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{{short description|Partai politik di Britania Raya}}
{{Infobox partai politik
{{Infobox political party
|name = Partai Konservatif
| name = Partai Konservatif dan Unionis
|native_name = Conservative and Unionist Party
| logo = [[Berkas:Conservative logo 2006.svg|100px]]
<!--| alt = Gambar coretan pohon yang terbentuk dari sapuan lebar kuas secara diagonal yang memperlihatkan Bendera Union, dengan pastel batang pendek tipis biru.-->| colorcode = #0087DC
|colorcode = <!-- HTML color code (e.g. red, #FF0000 or Party metadata color template) or transparent for no coloring -->
|leader leader = [[Theresa May]]<!-- Post-nominals not included in the infobox per MoS -->
| ideology = [[Konservatisme di Britania Raya|Konservatisme]]<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.conservatives.com/plan/welfareimmigration |title=Capping welfare and working to control immigration |publisher=Conservative and Unionist Party |date= |accessdate=1 July 2016 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160609044424/https://www.conservatives.com/Plan/WelfareImmigration |archivedate=9 June 2016 |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref name="parties-and-elections.eu"/><br>[[Liberalisme ekonomi]]<ref name="parties-and-elections.eu">{{cite web|url=http://www.parties-and-elections.eu/unitedkingdom.html|title=United Kingdom|work=Parties and Elections in Europe|first=Wolfram|last=Nordsieck|year=2017|accessdate=3 May 2018}}</ref><br>[[Unionisme di Britania Raya|Unionisme Britania]]
|chairman =
| headquarters = {{nowrap|4 Matthew Parker Street}}<br>London<br>SW1H 9HQ
|president =
| international = [[Uni Demokrat Internasional]]
|spokesperson =
| website = {{URL|www.conservatives.com/}}
|foundation = 1834
| country = Britania Raya
|ideology =
| leader1_title = Ketua
|headquarters =
| leader1_name = [[Brandon Lewis]]<!-- Post-nominals not included in the infobox per MoS -->
|international =
| leader2_title = Kepala Eksekutif
|website =
| leader2_name = Sir [[Mick Davis]], <br>(deputi [[Mike Chattey]])
|country =
| leader3_title = Ketua [[Komite 1922]]
| leader3_name = [[Sir Graham Brady]]<!-- Post-nominals not included in the infobox per MoS -->
| leader4_title = Sekretaris [[Komite 1922]]
| leader4_name = [[Bob Blackman (politisi)|Bob Blackman]]<br>[[Nigel Evans]]<!-- Post-nominals not included in the infobox per MoS -->
| leader5_title = Lords Leader
| leader5_name = [[Natalie Evans, Baroness Evans of Bowes Park|The Baroness Evans of Bowes&nbsp;Park]]
| founded = {{Start date and age|df=yes|p=y|1834}}
| predecessor = [[Partai Tory]], [[Partai Unionis Liberal]]
| womens_wing = [[Organisasi Wanita Konservatif]]
| wing1_title = Sayap luar negeri
| wing1 = [[Konservatif di Luar Negeri]]
| wing2_title = Sayap [[LGBT|LGBT+]]
| wing2 = [[Konservatif LGBT+]]
| youth_wing = [[Pemuda Konservatif (Britania Raya)|PEmuda Konservatif]]<ref>{{cite web|url=https://order-order.com/2018/03/16/young-conservatives-relaunch/|title=Young Conservatives Relaunch|work=Guido Fawkes|date=16 March 2018|accessdate=3 May 2018}}</ref>
| position = [[Kanan tengah]]<ref>{{cite book|last1=Whiteley|first1=Paul|last2=Seyd|first2=Patrick|last3=Richardson|first3=Jeremy|title=True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership|date=1994|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-154441-5|pages=141–142|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=nHNOT1OHPVMC&pg=PA141|accessdate=9 May 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Competing on the centre right: An examination of party strategy in Britain|url=http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/politics/research/research-projects/centre-right|accessdate=9 May 2016|first1=Philip|last1=Lynch|first2=Richard|last2=Whitaker|first3=Gemma|last3=Loomes|publisher=University of Leicester}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Coulson|first1=Rebecca|title=What does being right wing mean?|url=http://www.conservativehome.com/thecolumnists/2016/05/rebecca-coulson-what-does-being-right-wing-mean.html|publisher=Conservative Home|accessdate=9 May 2016|date=4 May 2016}}</ref>
| european = [[Aliansi Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa]]
| europarl = [[Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa]]
| colours = {{colorbox|#0087DC}} Biru
| membership_year = 2018
| membership = {{increase}} 124,000<ref>{{cite web|author1=Audickas |author2=Dempsey |author3=Keen |title=Membership of UK political parties|url=https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN05125|website=Parliament.uk|accessdate=5 May 2018}}</ref>
| seats1_title = [[Dewan Rakyat Britania Raya|Dewan Rakyat]]
| seats1 = {{Composition bar|312|650|#0087DC}}
| seats2_title = [[House of Lords]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.parliament.uk/mps-lords-and-offices/lords/composition-of-the-lords/|title=Lords by party, type of peerage and gender|website=Parliament.uk|accessdate=13 June 2015}}</ref>
| seats2 = {{Composition bar|247|782|#0087DC}}
| seats3_title = [[Parlemen Eropa]]
| seats3 = {{Composition bar|18|73|#0087DC}}
| seats4_title = [[Parlemen Skotlandia]]
| seats4 = {{Composition bar|31|129|hex=#0087DC}}
| seats5_title = [[Majelis Nasional Wales|Majelis Wales]]
| seats5 = {{Composition bar|12|60|hex=#0087DC}}
| seats6_title = [[Majelis Irlandia Utara|Majelis<br/>Irlandia Utara]]
| seats6 = {{Composition bar|0|90|hex=#0087DC}}
| seats7_title = [[Majelis London]]
| seats7 = {{Composition bar|8|25|#0087DC}}
| seats8_title = [[Pemerintah lokal di Britania Raya|Pemerintah lokal]]<ref name="localcouncil">{{cite web|url=http://www.opencouncildata.co.uk/index.php|title=Local Council Political Compositions|date=23 January 2018|publisher=Open Council Date UK|accessdate=23 September 2018|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170930131243/http://www.opencouncildata.co.uk/index.php|archivedate=30 September 2017|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
| seats8 = {{Composition bar|7615|20712|#0087DC}}
| seats9_title = [[Komisaris Polisi (Inggris dan Wales)|Komisaris Polisi]]
| seats9 = {{Composition bar|20|40|#0087DC}}
| seats10 = {{Composition bar|4|24|hex=#0087DC}}
| seats10_title = [[Walikota terpilih di Inggris dan Wales|Walikota terpilih]]
| seats11 = {{Composition bar|0|3|hex=#0087DC}}
| seats11_title = [[Devolusi di Inggris dan Wales|Administrasi terdevolusi]] di pemerintah
}}
{{Kotak samping konservatisme}}
[[Berkas:CMEC 1 009.jpg|jmpl|ka|[[David Cameron]], Partai Konservatif.]]
'''Partai Konservatif''', atau nama resminya '''Partai Konservatif dan Unionis''',<ref>{{cite web|title=Profile: The Conservative Party|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/election_2010/8536227.stm|date=25 March 2010|website=BBC News|accessdate=3 May 2017}}</ref> adalah [[partai politik]] [[kanan tengah]] di [[Britania Raya]]. Partai ini memerintah sejak 2010, dan pada saat ini menjadi peraih kursi terbanyak di [[Dewan Rakyat Britania Raya]], dengan 313 anggota parlemen, dan juga 249 anggota [[House of Lords]], 18 anggota [[Parlemen Eropa]], 31 anggota [[Parlemen Skotlandia]], 12 anggota [[Majelis Wales]], delapan anggota [[Majelis London]] dan 8.916 anggota dewan lokal.<ref name="localcouncil" />
'''Partai Konservatif dan Pemersatu''' ([[bahasa Inggris]]: '''''Conservative and Unionist Party''''', lebih sering disebut sebagai '''''Conservatives''''', '''''The Conservative Party''''', atau '''''Tories Party''''') adalah sebuah [[partai politik]] berhaluan [[tengah-kanan]] di [[Britania Raya]]. Didirikan pada abad 19, sejak saat itu partai ini terus menjadi partai utama dari [[sayap kanan]] di Britania Raya.
 
Partai Konservatif didirikan pada 1834 dari [[Partai Tory]]—nama sehari-hari partai ini adalah "[[Tory]]"—dan merupakan satu dari dua partai dominan di abad ke-19, bersama dengan [[Partai Liberal (Britania Raya)|Partai Liberal]]. Di bawah pimpinan [[Benjamin Disraeli]], partai ini memainkan peran penting dalam politik pada masa keemasan [[Imperium Britania]]. Pada 1912, [[Partai Unionis Liberal]] bergabung dengan partai ini untuk membentuk Partai Konservatif dan Unionis. Pada 1920-an, [[Partai Buruh (Britania Raya)|Partai Buruh]] mengungguli Partai Liberal sebagai rival utama Konservatif. Perdana Menteri Konservatif — terutama [[Winston Churchill]] dan [[Margaret Thatcher]] — memimpin pemerintahan selama 57 tahun pada abad ke-20.
Partai Konservatif merupakan kelanjutan dari [[Partai Tory Britania|Partai Tory]], didirikan pada tahun 1678, dan masih sering merujuk kepada ''Partai Tory''' dan politikus, anggota, dan pendukungnya sebagai '''Tories'''. Partai ini juga dikenal sebagai Partai Pemersatu ('''''Unionist Party''''') di Unionisme, yang menentang dukungan partai mereka terhadap [[Aturan Rumah Irlandia]].
 
Memposisikan diri pada politik kanan tengah Britania, Partai Konservatif secara ideologi [[Konservatisme|konservatif]]. Faksi yang berbeda mendominasi partai selama beberapa waktu, termasuk [[Konservatisme satu bangsa|Konservatif Satu Bangsa]], [[Thatcherism|Thatcheris]], dan [[Konservatisme liberal|konservatif liberal]], sementara pandangan dan kebijakannya telah berubah sepanjang sejarah. Partai ini secara umum mengadopsi [[Liberalisme ekonomi|kebijakan ekonomi liberal]]—condong ke ekonomi [[pasar bebas]], membatasi regulasi negara, dan mengejar privatisasi—meski di masa lalu juga mendukung [[proteksionisme]]. Partai ini termasuk [[Unionisme Britania|unionis Britania]], menentang [[Irlandia bersatu|reunifikasi Irlandia]], [[kemerdekaan Wales]] dan [[Kemerdekaan Skotlandia|Skotlandia]]. Selain itu di masa lalu juga mendukung pemeliharaan [[Imperium Britania]]. Dalam partai ini juga termasuk mereka yang memiliki pandangan berbeda terhadap [[Uni Eropa]], di antaranya sayap [[Eroskeptisisme|Eroseptis]] dan [[Pro-Eropanisme|pro Eropa]]. Dalam kebijakan sosial, secara historis partai ini lebih mengambil pendekatan [[konservatisme sosial|konservatif sosial]], meski sudah menyusut selama beberapa dekade terakhir. Dalam kebijakan luar negeri lebih cenderung pada kapabilitas militer yang kuat, mendukung partisipasi Britania di [[NATO]].
== Pranala luar ==
=== Situs resmi partai ===
* [http://www.conservatives.com/ Conservative Party]
* [http://www.conservatives.tv/ Conservatives.tv]
* [http://www.conservativesni.com/ Conservatives in Northern Ireland]
* [http://www.scottishconservatives.com/ Conservatives in Scotland]
* [http://www.conservatives.com/Where_you_live/Wales.aspx Conservatives in Wales]
* [http://www.conservativefuture.com/ Conservative Future]
* [http://www.conservativesabroad.org/ Conservatives Abroad]
 
Partai Konservatif adalah anggota [[Uni Demokrat Internasional]] dan [[Aliansi Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa]] dan bergabung dalam kelompok parlemen [[Eropa Konservatif dan Reformis]] di Uni Eropa. Cabang partai di [[Partai Konservatif Skotlandia|Skotlandia]], [[Partai Konservatif Wales|Wales]], [[Konservatif Irlandia Utara|Irlandia Utara]] dan [[Konservatif Gibraltar|Gibraltar]] bersifat otonom. Basis pendukungnya ada dari pemilih kelas menengah, utamanya di daerah pedesaan Inggris, dan dominasinya di politik Britania selama abad ke-20 menjadikan partai ini disebut sebagai salah satu partai paling berhasil di Dunia Barat.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/book-review-the-conservative-party-from-thatcher-to-cameron/|title=Book Review: The Conservative Party from Thatcher to Cameron|date=10 April 2011|author=Steve Coulter|access-date=8 July 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/04/19/the-conservative-party-may-be-destroyed-by-this-european-madness/|author=Philip Johnston|work=The Daily Telegraph|title=The Conservative Party may be destroyed by this European madness|date=19 April 2016|access-date=8 July 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/elections/2017/05/why-tories-keep-winning|title=Why the Tories keep winning|language=en|author=Andrew Gimson|work=New Statesman|date=15 May 2017|access-date=18 October 2017}}</ref>
=== Grup internal partai ===
* [http://www.conwayfor.org Conservative Way Forward]
* [http://www.trg.org.uk The Tory Reform Group]
 
=== LainnyaLihat pula ===
{{portal|Politik Britania|Konservatisme}}
* [http://www.conservative-party.net/ conservative-party.net] - Conservative website directory
* [[Konservatisme di Britania Raya]]
* [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/conservatives/ Guardian Politics] - Special Report: Conservative Party
* [[Daftar anggota parlemen Partai Konservatif (Britania Raya)]]
* {{dmoz|Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/Society_and_Culture/Politics/Parties/Conservative}}
* [[Daftar manifesto pemilu Partai Konservatif Britania Raya]]
{{politik-stub}}
* [[Daftar partai politik di Britania Raya]]
* [[Rasisme di Partai Konservatif Britania Raya]]
** [[Islamofobia di Partai Konservatif Britania Raya (2016–sekarang)]]
** [[Antisemitisme di Partai Konservatif Britania Raya]]
 
== Catatan ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== Bibliografi ==
{{Refbegin|35em|indent=yes}}
: {{cite book
|last=Bale
|first=Tim
|author-link=Tim Bale
|year=2011
|title=The Conservative Party: From Thatcher to Cameron
|location=Cambridge, England
|publisher=Polity Press
|isbn=978-0-7456-4858-3
}}
: {{cite book
|last=Blake
|first=Robert
|year=2011
|title=The Conservative Party from Peel to Major
|edition=4th
|location=London
|publisher=Faber Finds
}}
: Bulmer-Thomas, Ivor. ''The Growth of the British Party System Volume I: 1640–1923'' (1965); ''The Growth of the British Party System Volume II: 1924–1964, revised to 1966 Conservative-Labour Confrontation'' (1967)
: {{cite book
|last=Evans
|first=Eric J.
|year=2004
|title=Thatcher and Thatcherism''
}}
: Garnett, Mark, and Philip Lynch. ''The conservatives in crisis: the Tories after 1997'' (1994)
: {{cite book
|last=Paterson
|first=David
|year=2001
|title=Liberalism and Conservatism, 1846–1905
}}
{{Refend}}
 
== Bacaan lebih lanjut ==
{{Refbegin}}
* Bale, Tim. ''The Conservatives since 1945: the Drivers of Party Change''. (2012, Oxford University Press {{ISBN|978-0-19-923437-0}})
* Ball, Stuart. ''Portrait of a Party: The Conservative Party in Britain 1918-1945'' (Oxford UP, 2013).
* Beer, Samuel. "The Conservative Party of Great Britain," ''Journal of Politics'' Vol. 14, No. 1 (February 1952), pp.&nbsp;41–71 [https://www.jstor.org/stable/2126388 in JSTOR]
* Blake, Robert and Louis William Roger, eds. ''Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War'' (Oxford UP, 1992), 581 pp; 29 essays by scholars on specialized topics
* Blake, Robert. ''The Conservative Party From Peel To Churchill'' (1970) [https://archive.org/download/in.ernet.dli.2015.117670/2015.117670.The-Conservative-Party-From-Peel-To-Churchill.pdf online]
* Campbell, John. ''Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady'' (Pimlico (2003). {{ISBN|0-7126-6781-4}}
* Charmley, John. "Tories and Conservatives." in David Brown, Robert Crowcroft, and Gordon Pentland eds., ''The Oxford Handbook of Modern British Political History, 1800-2000'' (2018): 306.
* Dorey, Peter; Garnett, Mark; Denham, Andrew. ''From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party, 1997–2010'' (2011) Palgrave Macmillan. {{ISBN|978-0-230-54238-9}} [https://www.amazon.com/Crisis-Coalition-Conservative-Party-1997-2010/dp/0230542387/ excerpt and text search]
* {{long dash}}. ''British conservatism: the politics and philosophy of inequality'' (IB Tauris, 2010), Covers more than just political party.
* Ensor, R. C. K. ''England, 1870-1914'' [https://www.questia.com/library/1401979/england-1870-1914 online], passim.
* Green, E. H. H. ''Ideologies of conservatism: conservative political ideas in the twentieth century'' (2004)
* {{long dash}}. ''The Crisis of conservatism: The politics, economics, and ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880–1914'' (1996)
* [[Robert Harris (author)|Harris, Robert]]. ''The Conservatives – A History'' (2011) Bantam Press {{ISBN|978-0-593-06511-2}}
* Hayton, Richard, and Andrew Scott Crines, eds. ''Conservative orators from Baldwin to Cameron'' (2015).
* King, Anthony, ed. ''British Political Opinion 1937–2000: The Gallup Polls'' (2001)
* Lawrence, Jon. ''Electing Our Masters: The Hustings in British Politics from Hogarth to Blair'' (Oxford University Press, 2009) [https://www.amazon.com/Electing-Our-Masters-Hustings-Politics-ebook/dp/B005NJS8K2/ excerpt and text search]
* McKenzie, R. T. and A. Silver. ''Angels in Marble: Working-class Conservatives in Urban England'' (1968)
* [[Mowat, Charles Loch]]. ''Britain between the Wars, 1918–1940'' (1955) 694 pp; Detailed clinical history during
: Norton, Bruce F. ''Politics in Britain'' (2007) textbook
* Parry, J. P. "Disraeli and England," ''Historical Journal'' Vol. 43, No. 3 (September 2000), pp.&nbsp;699–728 [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3020975 in JSTOR]
* Powell, David. ''British Politics, 1910–1935: The Crisis of the Party System'' (2004)
* Roberts, Andrew. ''Churchill: Walking with Destiny'' (2018), a fully detailed biography.
* Reitan, Earl Aaron. ''The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979–2001'' (2003) Rowman & Littlefield. {{ISBN|0-7425-2203-2}}
* Searle, G. R. ''A New England?: Peace and War 1886–1918'' (2005) 976pp broad survey
* Seldon, Anthony and Stuart Ball, eds.'' Conservative Century: The Conservative Party since 1900'' (1994) 896pp; essays by experts [http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202387.001.0001/acprof-9780198202387 Contents]
* [[Peter Snowdon|Snowdon, Peter]]. ''Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party'' (2010) HarperPress {{ISBN|978-0-00-730884-2}}
* Taylor, A. J. P. ''English History, 1914–1945'' (1965), a standard political history of the era
* Thackeray, David. "Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth‐Century Britain," ''Journal of British Studies'' (2010) 49#4 pp.&nbsp;826–48.
* Windscheffel, Alex. "Men or Measures? Conservative Party Politics, 1815–1951," ''Historical Journal'' Vol. 45, No. 4 (December 2002), pp.&nbsp;937–51 [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3133535 in JSTOR]
{{Refend}}
 
=== Historiografi ===
* Crowson, N. J., ed. ''The Longman Companion to the Conservative Party Since 1830'' (2001); chronologies; relations with women, minorities, trade unions, EU, Ireland, social reform and empire.
* Harrison, Brian. "Margaret Thatcher's Impact on Historical Writing", in William Roger Louis, ed., ''Irrepressible Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics, and Culture in Britain'' (London, 2013), 307–21.
* Kowol, Kit. "Renaissance on the Right? New Directions in the History of the Post-War Conservative Party." ''Twentieth Century British History'' 27#2 (2016): 290–304. [https://www.academia.edu/24731956/Renaissance_on_the_Right_New_Directions_in_the_History_of_the_Post-War_Conservative_Party online]
* Porter, Bernard. "'Though Not an Historian Myself…'Margaret Thatcher and the Historians." ''Twentieth Century British History'' 5#2 (1994): 246–56.
* Turner, John. "The British Conservative Party in the Twentieth Century: from Beginning to End?." ''Contemporary European History'' 8#2 (1999): 275–87.
{{Refend}}
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{Commons category|Partai Konservatif (Britania Raya)}}
* {{Official website}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20101230033203/http://www.conservatives.tv/ Conservatives.tv]
* [http://www.conservativesni.com/ Konservatif di Irlandia Utara]
* [http://www.scottishconservatives.com/ Konservatif di Skotlandia]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20131202232528/http://www.bracknellconservatives.org.uk/sites/www.bracknellconservatives.org.uk/files/constitution_0.pdf Konstitusi Partai Konservatif]
* [http://www.conservative-party.net/ conservative-party.net] – Direktori situs web Konservatif
* [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/conservatives/ Guardian Politics] – Special Report: Conservative Party
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20110526130947/http://cle.ens-lyon.fr/10496001/0/fiche___pagelibre/%26RH%3DCDL_ANG100200 The Thatcher legacy 1979–2009] – Konferensi internasional
* {{Dmoz|Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/Society_and_Culture/Politics/Parties/Conservative}}
{{Portal|Uni Eropa}}
{{Authority control}}
 
[[Kategori:Partai politik di Britania Raya]]
[[Kategori:Partai Konservatif (Britania Raya)]]
[[Kategori:Didirikan pada 1834 di Britania Raya]]
[[Kategori:Partai anggota Aliansi Konservatif dan Reformis di Eropa]]
[[Kategori:Partai Konservatif di Britania Raya]]
[[Kategori:Partai anggota Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa]]
[[Kategori:Partai anggota Uni Demokrat Internasional]]
[[Kategori:Partai politik didirikan pada 1834]]
[[Kategori:Partai terwakili di Parlemen Eropa]]
[[Kategori:Toryisme]]
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