Para rasul: Perbedaan revisi

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=== Para penulis injil ===
{{utama|Injil|Injil sinoptik}}<!--
{{lihat pula|Kepengarangan Alkitab#Perjanjian Baru}}
{{See also|Authorship of the Bible#Table IV: New Testament}}
The [[GospelInjil of MatthewMatius]] istidak anonymous:memuat thenama authorpengarangnya. is not named within the text, and the superscriptionEmbel-embel "accordingmenurut to MatthewMatius" wasbaru addedditambahkan somepada timesekitar inabad the 2nd centuryke-2.{{sfn|Harrington|1991|p=8}}{{sfn|Nolland|2005|p=16}} TheTradisi traditionyang thatmeyakini the author wasbahwa [[Matthew theMatius|Rasul ApostleMatius]] beginsadalah withpengarangnya berawal dari pernyataan [[Papias ofdari Hierapolis]] (c''[[circa|ca.&nbsp;AD]]'' 100–140), anseorang earlyuskup [[bishop]] andsekaligus [[ApostolicBapa Apostolik|Bapa FatherRasuli]], whoyang isdikutip cited by theoleh [[Churchsejarawan historianGereja]] [[Eusebius]] (AD 260–340), assebagai followsberikut: "MatthewMatius collectedmengumpulkan thewahyu-wahyu oracles [(''[[logia]]'':, sayingsperkataan-perkataan ofdari oratau aboutmengenai Jesus] inYesus) thedalam [[Hebrewbahasa languageIbrani]] [(''Hebraïdi dialektōi'']), anddan eachtiap-tiap oneorang interpretedmenafsirkan [''hērmēneusen—hērmēneusen''perhaps, mungkin maksudnya 'translatedmenerjemahkan'] themwahyu-wahyu asitu bestsemampu he couldmereka."{{sfn|Turner|2008|pp=15–16}}{{Citation not found}}<ref group="Notes" name="Eusebius">Eusebius, "History of theSejarah ChurchGereja" 3.39.14–17, cca. 325 CEM, GreekTeks textYunani 16: "ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἱστόρηται τῷ Παπίᾳ περὶ τοῦ Μάρκου· περὶ δὲ τοῦ Ματθαῖου ταῦτ’ εἴρηται· Ματθαῖος μὲν οὖν Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ τὰ λόγια συνετάξατο, ἡρμήνευσεν δ’ αὐτὰ ὡς ἧν δυνατὸς ἕκαστος. VariousBerbagai Englishversi translationsterjemahan publishedke dalam bahasa Inggris sudah diterbitkan, standardterjemahan referenceyang translationdijadikan byrujukan standar adalah hasil karya [[Philip Schaff]], tersedia atdi [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.viii.xxxix.html CCEL]: "[C]oncerningSehubungan dengan MatthewMatius heia [Papias] writesmenulis assebagai followsberikut: 'SoMaka then(963) MatthewMatius wrotemenuliskan the oracles inwahyu-wahyu thedalam Hebrewbahasa languageIbrani, anddan everysetiap oneorang interpretedmenafsirkan them as he was ablesemampunya.'(964)" OnlineVersi versiondaring includesmemuat footnotespula catatan kaki nomor 963 anddan 964 bydari Philip Schaff.<br>[[IrenaeusIreneus]] (diedwafat c''ca.&nbsp;202'' CE202) makesjuga amengemukakan similarpernyataan commentserupa, possiblyyang alsomungkin drawingsekali onjuga didasarkan atas pernyataan Papias, indalam karya tulisnya yang hisberjudul ''[[OnMelawan theAjaran Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called GnosisSesat|AgainstMelawan HeresiesBidah]]'', [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.iv.ii.html BookBuku III, ChapterBab 1]: "MatthewMatius juga alsomenghasilkan issuedsebuah ainjil writtentertulis Gospeldi amongkalangan theorang HebrewsIbrani indalam theirdialek ownmereka dialectsendiri". SeeBaca {{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5vRvCYSw4DIC|title=Irenaeus' Use of Matthew's Gospel in Adversus Haereses|last=Bingham|first=Dwight Jeffrey|publisher=Peeters Publishers|year=1998|isbn=9789068319644|series=''Traditio exegetica Graeca''|volume=7|location=[[Louvain, Belgium]]|pages=64ff|via=}}</ref>
{{off topic|date=February 2019}}
The [[Gospel of Matthew]] is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, and the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the 2nd century.{{sfn|Harrington|1991|p=8}}{{sfn|Nolland|2005|p=16}} The tradition that the author was [[Matthew the Apostle]] begins with [[Papias of Hierapolis]] (c.&nbsp;AD 100–140), an early [[bishop]] and [[Apostolic Father]], who is cited by the [[Church historian]] [[Eusebius]] (AD 260–340), as follows: "Matthew collected the oracles [''[[logia]]'': sayings of or about Jesus] in the [[Hebrew language]] [''Hebraïdi dialektōi''], and each one interpreted [''hērmēneusen—''perhaps 'translated'] them as best he could."{{sfn|Turner|2008|pp=15–16}}{{Citation not found}}<ref group="Notes" name="Eusebius">Eusebius, "History of the Church" 3.39.14–17, c. 325 CE, Greek text 16: "ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἱστόρηται τῷ Παπίᾳ περὶ τοῦ Μάρκου· περὶ δὲ τοῦ Ματθαῖου ταῦτ’ εἴρηται· Ματθαῖος μὲν οὖν Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ τὰ λόγια συνετάξατο, ἡρμήνευσεν δ’ αὐτὰ ὡς ἧν δυνατὸς ἕκαστος. Various English translations published, standard reference translation by [[Philip Schaff]] at [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.viii.xxxix.html CCEL]: "[C]oncerning Matthew he [Papias] writes as follows: 'So then(963) Matthew wrote the oracles in the Hebrew language, and every one interpreted them as he was able.'(964)" Online version includes footnotes 963 and 964 by Schaff.<br>[[Irenaeus]] (died c.&nbsp;202 CE) makes a similar comment, possibly also drawing on Papias, in his ''[[On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis|Against Heresies]]'', [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.iv.ii.html Book III, Chapter 1]: "Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect". See {{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5vRvCYSw4DIC|title=Irenaeus' Use of Matthew's Gospel in Adversus Haereses|last=Bingham|first=Dwight Jeffrey|publisher=Peeters Publishers|year=1998|isbn=9789068319644|series=''Traditio exegetica Graeca''|volume=7|location=[[Louvain, Belgium]]|pages=64ff|via=}}</ref>
 
Although theSekalipun [[GospelInjil of JohnYohanes]] istidak memuat nama anonymouspengarangnya,{{sfn|Burkett|2002|p=215}} Christiantradisi traditionKristen historicallydari hasgenerasi attributedke itgenerasi tomenisbahkannya kepada [[JohnYohanes|Rasul the ApostleYohanes]], son ofbin [[ZebedeeZebedeus]], andsalah oneseorang ofdari Jesus'kedua [[Twelvebelas Apostles]]rasul Yesus. TheGaya gospelpenulisan isdan soisi closelyinjil relatedini insangat stylemirip anddengan contentgaya topenulisan thedan threeisi survivingketiga [[Johanninesurat-surat epistlesYohanes|surat Yohanes]] thatyang sintas, sehingga commentatorspara treatpengulas theinjil fourmenyatukan books,keempat-empatnya{{sfn|Lindars|1990|p=63}}{{Citation notbersama found}}[[Kitab alongWahyu]] withmenjadi thekumpulan [[BookSastra ofYohanes|karya Revelationtulis Yohanes]], askendati abelum singletentu corpussemuanya ofadalah [[Johanninehasil literature]],karya albeitsatu notpenulis necessarilyyang written by the same authorsama.{{refn|group=Notes|{{harvnb|Harris|2006|p=479}}: "MostKebanyakan scholarsahli believeyakin thatbahwa thememang samehanya personsatu wroteorang allsaja threeyang documentsmenulis butketiga-tiga thatkarya hetulis is not toini, betetapi identifiedorang withtersebut eithertidak theboleh apostledisamakan Johndengan orRasul theYohanes authormaupun ofpenulis theInjil GospelYohanes."}}<ǃ--
 
[[Injil Markus]] tidak menyebutkan nama penulisnya.{{sfn|Sanders|1995|pp=63–64}} Tradisi Kristen Perdana, yang pertamaberawal kalidari muncul dalamkarya tulisantulis [[Papias dari Hierapolis]], menisbahkan injil ini kepada [[Yohanes Markus]], pengiring dansekaligus penerjemah [[Santo Petrus|Rasul Petrus]].{{sfn|Burkett|2002|pp=155–56}} Karena alasan inilah Oleh karena itu is often called [[Mark the Evangelist|Mark]], even though most modern scholars are doubtful of the Markan tradition and instead regard the author as unknown.{{sfn|Reddish|2011|p=36}} ItInjil wasini probablymungkin writtensekali c.ditulis ADsekitar kurun waktu 66–70, duringsaat berlangsungnya aniaya Kaisar [[Nero]]'s persecutionterhadap ofumat theKristen Christiansdi inRoma Romeatau orsaat theberkobarnya Jewishpemberontakan revoltorang Yahudi, asyang suggesteddisiratkan byoleh internalpenyebutan referencesmengenai toperang wardi inYudea Judeadan andaniaya todalam persecutionisinya.{{sfn|Perkins|1998|p=241}} ThePenulis authorinjil usedini amengutip varietyberbagai ofsumber pre-existingyang sourcessudah ada pada zamannya, suchseperti askisah-kisah conflictyang storiessaling bertentangan (Marḳ̣{{Alkitab|Markus 2:1–3:6}}), [[apocalypticsastra literatureapokaliptik|apocalypticwahyu-wahyu]] discourse (4̺4:1–351–35ˌ), and collections of sayings (although not the [[Gospel of Thomas]] and probably not the [[Q source]]).{{sfn|Boring|2006|pp=13–14}}-->
 
Menurut tradisi Gereja, [[Lukas]], rekan seperjalanan Paulus, adalah penulis [[Injil Lukas]], kendati Injil Lukas tidak menyebut nama penulisnya. Kendati pandangan ini sesekali masih dikedepankan, para ahli sepakat bahwa ada banyak kontradiksi antara Kisah Para Rasul dan surat-surat Paulus yang asli.{{sfn|Theissen|Merz|1998|p=32}}{{sfn|Ehrman|2005|pp=172, 235}} Mungkin sekali injil ini disusun pada kurun waktu sekitar tahun 80 sampai tahun 110 M, dan ada bukti yang menunjukkan bahwa injil ini masih terus direvisi sampai pada abad ke-2.{{sfn|Perkins|2009|pp=250–53}}
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