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[[Berkas:Paul Heinrich Dietrich Baron d'Holbach.jpg|jmpl|250px|Penulis [[Prancis]] abad ke-18, [[Baron d'Holbach]] adalah salah seorang pertama yang menyebut dirinya ateis. Dalam buku ''[[The System of Nature|Système de la Nature]]'' (1770), ia melukiskan jagad raya dalam pengertian materialisme filsafat, determinisme yang sempit, dan ateisme. Buku ini dan bukunya ''Common Sense'' (1772) dikutuk oleh [[Parlemen|Parlemen Paris]], dan salinan-salinannya dibakar di depan umum.]]
'''Ateisme''' adalah sebuah .pandangan filosofi yang tidak memercayai keberadaan [[Tuhan]] dan [[Dewa|dewa-dewi]]<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |first=William L. |last=Rowe |authorlink=William L. Rowe |encyclopedia=[[Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] |title=Atheism |year=1998 |editor=Edward Craig}}
</ref> ataupun penolakan terhadap teisme.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |first=Kai |last=Nielsen |authorlink=Kai Nielsen |encyclopedia=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]] |title=Atheism |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/40634/atheism |year=2009 |accessdate=2007-04-28}} "Atheism, in general, the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or spiritual beings.... a more adequate characterization of atheism consists in the more complex claim that to be an atheist is to be someone who rejects belief in God for [reasons that depend] on how God is being conceived."</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |title=Atheism |first=Paul |last=Edwards |authorlink=Paul Edwards (philosopher)|publisher=Collier-MacMillan |year=1967 |encyclopedia=[[Encyclopedia of Philosophy|The Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] |volume=Vol. 1 |page=175 |quote=On our definition, an 'atheist' is a person who rejects belief in God, regardless of whether or not his reason for the rejection is the claim that 'God exists' expresses a false proposition. People frequently adopt an attitude of rejection toward a position for reasons other than that it is a false proposition. It is common among contemporary philosophers, and indeed it was not uncommon in earlier centuries, to reject positions on the ground that they are meaningless. Sometimes, too, a theory is rejected on such grounds as that it is sterile or redundant or capricious, and there are many other considerations which in certain contexts are generally agreed to constitute good grounds for rejecting an assertion.}}
</ref> Dalam pengertian yang paling luas, ia adalah ketiadaan kepercayaan pada keberadaan [[dewa]] atau [[Tuhan]].<ref>Artikel pendek [[religioustolerance.org]] pada [http://www.religioustolerance.org/atheist4.htm Definitions of the term "Atheism"] menyatakan bahwa tidak ada konsensus mengenai definisi istilah ateisme. [[Simon Blackburn]] pada [[The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy]]: "''Atheism. Either the lack of belief in a god, or the belief that there is none''".</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=http://www.ditext.com/runes/a.html|title=Dictionary of Philosophy|first=Dagobert D.(editor)|last=Runes|authorlink=Dagobert D. Runes|year=1942 edition|publisher=Littlefield, Adams & Co. Philosophical Library|location=New Jersey|isbn=0064634612|accessdate=2010-02-01|quote=(a) the belief that there is no God; (b) Some philosophers have been called "atheistic" because they have not held to a belief in a personal God. Atheism in this sense means "not theistic". The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the term though widely current in the history of thought}}</ref>