Marxisme]]''
 
[[Marxisme]] dalam perkembangannya setelah Marx dan Engels berkembang menjadi 3 kekuatan besar ideologi dunia yang menyandarkan dirinya pada pemikiran-pemikiran Marx. Ketiga ideologi itu adalah: (1) Komunisme, yang kemudian dikembangkan oleh [[Lenin]] menjadi ideologi [[Marxisme-Leninisme]] yang saat ini menjadi pegangan mayoritas kaum komunis sedunia; (2) [[Sosialisme Demokrat]], yang pertama kali dikembangkan oleh [[Eduard Bernstein]] dan berkembang di [[Jerman]] dan kemudian berkembang menjadi sosialis yang berciri khas [[Eropa]]; (3) [[Neomarxisme]] dan [[Gerakan Kiri Baru]], yang berkembang sekitar tahun [[1965]]-[[1975]] di universitas-universitas di Eropa.
 
 
=== Internationale pertama ===
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Mikhail Bakunin]]''
 
[[Berkas:Bakuninfull.jpg|jmpl|150px|ka|[[Mikhail Bakunin|Mikhail Bakunin 1814-1876]]]]
Tokoh utama kaum anarkisme adalah Mikhail Bakunin, seorang bangsawan Rusia yang kemudian sebagian besar hidupnya tinggal di [[Eropa|Eropa Barat]]. Ia memimpin kelompok anarkis dalam konferensi besar kaum sosialis sedunia ([[Asosiasi Pekerja Internasional|Internasional Pertama]]) dan terlibat pertengkaran dan perdebatan besar dengan Marx. Bakunin akhirnya dikeluarkan dari kelompok arus utama Marxis dan perjuangan kaum anarkis dianggap bukan sebagai perjuangan kaum sosialis. Sejak Bakunin, anarkisme identik dengan tindakan yang mengutamakan kekerasan dan pembunuhan sebagai basis perjuangan mereka. Pembunuhan kepala negara, pengeboman atas gedung-gedung milik negara, dan perbuatan teroris lainnya dibenarkan oleh anarkisme sebagai cara untuk menggerakkan massa memberontak.<ref>[[Franz Magnis Suseno]]. ''Pemikiran Karl Marx: Dari Sosialisme Utopis ke Perselisihan Revisionisme'', Jakarta, 1999</ref>
 
== Varian-varian anarkisme ==
 
Anarkisme, yang besar dan kemudian berbeda jalur dengan Marxisme, bukan merupakan suatu ideologi yang tunggal. Di dalam anarkisme sendiri banyak aliran-aliran pemikiran yang cukup berbeda satu dengan yang lain. Perbedaan itu terutama dalam hal penekanan dan prioritas pada suatu aspek. Aliran-aliran dan pemikiran-pemikiran yang berbeda di dalam Anarkisme adalah suatu bentuk dari berkembangnya ideologi ini berdasarkan perbedaan latar belakang tokoh, peristiwa-peristiwa tertentu dan tempat/lokasi aliran itu berkembang.
 
=== Anarkisme-kolektif ===
 
Kelompok anarkisme-kolektif sering diasosiasikan dengan kelompok [[anti-otoritarian]] pimpinan Mikhail Bakunin yang memisahkan diri dari Internasional Pertama. Kelompok ini kemudian membentuk pertemuan sendiri di St. Imier ([[1872]]). Di sinilah awal perbedaan antara kaum anarkis dengan Marxis, dan sejak saat itu kaum anarkis menempuh jalur perjuangan yang berbeda dengan kaum Marxis. Perbedaan itu terutama dalam hal persepsi terhadap negara.
 
 
=== Anarkisme komunis ===
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Anarko-Komunisme]]''
 
[[Berkas:WilliamGodwin.jpg|jmpl|kiri|150px|William Godwin]]
Ide-ide [[anarkis]] bisa ditemui dalam setiap periode sejarah, walaupun masih banyak penelitian yang harus dilakukan dalam bidang ini. Kita menemuinya dalam karya filsuf [[Tiongkok]], [[Lao-Tse]] (yang berjudul ''[[Arah dan Jalan yang Benar]]''<ref>Lao tse, Arah dan Jalan yang Benar. diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa inggris dari the German of Alexander Ular. Penerbit the Inselbucherei, Leipzig</ref>.) dan juga filsuf-filsuf [[Yunani]] seperti kelompok Hedonis<ref>Salah satu Hedonis awal adalah [[Cyrenaics]] (400 SM), yang menggagaskan ide bahwa seni kehidupan adalah memaksimalkan setiap detik kehidupan untuk kenikmatan yang memuaskan indra dan intelek</ref> dan ''Cynics''<ref>Para pengikut [[Diogenes]] (400-325 SM), yang mengemukakan filsafat hidup bahwa dengan mereduksi keinginan seseorang sampai pada kebutuhan minimal, disatu sisi memerlukan disiplin diri yang keras, tetapi disis lain akan mengantar pada [[swasembada]]/ketidaktergantungan dan kebebasan. Mazhab ini mengalami masa kejayaan pada tahun abad 3 SM dan muncul lagi pada abad 1 M.</ref> dan orang-orang yang mendukung ‘hukum alam’, khususnya Zeno yang menemukan aliran stoik yang berlawanan dengan Plato.
 
=== Anarko-Sindikalisme ===
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Anarko-Sindikalisme]]''
 
[[Berkas:Anarchist flag.svg|200px|ka|jmpl|Bendera yang digunakan dalam gerakan Anarko-Sindikalisme.]]
Salah satu aliran yang berkembang cukup subur di dalam lingkungan anarkisme adalah kelompok anarko-sindikalisme. Tokoh yang terkenal dalam kelompok anarko-sindikalisme antara lain [[Rudolf Rocker]], ia juga pernah menjelaskan ide dasar dari pergerakan ini, apa tujuannya, dan kenapa pergerakan ini sangat penting bagi masa depan buruh dalam pamfletnya yang berjudul ''Anarchosyndicalism'' pada tahun 1938.<ref>[http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/rocker/sp001495/rocker_as1.html ''Anarchosyndicalism'' oleh Rudolph Rocker] ''diterbitkan kembali pada [[7 September]] [[2006]]</ref> Pada awalnya, Bakunin juga adalah salah satu tokoh dalam anarkisme yang gerakan-gerakan buruhnya dapat disamakan dengan orientasi kelompok anarko-sindikalisme, tetapi Bakunin kemudian lebih condong pada anarkisme-kolektif.
 
=== Anarkisme individualis ===
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Anarkisme individualis]]me''
 
Anarkisme individualisme atau Individual-anarkisme adalah salah satu tradisi filsafat dalam anarkisme yang menekankan pada persamaan kebebasan dan kebebasan individual. Konsep ini umumnya berasal dari liberalisme klasik. Kelompok individual-anarkisme percaya bahwa ''"hati nurani individu seharusnya tidak boleh dibatasi oleh institusi atau badan-badan kolektif atau otoritas publik"''. Karena berasal dari tradisi liberalisme, individual-anarkisme sering disebut juga dengan nama ''"anarkisme liberal"''.
 
 
=== Varian-varian anarkisme lainnya ===
 
Selain aliran-aliran yang disebut di atas, masih banyak lagi aliran lain yang memakai pemikiran anarkisme sebagai dasarnya. Antara lain:
* [[Pasca-anarkisme]], yang dikembangkan oleh [[Saul Newman]] dan merupakan sintesis antara teori anarkisme klasik dan pemikiran ''post-strukturalis''.
 
== Anarkisme dan agama ==
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Anarkisme dan agama]]''
 
Pada dasarnya, dimulai dari Proudhon, Bakunin, Berkman, dan Malatesta sampai pada kelompok-kelompok anarkis yang lain, anarkisme selalu bersikap skeptis dan anti- terhadap institusi agama. Dalam pandangan mereka, institusi keagamaan selalu bersifat hierarkis dan mempunyai kekuasaan seperti layaknya negara, dan oleh karena itu harus ditolak. Tetapi dalam agama sendiri ([[Kristen]], [[Yahudi]], [[Islam]], dll) sebenarnya pemikiran akan “anarkisme” dalam pengertian ''“without ruler”'' sudah banyak ditemui.
 
=== Anarkis-kristen ===
 
Dalam agama Kristen, konsep yang dipakai oleh kaum anarkis-kristen adalah berdasarkan konsep bahwa hanya [[Tuhan]] yang mempunyai otoritas dan kuasa di dunia ini dan menolak otoritas negara, dan juga gereja, sebagai manifestasi kekuasaan Tuhan. Dari konsep ini kemudian berkembang konsep-konsep yang lain misalnya ''pasifisme'' (anti perang), ''non-violence'' (anti kekerasan), ''abolition of state control'' (penghapusan kontrol negara), dan ''tax resistance'' (penolakan membayar pajak). Semuanya itu dalam konteks bahwa kekuasaan negara tidak lagi eksis di bumi dan oleh karena itu harus ditolak. Tokoh-tokoh yang menjadi inspirasi dalam perkembangan gerakan anarkis-kristen antara lain: [[Soren Kierkegaard]], [[Henry David Thoreau]], [[Nikolai Berdyaev]], [[Leo Tolstoy]], dan [[Adin Ballou]].
 
=== Anarkisme dan Islam ===
 
:''Lihat pula: [[Islam dan anarkisme]]''
 
[[Berkas:Hakim Bey.jpeg|jmpl|ka|Hakim Bey]]
Dalam agama Islam, kelompok anarkisme melakukan interpretasi terhadap konsep bahwa Islam adalah agama yang bercirikan penyerahan total terhadap [[Allah]] ([[bahasa Arab]] allāhu الله), yang berarti menolak peran otoritas manusia dalam bentuk apa pun. Anarkis-Islam menyatakan bahwa hanya Allah yang mempunyai otoritas di bumi ini serta menolak ketaatan terhadap otoritas manusia dalam bentuk fatwa atau imam. Hal ini merupakan elaborasi atas konsep ''“tiada pemaksaan dalam beragama”''. Konsep anarkisme-islam kemudian berkembang menjadi konsep-konsep lainnya yang mempunyai kemiripan dengan ideologi sosialis seperti pandangan terhadap hak milik, penolakan terhadap riba, penolakan terhadap kekerasan dan mengutamakan ''self-defense'', dan lain-lain. Kelompok-kelompok dalam Islam yang sering diasosiasikan dengan anarkisme antara lain: [[Sufisme]] dan [[Kelompok Hashshashin]].
 
== Kritik atas anarkisme ==
 
Baik secara teori ataupun praktik, anarkisme telah menimbulkan perdebatan dan kritik-kritik atasnya. Beberapa kritik dilontarkan oleh lawan utama dari anarkisme seperti pemerintah. Beberapa kritik lainnya bahkan juga dilontarkan oleh para anarkis sendiri serta ada juga yang muncul dari kalangan kaum kiri otoritarian seperti yang dilontarkan oleh kalangan Marxisme. Kritik biasanya dilontarkan sekitar permasalahan idealisme anarkisme yang mustahil dapat diterapkan di dunia nyata, seperti apa yang banyak dipecaya oleh para anarkis mengenai ajaran bahwa manusia pada dasarnya baik dan bisa menggalang solidaritas kemanusiaan untuk kesejahteraan manusia tanpa penindasan oleh sebagiannya yang hal tersebut banyak dibantah oleh para ekonom. Selain itu, para pakar sosiologi juga membantah konsep meengenai ajaran bahwa setiap manusia lahir bebas setara.<ref>Zaro Sastrowardoyo, [http://pustaka.otonomis.org/index.php?title=Anarkisme_Sosial#Kritik_atas_Anarkisme: Anarkisme Sosial]</ref>
 
Kritik juga dilontarkan atas penolakan anarkisme terhadap organisasi sentralis seperti pemerintahan kaum buruh, partai revolusioner, dan lain sebagainya, yang dianggap oleh banyak pihak justru akan melemahkan posisi kaum anarkis apabila revolusi terjadi. Hal ini juga yang dituduhkan kepada para anarkis saat [[Revolusi Spanyol]] terjadi, pasca-pengambilan kekuasaan oleh kaum proletariat atas rezim fasis yang pada saat itu berkuasa di Spanyol.<ref>[http://www.worldrevolution.info/manifesto-in.htm#se16 Manifesto WORLD REVOLUTION]</ref>
 
== Daftar masyarakat anarkis ==
{{Main list|Daftar masyarakat anarkis}}
* [[Fejuve|Federation of Neighborhood Councils-El Alto]] (Fejuve; 1979–sekarang){{sfn|Gelderloss|2010}}
* [[Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón"]] (CIPO-RFM; 1980an–sekarang){{sfn|Denham|2008}}
* [[Barbacha]] (2001–sekarang){{citation needed|date=July 2019}}
* [[Villa de Zaachila]] (2006–sekarang){{citation needed|date=July 2019}}
* [[Cherán|Cheran]] (2011–sekarang){{citation needed|date=July 2019}}
* [[Rojava|Federasi Demokratik Syria Utara]] (Rojava; 2013–sekarang){{citation needed|date=Juli 2019}}
 
== Lihat pula ==
{{Portal|Anarkisme|Libertarianisme}}
* [[:Kategori:Anarkisme berdasarkan negara|Anarkisme berdasarkan negara]]
* [[Pemerintahan tanpa pemerintah]]
* [[Libertarianisme]]
* [[Sosialisme libertarian]]
* [[Daftar ideologi politik#Anarkisme|Daftar ideologi politik anarkis]]
* [[Daftar buku mengenai anarkisme]]
 
=== Teks dasar anarkisme<!-- Source: McLaughlin, 2007. --> ===
* ''[[Enquiry Concerning Political Justice]]'' (1793)
* ''[[What Is Property?]] (1840)
* ''[[The Ego and Its Own]]'' (1844)
 
== Referensi ==
=== Kutipan ===
{{reflist|2}}
{{Reflist|25em}}
 
=== Sumber ===
; Sumber primer
{{refbegin|35em|indent=yes}}
* {{cite book |author=Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective|title=An Anarchist FAQ|year=2017|ref=harv|title-link=An Anarchist FAQ }}
* {{cite book |last=Bakunin|first=Mikhail|author-link=Mikhail Bakunin|title=Statism and Anarchy|title-link=Statism and Anarchy|year=1990|orig-year=1873|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge, England |series=Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought|translator-last=Shatz|translator-first=Marshall|isbn=978-0-521-36182-8|oclc=20826465|lccn=89077393|doi=10.1017/CBO9781139168083|ref=harv }}
* {{cite book|last=Berkman|first=Alexander|author-link=Alexander Berkman|title=Now and After: The ABC of Communist Anarchism|title-link=Now and After|year=1929|publisher=Vanguard Press|location=New York|oclc=529173|lccn=29022523|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |author=Dielo Trouda|author-link=Dielo Truda|title=Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft)|year=2006|orig-year=1926|translator-last=McNab|translator-first=Nestor|publisher=Nestor Makhno Archive |url = http://www.nestormakhno.info/english/newplatform/org_plat.htm |access-date=18 March 2019|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Engels|first=Fredrich|author-link=Friedrich Engels|editor-last=Tucker|editor-first=Robert C.|title=The Marx-Engels reader|edition=2nd|chapter=On Authority|year=1978|orig-year=1874|publisher=Norton|location=New York City, New York|isbn=978-0-393-05684-6|oclc=318414641|lccn=77016635|ref=harv|chapter-url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1872/10/authority.htm|access-date=18 March 2019|via=Marxists Internet Archive|url=https://archive.org/details/marxengelsreader00tuck}}
* {{cite book |last=Godwin|first=William|author-link=William Godwin |title=Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners |year=1798|orig-year=1793|edition=3rd, corrected |publisher=G. G. and J. Robinson |location=London, England|oclc=6978206|ref=harv |url = https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008421359 |via=Hathi Trust }}
* {{cite book |last=Guillaume|first=James|author-link=James Guillaume |editor-last=Dolgoff|editor-first=Sam|title=Bakunin on Anarchy|chapter=Ideas on Social Organization|year=1972|orig-year=1876|publisher=A. A. Knopf|location=New York City, New York|isbn=978-0-394-41601-4|oclc=267856|lccn=79136351 |chapter-url = https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/guillaume/works/ideas.htm |access-date=18 March 2019 |via=Marxists Internet Archive |ref=harv }}
* {{cite book |last=Greene|first=William Batchelder |author-link=William Batchelder Greene |title=Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments |year=1875|section=Communism versus Mutualism|publisher=Lee and Shepard|location=Boston, Massachusetts|oclc=2567184|lccn=08033079 |url = https://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/2567184.html |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Kropotkin|first=Peter|author-link=Peter Kropotkin|title=The Conquest of Bread|orig-year=1892|publisher=AK Press|location=Edinburgh, Scotland|year=2007|isbn=978-1-904859-10-9|ref=harv|title-link=The Conquest of Bread}}
* {{cite book|last=Kropotkin|first=Peter|author-link=Peter Kropotkin|title=Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings|publisher=Courier Dover Publications|year=2002|page=5|isbn=978-0-486-41955-8|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Rae|first=John |title=Contemporary Socialism |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=9ZASAAAAIAAJ |year=1901 |publisher=C. Scribner's sons |ref=harv }}
* {{cite book |last=Rocker|first=Rudolf|author-link=Rudolf Rocker |title = Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice |year=2004 |orig-year=1947 |publisher=AK Press |ref=harv |title-link=Anarcho-Syndicalism (book) }}
{{refend}}
 
; Sumber sekunder
{{refbegin|35em|indent=yes}}
* {{cite book |last=AbdelRahim |first=Layla |author-link=Layla AbdelRahim |title=Wild Children – Domesticated Dreams: Civilization and the Birth of Education |publisher=Fernwood|location=Halifax|year=2013|isbn=978-1-55266-548-0|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite journal |last=Fowler|first=R. B. |title=The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought|year=1972|journal=Western Political Quarterly|volume=25|issue=4|pages=738–752|doi=10.2307/446800|jstor=446800|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite journal|last=Gabardi|first=Wayne|year=1986|volume=80|issue=1|pages=300–302|doi=10.2307/1957102|jstor=446800|ref=harv|title=Anarchism. By David Miller. (London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1984. Pp. 216. £10.95.)|journal=American Political Science Review}}
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* {{cite book |last=Graham|first=Robert|author-link=Robert Graham (historian)|title=We Do Not Fear Anarchy?We Invoke It: The First International and the Origins of the Anarchist Movement |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=71xkCgAAQBAJ |year=2015|publisher=AK Press |isbn=978-1-84935-212-3|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite article |last=Imrie|first=Doug|title=The Illegalists|year=1994|work=Anarchy: A Journal Of Desire Armed |url = http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/illegalistsDougImrie.htm |url-status=dead |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20150908072801/http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/illegalistsDougImrie.htm |archive-date=8 September 2015|access-date=9 December 2010|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite book|last=Landauer|first=Carl|year=1959|title=European Socialism: A History of Ideas and Movements|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite book|last=Marshall|first=Peter|author-link=Peter Marshall (author)|title=Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism|year=1993 |publisher=PM Press|place=Oakland, CA|isbn=978-1-60486-064-1|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Macphee|first=Josh|title=Realizing the Impossible|chapter=Introduction|publisher=AK Press|location=Stirling|year=2007|isbn=978-1-904859-32-1|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite book|last=McLaughlin|first=Paul|title=Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism |url = https://we.riseup.net/assets/394498/paul-mclaughlin-anarchism-and-authority-a-philosophical-introduction-to-classical-anarchism-1.pdf |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20180804180522/https://we.riseup.net/assets/394498/paul-mclaughlin-anarchism-and-authority-a-philosophical-introduction-to-classical-anarchism-1.pdf|archive-date=4 August 2018|publisher=[[Ashgate Publishing|Ashgate]]|location=Aldershot|date=28 November 2007|isbn=978-0-7546-6196-2|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite web|last=Ortega|first=Carlos|title=Anarchism – Nudism, Naturism|date=Winter 2003|url=http://www.naturismo.org/adn/ediciones/2003/invierno/7e.html|publisher=Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Ossar|first=Michael|year=1980|title=Anarchism in the Dramas of Ernst Toller|publisher=SUNY Press|isbn=978-0-87395-393-1|ref=harv}}
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* {{cite book|last=Pepper|first=David|title=Modern Environmentalism: An Introduction|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PQOvkB7UoWgC&pg=PA44|year=1996|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-05745-5|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Pernicone|first=Nunzio|title=Italian Anarchism, 1864–1892|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3ttgjwEACAAJ|year=2009|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-0-691-63268-1|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Pierson|first=Christopher|title=Just Property: Enlightenment, Revolution, and History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7jvKDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA187|year=2013|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-967329-2}}
* {{cite book|last=Purkis|first=Jon|title=Changing Anarchism|publisher=Manchester University Press|location=Manchester|year=2004|isbn=978-0-7190-6694-8|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Ramnath|first=Maia|editor1-last=Levy|editor1-first=Carl|editor1-link=Carl Levy (political scientist)|editor2-last=Adams|editor2-first=Matthew S. |title=The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism|chapter-url = https://books.google.com.cy/books/about/The_Palgrave_Handbook_of_Anarchism.html?id=SRyQswEACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |year=2019|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-3-319-75620-2 |chapter=Non-Western Anarchisms and Postcolonialism}}
* {{cite web|last=Ronsin|first=Francis |url = http://www.iisg.nl/womhist/manfreuk.pdf|title=E. Armand and "la camaraderie amoureuse" – Revolutionary sexualism and the struggle against jealousy|year=2000 |access-date=20 September 2010 |url-status=live|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110514110104/http://www.iisg.nl/womhist/manfreuk.pdf |archive-date=14 May 2011 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Rupert|first=Mark|title=Globalization and International Political Economy|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield Publishers|location=Lanham|year=2006|isbn=978-0-7425-2943-4|ref=harv|url=https://archive.org/details/globalizationint00rupe}}
* {{cite book|last=Ryley|first=Peter|chapter=Individualism|editor1-last=Levy|editor1-first=Carl|editor1-link=Carl Levy (political scientist)|editor2-last=Adams|editor2-first=Matthew S. |title=The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism|year=2019|publisher=[[Springer Publishing]]|isbn=978-3-319-75620-2|ref=harv}}
* {{cite web|last=Ryner|first=Han|title=Mini-Manual of Individualism|year=2007|orig-year=1905|publisher=Han Ryner Archive|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/ryner/1905/mini-manual.htm|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Sheehan|first=Sean|title=Anarchism|url={{google books|dYTxAQAAQBAJ|plainurl=yes}}|publisher=Reaktion Books|location=London |date=1 June 2003|isbn=978-1-86189-169-3|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Skirda|first=Alexandre|title=Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization From Proudhon to May 1968|publisher=AK Press|year=2002|isbn=978-1-902593-19-7|title-link=Facing the Enemy|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Sylvan|year=2007|first=Richard|section=Anarchism|editor=Robert E. Goodin |editor2=Philip Pettit |editor3=Thomas Pogge |title=A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy|edition=2nd|url=http://eltalondeaquiles.pucp.edu.pe/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Robert-E--Goodin-Philip-Pettit-Thomas-W--Pogge-A-Companion-to-Contemporary-Political-Philosophy-2-Volume-Set-Blackwell-Companions-to-Philosophy-2007.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170517032711/http://eltalondeaquiles.pucp.edu.pe/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Robert-E--Goodin-Philip-Pettit-Thomas-W--Pogge-A-Companion-to-Contemporary-Political-Philosophy-2-Volume-Set-Blackwell-Companions-to-Philosophy-2007.pdf|archive-date=17 May 2017|series=Blackwell Companions to Philosophy|volume=5|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|isbn=978-1-4051-3653-2|author-link=Richard Sylvan |editor1-link=Robert E. Goodin |editor2-link=Philip Pettit|editor3-link=Thomas Pogge|ref=harv}}
* {{cite web |last=Stringham|first=Edward P. |author-link=Edward Stringham|title=Anarchy, State, and Public Choice|url=http://www.independent.org/publications/tir/article.asp?issueID=53&articleID=686|year=2005|location=Cheltenham, UK| publisher=Edward Elgar|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Stringham|first=Edward P. |author-link=Edward Stringham |title=Anarchy and the Law: The Political Economy of Choice|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yzgrDwAAQBAJ|date=5 July 2017|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-351-53182-5|ref=harv}}
* {{cite journal|last=Suissa|first=Judith|url=http://newhumanist.org.uk/1288/anarchy-in-the-classroom|title=Anarchy in the classroom|journal=[[New Humanist]]|volume=120|issue=5|year=2007|orig-year=2005|ref=harv|accessdate=21 January 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100817005249/http://newhumanist.org.uk/1288/anarchy-in-the-classroom|archive-date=17 August 2010}}
* {{cite book|last=Suissa|first=Judith |title=Anarchism and Education: A philosophical perspective |url = http://rebels-library.org/files/anarchismandeducation.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402095224/http://rebels-library.org/files/anarchismandeducation.pdf|archive-date=2 April 2015|publisher=Routledge|location=New York |date=2 February 2006|isbn=978-0-415-37194-0|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Suissa|first=Judith|chapter=Anarchist Education|editor1-last=Levy|editor1-first=Carl|editor1-link=Carl Levy (political scientist)|editor2-last=Adams|editor2-first=Matthew S. |title=The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism|year=2019|chapter-url = https://books.google.com.cy/books/about/The_Palgrave_Handbook_of_Anarchism.html?id=SRyQswEACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y|publisher=[[Springer Publishing]]|isbn=978-3-319-75620-2|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Supek|first=Rudi|author-link=Rudi Supek|title=Self-governing Socialism: Sociology and Politics. Economics |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=REg0xPL_NeQC&pg=PA84|year=1975|publisher=M. E. Sharpe|isbn=978-0-87332-050-4|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Thomas|first=Paul|title=Karl Marx and the Anarchists|publisher=Routledge & Kegan Paul|location=London|year=1985|isbn=978-0-7102-0685-5|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Turcato|first=Davide|chapter=Anarchist Communism|editor1-last=Levy|editor1-first=Carl|editor1-link=Carl Levy (political scientist)|editor2-last=Adams|editor2-first=Matthew S.|title=The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism|year=2019|publisher=[[Springer Publishing]]|isbn=978-3-319-75620-2|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Vincent|first=Andrew|title=Modern Political Ideologies|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=igrwb3rsOOUC&pg=PR4|year=2010|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-4443-1105-1|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Ward|first=Colin|author-link=Colin Ward|title=Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=nkgSDAAAQBAJ|date=21 October 2004|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-280477-8|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Wilburn|first=Shawn|chapter=Mutualism|editor1-last=Levy|editor1-first=Carl|editor1-link=Carl Levy (political scientist)|editor2-last=Adams|editor2-first=Matthew S. |title=The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism|year=2019|publisher=[[Springer Publishing]]|isbn=978-3-319-75620-2|ref=harv}}
* {{cite journal|last=Williams|first=Dana M.|title=Contemporary anarchist and anarchistic movements|journal=Sociology Compass|publisher=Wiley|volume=12|issue=6|year=2017|issn=1751-9020|doi=10.1111/soc4.12582|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last= Williams|first=Dana M.|chapter=Tactics: Conceptions of Social Change, Revolution, and Anarchist Organisation|editor1-last=Levy|editor1-first=Carl|editor1-link=Carl Levy (political scientist)|editor2-last=Adams|editor2-first=Matthew S.|title=The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism|year=2019|publisher=[[Springer Publishing]]|isbn=978-3-319-75620-2|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Wilson|first=A. N.|title=Tolstoy|publisher=W. W. Norton|year=2001|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=imYmH8myBUsC&pg=PR19|isbn=978-0-393-32122-7|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Woodcock|first=George|author-link=George Woodcock|title=Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements|year=1962|publisher=World Pub. Co.|location=New York|series=Meridian Books|oclc=318155442|ref=harv}}
* {{cite web|last=Ytak|first=Cathy|date=2000|title=Anarchisme et naturisme, aujourd'hui|url=http://ytak.club.fr/natytak.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070609184510/http://ytak.club.fr/natytak.html|archivedate=9 June 2007|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Zibechi|first=Raul|title=Territories in Resistance: A Cartography of Latin American Social Movements|publisher=AK Press|year=2012|isbn=978-1849351072|location=Oakland|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Zerzan|first=John|author-link=John Zerzan|title=Running on Emptiness|year=2002|publisher=Feral House|ref=harv}}
{{refend}}
 
; Sumber tersier
{{refbegin|35em|indent=yes}}
* {{cite web|last=Coutinho|first=Steve|title=Zhuangzi|publisher=Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy|date=3 March 2016|url=http://www.iep.utm.edu/zhuangzi/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303175106/http://www.iep.utm.edu/zhuangzi/|archivedate=3 March 2016|url-status=live|access-date=5 March 2019|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Craig|editor-first=Edward|section=Anarchism|title=The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy|date=31 March 2005|isbn=978-0-415-32495-3|editor-link=Edward Craig (philosopher)|ref=harv|title-link=Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy}}
* {{cite encyclopedia|last=Fiala|first=Andrew|title=Anarchism|encyclopedia=[[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]]|year=2017|url=https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/anarchism/|ref=harv|publisher=Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University}}
* {{cite book|last=Hamowy|first=Ronald|title=The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yxNgXs3TkJYC&pg=PT50|date=15 August 2008|publisher=SAGE|isbn=978-1-4129-6580-4|ref=harv}}
* {{cite SEP|last=Leopold|first=David|url-id=max-stirner|title=Max Stirner|date=4 August 2006|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last1=McLean|first1=Iain|first2=Alistair|last2=McMillan|title=The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rNJjQgAACAAJ|year=2003|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-280276-7|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Miller|first=David|title=The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=NIZfQTd3nSMC|date=26 August 1991|publisher=Wiley|isbn=978-0-631-17944-3|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Ostergaard|first=Geoffrey|year=2003|author-link=Geoffrey Ostergaard |title=The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Outhwaite|first=William|title=The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought |chapter-url = https://books.google.com/books?id=JJmdpqJwkwwC&pg=PA14 |year=2008|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-0-470-99901-1|page=14|chapter=Anarcho-Syndicalism|ref=harv}}
* {{cite web|title=Definition of Anarchism|work=Merriam-Webster|year=2019|url=https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anarchism|ref={{sfnref|Definition of Anarchism by Merriam-Webster|2019}}|access-date=28 February 2019}}
* {{cite SEP|last=Philp|first=Mark|url-id=godwin|title=William Godwin|date=20 May 2006|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Trevijano|first=Carmen García|editor=Ted Honderich|title=Enciclopedia Oxford de filosofía|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=s9iwZGv44psC&pg=PA402|year=2001|publisher=Tecnos|isbn=978-84-309-3699-1|ref=harv}}
* {{cite web|last=Wilbur|first=Shawn P. |title=The Anarchist Encyclopedia: Hierarchy |url = https://www.libertarian-labyrinth.org/working-translations/anarchist-encyclopedia-hierarchy/ |date=19 February 2018|access-date=30 July 2019|ref=harv}}
{{refend}}
 
== Bacaan lanjutanlebih lanjut ==
* {{cite book |last=Barclay|first=Harold B. |author-link=Harold Barclay |title=People Without Government: An Anthropology of Anarchy |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=MrFHQgAACAAJ |year=1990|publisher=Kahn & Averill|isbn=978-0-939306-09-1}}
* ''[http://www.blackrosebooks.net/anarism1.htm Anarchism. A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939)]'' [[Robert Graham]], editor. Black Rose Books, Montreal and London 2005. ISBN 1-55164-250-6.
* {{cite book |last=Harper|first=Clifford|authorlink=Clifford Harper|title=Anarchy: A Graphic Guide |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=W63aAAAAMAAJ |year=1987|publisher=Camden Press|isbn=978-0-948491-22-1}}
* ''Anarchism'', [[George Woodcock]] (Penguin Books, 1962) (For many years the classic introduction, until in part superseded by Harper's ''Anarchy: A Graphic Guide'')
* {{cite book |last=Le Guin|first=Ursula K. |author-link=Ursula K. Le Guin|title=The Dispossessed|date=2009|publisher=HarperCollins|title-link=The Dispossessed}}
* ''Anarchy: A Graphic Guide'', [[Clifford Harper]] (Camden Press, 1987) (An excellent overview, updating Woodcock's classic, and beautifully illustrated throughout by Harper's woodcut-style artwork)
* {{cite book |last=Kinna|first=Ruth|author-link=Ruth Kinna |title=Anarchism: A Beginners Guide |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=LLLaAAAAMAAJ |year=2005 |publisher=Oneworld |isbn=978-1-85168-370-3 }}
* ''The Anarchist Reader'', George Woodcock (Ed.) (Fontana/Collins 1977) (An anthology of writings from anarchist thinkers and activists including [[Pierre-Joseph Proudhon|Proudhon]], [[Peter Kropotkin|Kropotkin]], [[Mikhail Bakunin|Bakunin]], [[Murray Bookchin|Bookchin]], [[Emma Goldman|Goldman]], and many others.)
* {{cite book |last=Sartwell|first=Crispin|author-link=Crispin Sartwell|title=Against the State: An Introduction to Anarchist Political Theory |publisher=SUNY Press|year=2008|isbn=978-0-7914-7447-1 |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=bk-aaMVGKO0C }}
* ''[[The Dispossessed]]'', [[Ursula K. Le Guin]] (a 1974 [[science fiction]] novel that takes place on a planet with an anarchist society; winner of both the [[Hugo Award|Hugo]] and [[Nebula Award]]s for best novel.)
* {{cite book |last=Scott|first=James C. |author-link=James C. Scott |year=2012|title=Two Cheers for Anarchism: Six Easy Pieces on Autonomy, Dignity, and Meaningful Work and Play |title-link=Two Cheers for Anarchism|location=Princeton, New Jersey|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-0-691-15529-6}}
* {{cite book |last=Wolff|first=Robert Paul|author-link=Robert Paul Wolff|title=In Defense of Anarchism|year=1998|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-21573-3|title-link=In Defense of Anarchism }}
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{sister project links|voy=no|n=no|v=no|b=Subject:Anarkisme|s=Portal:Anarkisme|d=Q6199|c=Kategori:Anarkisme}}
* {{id}} [http://anarchoi.gudbug.com/faq-anarki/ F.A.Q Anarki]
* [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/ Anarchy Archives]. [[Anarchy Archives]] adalah pusat penelitian daring tentang sejarah dan teori anarkisme
* {{id}} [http://pustaka.otonomis.org Kumpulan artikel-artikel Anti-Otoritarian berbahasa Indonesia]
* {{id}} [http://ind.anarchopedia.org Anarchopedia Indonesia]
* {{en}} [http://eng.anarchopedia.org Anarchopedia bahasa Inggris]
* {{en}} [http://www.infoshop.org/faq/index.html Anarchist F.A.Q.]
 
{{Ideologies-}}
{{Anarkisme-h}}
{{Topik filsafat}}
{{Budaya politik}}
{{komunisme bawahIdeologi}}
{{Filsafat sosial dan politik}}
{{authority control}}
 
[[Kategori:Anarkisme| ]]
[[Kategori:Antikapitalisme]]
[[Kategori:Antifasisme]]
[[Kategori:Politik kiri jauh]]
[[Kategori:Sosialisme libertarian]]
[[Kategori:Budaya politik]]
[[Kategori:Ideologi politik]]
[[Kategori:Teori sosial]]
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