Organisasi Kerja Sama dan Pembangunan Ekonomi: Perbedaan revisi

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'''Organisasi Kerja Sama dan Pembangunan Ekonomi''' ({{lang-en|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development}}, '''OECD'''; {{lang-fr|Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques}}, ''{{lang|fr|OCDE}}'') merupakan sebuah [[organisasi internasional]] dengan tiga puluh negara yang menerima prinsip [[demokrasi perwakilan]] dan ekonomi [[pasar bebas]]. Berawal tahun [[1948]] dengan nama Organisasi untuk Kerja Sama Ekonomi Eropa ('''OEEC''' - ''Organisation for European Economic Co-operation''), dipimpin oleh [[Robert Marjolin]] dari Prancis, untuk membantu menjalankan [[Marshall Plan]], untuk rekonstruksi [[Eropa]] setelah [[Perang Dunia II]]. Kemudian, keanggotaannya merambah negara-negara non-Eropa, dan tahun [[1961]], dibentuk kembali menjadi OECD oleh [[Konvensi tentang Organisasi untuk Kerja Sama dan Pembangunan Ekonomi]].
 
==Negara anggota==
== Anggota<ref>[http://www.oecd.org/countrieslist/0,3351,en_33873108_33844430_1_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD's country list]</ref> ==
 
Terdapat tiga puluh anggota penuh;<ref>[http://www.oecd.org/document/58/0,3343,en_2649_34483_1889402_1_1_1_1,00.html '''Ratification of the Convention on the OECD''' ]</ref>25 diantaranya (ditandai dengan *) dianggap sebagai [[negara berpendapatan tinggi]] oleh [[Bank Dunia]] tahun 2006.
===Saat ini===
{|
Saat ini OECD beranggotakan 36&nbsp;negara.<ref name=membership/> Satu negara lain, [[Kolombia]], diundang bergabung.<ref name=oecd-co-invitation/>
 
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 0.95em;"
|-
! style="width:115px;"| Negara !! Permohonan !! Negosiasi !! Undangan !! Anggota<ref name=membership>{{cite web | url = http://www.oecd.org/document/58/0,3746,en_2649_201185_1889402_1_1_1_1,00.html | title = List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD | publisher = OECD | accessdate=9 Juni 2018}}</ref> !! Kawasan !! Catatan
| colspan=2 | Anggota pendiri (1961):
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Australia}} || || || || align=right | 7 Juni 1971 || Oseania ||
|
:{{flag|Amerika Serikat}}*
:{{flag|Austria}}*
:{{flag|Belanda}}*
:{{flag|Belgia}}*
:{{flag|Britania Raya}}*
:{{flag|Bosnia dan Herzegovina}}
:{{flag|Denmark}}*
:{{IRL}}*
:{{flag|Islandia}}*
:{{flag|Italia}}*
:{{flag|Jerman}}*
|
:{{flag|Kanada}}*
:{{flag|Luksemburg}}*
:{{flag|Norwegia}}*
:{{flag|Prancis}}*
:{{flag|Portugal}}*
:{{flag|Spanyol}}*
:{{flag|Swedia}}*
:{{flag|Swiss}}*
:{{flag|Turki}}
:{{flag|Yunani}}*
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Austria}} || || || || align=right | 29 September 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec">{{cite web|url= http://www.oecd.org/general/organisationforeuropeaneconomicco-operation.htm |title=Organisation for European Economic Co-operation |publisher= OECD |date= |accessdate=29 November 2011}}</ref>
| colspan=2 | Bergabung kemudian (menurut urutan tahun bergabung):
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Belgium}} || || || || align=right | 13 September 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|
|-
:{{flag|Jepang}}* (1964)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Canada}} || || || || align=right | 10 April 1961 || Amerika Utara ||
:{{flag|Finlandia}}* (1969)
|-
:{{flag|Australia}}* (1971)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Chile}} || align=right | November 2003<ref>{{cite web|url=http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id=%7Be52a0c43-c837-4e8d-846d-7e01f0791009%7D |title=Países industrializados alaban avances económicos de Chile |publisher=El Mercurio |date= 18 Juni 2004 |accessdate=31 Mei 2013|language=Spanish}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://diario.elmercurio.com/detalle/index.asp?id=%7B1588a4bc-9022-40b7-8449-46d8f6a2d725%7D |title=Chile está entre los mejores aspirantes para entrar a la OCDE |publisher=El Mercurio |date= 16 Juni 2004 |accessdate=31 Mei 2013|language=Spanish}}</ref> || align=right | 16 Mei 2007<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/brazil/oecdcouncilresolutiononenlargementandenhancedengagement.htm |title=Brazil:- OECD Council Resolution on Enlargement and Enhanced Engagement - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development |publisher=Oecd.org |date= |accessdate=31 Mei 2013}}</ref> || align=right | 15 Desember 2009<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/general/chileinvitedtobecomeamemberoftheoecd.htm |title=Chile invited to become a member of the OECD |publisher=Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development |date=15 Desember 2009 |accessdate=31 Mei 2013}}</ref> || align=right | 7 Mei 2010 || Amerika Selatan ||
:{{flag|Selandia Baru}}* (1973)
|-
:{{flag|Libya}}* (1983)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Czech Republic}} || align=right | Januari 1994<ref name="autogenerated2">{{Cite web |url=http://carolina.cuni.cz/archive-en/Carolina-E-No-181.txt |title=Archived copy |access-date=31 Mei 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010235651/http://carolina.cuni.cz/archive-en/Carolina-E-No-181.txt |archive-date=10 Oktober 2017 |dead-url=yes |df=dmy-all }}</ref> || align=right | 8 Juni 1994<ref name="eetalks">{{cite news|url=http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1994/Christopher-Pitches-for-New-Role-for-Former-Communist-Countries-With-PM-France-OECD/id-5480338d652a397f6cb0ce2f73d96549 |title=Christopher pitches for new role for former communist countries with PM-France-OECD |agency=Associated Press |date=8 Juni 1994 |accessdate=2 Juni 2013}}</ref> || align=right | 24 November 1995<ref name="autogenerated2"/> || align=right | 21 Desember 1995 || Eropa || Anggota [[Comecon]] sejak 1949 hingga 1991 dengan nama [[Republik Sosialis Cekoslowakia|Cekoslowakia]].
:{{flag|Meksiko}} (1994)
|-
:{{flag|Republik Ceko}}* (1995)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Denmark}} || || || || align=right | 30 Mei 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
:{{flag|Korea Selatan}}* (1996)
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Estonia}} || || align=right | 16 Mei 2007<ref name="autogenerated1"/> || align=right | 10 Mei 2010<ref name="autogenerated4">{{cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/general/accessionestoniaisraelandsloveniainvitedtojoinoecd.htm |title=Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development |publisher=Oecd.org |date=10 Mei 2010 |accessdate=31 Mei 2013}}</ref> || align=right | 9 Desember 2010 || Eropa ||
:{{flag|Hungaria}} (1996)
|-
:{{flag|Polandia}} (1996)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Finland}} || || || || align=right | 28 Januari 1969 || Eropa ||
:{{flag|Slowakia}} (2000)
|-
:{{flag|Chile}} (2010)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|France}} || || || || align=right | 7 Agustus 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
:{{flag|Slovenia}}* (2010)
|-
:{{flag|Israel}}* (2010)
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Germany}} || || || || align=right | 27 September 1961 || Eropa || Bergabung OEEC tahun 1949 (Jerman Barat).<ref>''Adenauer und die Hohen Kommissare'', Munich 1989, p. 465. [https://books.google.com/books?id=DnlZ17YYwNUC&pg=PA465&dq=Deutschland+OEEC&hl=de&sa=X&ei=m-X9Ts2MKcfDtAaj0N3QDw&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false Available here.]</ref> Sebelumnya diwakili oleh [[Trizone]].<ref name="oeec"/> [[Jerman Timur]] anggota [[Comecon]] sejak 1950 hingga [[reunifikasi Jerman]] tahun 1990.
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Greece}} || || || || align=right | 27 September 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Hungary}} || align=right | December 1993<ref name="imf">{{cite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2005/wp05213.pdf|title=Capital Account Liberalization, Capital Flow Patterns, and Policy Responses in the EU’s New Member States|publisher=[[International Monetary Fund]]|author=Zsófia Árvai|work=IMF Working Paper|date=November 2005}}</ref> || align=right | 8 Juni 1994<ref name="eetalks"/> || || align=right | 7 Mei 1996 || Eropa || Anggota [[Comecon]] sejak 1949 hingga 1991.
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Iceland}} || || || || align=right | 5 Juni 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Ireland}} || || || || align=right | 17 Agustus 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Israel}} || align=right | 15 Maret 2004<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.moital.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/12E6283F-5E9E-48E3-B0B3-5803EB2BAD70/0/IsraelReadyfortheOECDMarkLuban.pdf|title=Israel: Ready for the OECD|publisher=Israel Ministry of Finance|date=March 2006}}</ref> || align=right | 16 Mei 2007<ref name="autogenerated1"/> || align=right | 10 Mei 2010<ref name="autogenerated4"/> || align=right | 7 September 2010}} || Asia ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Italy}} || || || || align=right | 29 Maret 1962}} || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Japan}} || align=right | November 1962<ref name="japan">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9qqdRRfwj-EC&pg=PA88#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Japan's Foreign Policy|author=F. C. Langdon|isbn=9780774843546|date=1 November 2011}}</ref> || || align=right | Juli 1963<ref name="japan"/> || align=right | 28 April 1964}} || Asia ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|South Korea}} || align=right | 29 Maret 1995<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.law.columbia.edu/course_00S_L9436_001/2004/legal%20market.pdf|title=LIBERALIZATION OF LEGAL SERVICES MARKET IN KOREA|author=Woong Shik Shin}}</ref> || || align=right | 25 Oktober 1996<ref>{{cite web|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1996-10-25/news/9610260175_1_south-korea-oecd-foreign-minister-gong-ro-myung|title=South Korea joins OECD: South Korea was formally invited...|publisher=Chicago Tribune|date=25 Oktober 1996}}</ref> || align=right | 12 Desember 1996 || Asia || Nama resminya Republik Korea
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Latvia}} || align=right | || align=right | 29 Mei 2013<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/latvia/remarks-at-signing-of-accession-agreement-with-latvia.htm|title=Remarks at the signing of the Accession Agreement with the Republic of Latvia - OECD| publisher = OECD |access-date=14 April 2018}}</ref> || style="text-align:right;"| 11 Mei 2016<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.oecd.org/latvia/accession-latvia-invited-to-join-oecd.htm|title="Accession: Latvia invited to join OECD - OECD"|date=11 Mei 2016}}</ref> || align=right | 1 Juli 2016<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.oecd.org/countries/latvia/latvia-accession-to-the-oecd.htm |publisher=OECD|title=Latvia's accession to the OECD|date=1 Juli 2016|accessdate=6 Juli 2018}}</ref> || Eropa ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Lithuania}} || align=right | || align=right | 9 April 2015<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/countries/lithuania/lithuania-accession-to-the-oecd.htm|title=Roadmap to membership at the OECD for Lithuania - OECD| publisher = OECD |access-date=5 Juli 2018}}</ref> || style="text-align:right;"| 31 Mei 2018}} || align=right | 5 Juli 2018<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.oecd.org/countries/lithuania/lithuania-accession-to-the-oecd.htm |publisher=OECD|title=Lithuania's accession to the OECD|date=5 Juli 2018|accessdate=6 Juli 2018}}</ref> || Eropa ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Luxembourg}} || || || || align=right | 7 Desember 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Mexico}} || || || align=right | 14 April 1994<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1994/Mexico-Formally-Invited-To-Join-OECD-as-25th-Member/id-5c32c538b21ed50047612bcd16725a5c|title=MEXICO FORMALLY INVITED TO JOIN OECD AS 25TH MEMBER|agency=Associated Press|date=14 April 1994}}</ref> || align=right | 18 Mei 1994}} || Amerika Utara ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Netherlands}} || || || || align=right | 13 November 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|New Zealand}} || || || || align=right | 29 Mei 1973}} || Oseania ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Norway}} || || || || align=right | 4 Juli 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Poland}} || align=right | 1 Februari 1994<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.msz.gov.pl/resource/53b47207-6fec-4c28-891d-baa5a912a154 |title=ORGANIZACJA WSPÓŁPRACY GOSPODARCZEJ I ROZWOJU |language=Polish}}</ref> || align=right | 8 Juni 1994<ref name="eetalks"/> || align=right | 11 Juli 1996<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1996/Poland-Joins-Think-Tank-of-Richest-Nations/id-6b4dd9e85b08d4d60db62478cb3a494a|title=POLAND JOINS THINK TANK OF RICHEST NATIONS|agency=Associated Press|date=11 Juli 1996}}</ref> || align=right | 22 November 1996 || Eropa || Anggota [[Comecon]] sejak 1949 hingga 1991.
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Portugal}} || || || || align=right | 4 Agustus 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Slovakia}} || align=right | February 1994<ref name="autogenerated3">{{cite web|url=http://www.eiu.com/index.asp?layout=VWArticleVW3&article_id=1764802376&country_id=940000294&channel_id=210004021&category_id=500004050&refm=vwCat&page_title=Article|title=Slovakia politics: Slovakia officially joins OECD|publisher=BBC Monitoring|date=18 Desember 2000}}</ref> || align=right | 8 Juni 1994<ref name="eetalks"/> || align=right | July 2000<ref name="autogenerated3"/> || align=right | 14 Desember 2000}} || Eropa || Anggota [[Comecon]] sejak 1949 hingga 1991 dengan nama [[Republik Sosialis Cekoslowakia|Cekoslowakia]].
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Slovenia}} || align=right | March 1996<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mzz.gov.si/en/economic_diplomacy/slovenia_member_of_the_oecd/accession_process/ |title=Accession Process &#124; Ministry of Foreign Affairs |publisher=Mzz.gov.si |date= |accessdate=31 Mei 2013}}</ref> || align=right | 16 Mei 2007<ref name="autogenerated1"/> || align=right | 10 Mei 2010<ref name="autogenerated4"/> || align=right | 21 Juli 2010}} || Eropa ||
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Spain}} || || || || align=right | 3 Agustus 1961 || Eropa || Joined OEEC in 1958.<ref>[[Julio Crespo MacLennan]]: ''Spain and the process of European integration, 1957–85'', Basingstoke 2000, p. 31. [https://books.google.com/books?id=VTWqp0JmGNQC&pg Available here.]</ref>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Sweden}} || || || || align=right | 28 September 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Switzerland}} || || || || align=right | 28 September 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|Turkey}} || || || || align=right | 2 Agustus 1961 || Asia || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}} || || || || align=right | 2 Mei 1961 || Eropa || Anggota OEEC.<ref name="oeec"/>
|-
| style="text-align:left;"| {{flagcountry|United States}} || || || || align=right | 12 April 1961 || Amerika Utara ||
|}
 
* [[Komisi Eropa]] membantuberpartisipasi tugasdi OECD, bersama Negaranegara-negara AnggotaUni UEEropa.<ref>[{{cite web |url=http://www.oecd.org/countrieslist/0,3351,en_33873108_33844430_1_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD's|title=Member countryCountries websites]|publisher=Oecd.org |date=1 Januari 1970 |accessdate=23 Oktober 2010}}</ref>
 
===Bekas===
* [[Wilayah Merdeka Trieste]] (Zona A) (anggota OEEC hingga 1954 ketika status independennya hilang).<ref name="oeec"/>
 
== Kandidat anggota ==
51.255

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