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[[Komisaris Polisi (Selandia Baru)|Komisaris Polisi]] [[Mike Bush]] awalnya mengatakan bahwa tiga laki-laki dan satu perempuan ditangkap dan diduga terlibat dalam serangan ini.<ref name=":1">{{Cite news |url=https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/live-gunman-named-four-arrested-christchurch-mosque-attacks-leave-significant-number-fatalities |title=LIVE: Gunman named, four arrested, as Christchurch mosque attacks leave 'significant' number of fatalities |work=TVNZ|access-date=15 March 2019 |language=en-NZ}}</ref><ref name="radionz-384811"/> Mereka menganut pandangan ekstremis. Satu di antaranya diketahui tidak terlibat dan dibebaskan.<ref>{{cite news |title=40 killed as gunmen open fire in two mosques in New Zealand's Christchurch|url=https://edition.cnn.com/2019/03/14/asia/christchurch-mosque-shooting-intl/index.html|accessdate=15 March 2019 |work=CNN |date=15 March 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Christchurch mosque 'terrorist' shootings: What you need to know |url=https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/111319664/christchurch-mosque-shooting-what-you-need-to-know |accessdate=15 March 2019 |work=Stuff.co.nz|date=15 March 2019}}</ref>
 
Sebelum melancarkan serangan, pelaku menerbitkan manifesto berjudul "The Great Replacement" (mengacu kepada [[Teori konspirasi genosida orang kulit putih|teori konspirasi genosida kulit putih]] dan [[teoriTeori konspirasi The GreatPergantian ReplacementBesar|versi Perancisnya]]) di forum [[8chan]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.news.com.au/world/pacific/gunman-who-opened-fire-on-christchurch-mosque-addresses-attack-in-manifesto/news-story/70372a39f720697813607a9ec426a734|title=Christchurch mosque shooting: Gunman posts manifesto detailing reasons for attack|website=news.com.au|access-date=15 March 2019}}</ref><ref name=thewestaus_2019-03-15>{{cite news |title=Australian man named as NZ mosque gunman |url=https://thewest.com.au/news/terrorism/australian-man-brenton-tarrant-named-as-christchurch-gunman-as-four-taken-into-custody-ng-b881137083z |accessdate=15 March 2019 |work=The West Australian |date=15 March 2019 |language=en}}</ref><ref name="MartinChristchurch">{{cite web|last=Martin|first=Lisa|title=Rightwing extremist wrote manifesto before livestreaming Christchurch shooting|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/15/rightwing-extremist-wrote-manifesto-before-livestreaming-christchurch-shooting|website=www.theguardian.com|publisher=Guardian|accessdate=15 March 2019}}</ref> Manifesto ini menyebut nama-nama tokoh sayap kanan, meme [[4chan]], dan ajakan supaya orang-orang mengamini serangan ini dan membuat lebih banyak meme.<ref name="WeillSommer"/> Pelaku juga mencap dirinya "pemusnah kebab" (''kebab removalist''), meme 4chan yang menyindir [[genosida Bosnia|serangan etnis Serbia terhadap etnis Bosnia Muslim]].<ref name="WeillSommer">{{cite web|last1=Weill|first1=Kelly|last2=Sommer|first2=Will|title=Mosque Attack Video Linked to ‘White Genocide’ Rant|url=https://www.thedailybeast.com/christchurch-shootings-mosque-attack-video-linked-to-white-genocide-rant|website=www.thedailybeast.com|publisher=Daily Beast|accessdate=15 March 2019}}</ref> Akun [[Twitter]] pelaku menampilkan senjata api bersimbol [[neo-Nazi]], [[Black Sun (simbol)|Black Sun]] dan [[Fourteen Words]] (ada di dalam manifesto), yang bertuliskan nama-nama korban serangan teror di negara-negara Barat.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/australasia/article/3001902/new-zealand-shooting-christchurch-mosque-gunman-posted-racist|title=Christchurch mosque gunman posted racist manifesto online before rampage|date=2019-03-15|website=South China Morning Post|language=en|access-date=2019-03-15}}</ref>
 
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