Haftarah: Perbedaan revisi

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'''''Haftarah''''' atau '''''Haftorah''''' (dalam pelafalan [[Ashkenazi]]:'''''haftoroh''''' (alt. '''haphtara'''), [[bahasa Ibrani]]: '''הפטרה'''; "berpisah," "mengambil cuti", bentuk jamak ''haftarot'' atau ''haftoros'') adalah suatu rangkaian bacaan pilihan dari kitab-kitab pada bagian ''[[Nevi'im]]'' ("Kitab Nabi-nabi") [[Alkitab Ibrani]] (''[[Tanakh]]'') yang dibaca di depan umum pada [[sinagogasinagoge]] sebagai bagian praktik ibadah [[Yudaisme]]. Pembacaan Haftarah mengikuti [[pembacaan Taurat]] pada setiap hari [[Sabat]] dan pada festival dan hari-hari puasa Yahudi. Biasanya, ''haftarah'' secara tematik dikaitkan dengan''[[parsyah]]'' (bagian bacaan Taurat mingguan) yang dibacakan sebelumnya.<ref>Goswell argues that the arrangement "suggests we should understand the books of Joshua - Kings as illustrating and applying the theology and ethics of the [[Pentateuch]]." Gregory Goswell, "The Hermeneutics of the Haftarot," ''[[Tyndale Bulletin]]'' 58 (2007), 100.</ref> Pembacaan ''haftarah'' dilakukan dengan nyanyian (dikenal sebagai "''trop''" dalam [[bahasa Yiddish]] atau "Cantillation" dalam bahasa Inggris. Suatu pemberkatan terkait diberikan sebelum dan sesudah pembacaan Haftarah.
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The origin of haftarah reading is lost to history, and several theories have been proposed to explain its role in Jewish practice, suggesting it arose in response to the persecution of the [[Jews]] under [[Antiochus Epiphanes]] which preceded the [[Maccabean revolt]], wherein Torah reading was prohibited,<ref name="Rabinowitz, Louis 2007">Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.</ref> or that it was "instituted against the [[Samaritans]], who denied the [[Biblical canon|canon]]icity of the Prophets (except for Joshua), and later against the [[Sadducees]]."<ref name="Rabinowitz, Louis 2007"/> The [[Talmud]] mentions that a ''haftarah'' was read in the presence of Rabbi [[Eliezer ben Hyrcanus]], who lived c.70 CE,<ref>Tosefta, Megillah, 4 (3): 1, gives the haftarot for the Four Special Sabbaths. A baraita in Megillah 31a, which has later additions by the Babylonian amoraim who add the haftarot for the second days of the festivals (and who sometimes change the order of the haftarot as a result) – gives the haftarot for every one of the festivals, including their intermediate Sabbaths, as well as a Sabbath which is also Rosh Hodesh, the Sabbath which immediately precedes Rosh Hodesh, and Hanukkah.</ref> and in the [[Christian]] [[New Testament]] several references suggest this Jewish custom was in place during that era.<ref>Acts 13:15 states that "after the reading of the law and the prophets" Paul was invited to deliver an exhortation. Luke 4:17 states that during the Sabbath service in Nazareth the Book of Isaiah was handed to Jesus, "and when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written," the passage being Isaiah 61:1–2. Unfortunately, the Greek word used there meaning "found" does not make it clear whether the passage read was fixed beforehand or whether it was chosen at random. See Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.</ref>
Blessings both precede and follow the ''haftarah'' reading. The blessings are read by the person to read the haftarah portion; the blessing before the ''haftarah'' is read in the tune of the ''haftarah''. The Sefardic practice is to recite, immediately after the text of the ''haftarah'' and before the concluding blessings, the verse Isaiah 47:4 ("Our Redeemer! The Lord of Hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel!"). The blessings following the ''haftarah'' are standard on all occasions the ''haftarah'' is read, except for the final blessing, which varies by date and is omitted on some days.
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Berbeda dengan Taurat yang dibaca dari suatu gulungan khusus, Haftarah umumnya dibaca dari buku cetakan. Bisa dari sebuah [[Tanakh]] (seluruh Alkitab Ibrani), sebuah [[Chumash]] (volume berisi Taurat dengan haftarot) atau, pada hari-hari raya, dari suatu buku doa; ada pula buku-buku berisi hanya haftarot saja dalam ukuran huruf yang besar. "Koren Tanakh", diterbitkan oleh [[Koren Publishers Jerusalem]] adalah Tanakh resmi yang diterima oleh [[Chief Rabbinate of Israel]] untuk pembacaan Haftarah di sinagogasinagoge.
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However, according to most halakhic decisors (posqim), it is preferable to read the haftarah out of a parchment scroll, and according to a small minority of posqim (mainly the followers of the [[Vilna Gaon]]), such a parchment scroll is an absolute requirement. According to some older traditions, the haftarot were read out of a special scroll containing just the selections of the Prophetic Books which were used in actual haftarot; this was known as a Sifra De'aftarta (ספרא דאפטרתא), and can still be found in a few communities today, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic; in some communities the scroll is made of paper. These scrolls sometimes contain [[nequddot|vowel points]] and te`amim (cantillation signs), and sometimes do not. However, the Vilna Gaon instituted that haftarot be read only from scrolls which contained the full text of a Prophetic Book (e.g., full text of Joshua, or full text of Judges, or full text of Isaiah), just as a Torah scroll contains the full text of the Pentateuch. These scrolls are written in accordance with the laws of writing Torah scrolls, and thus do not contain vowel points or cantillations signs.<ref>See Binyomin Hamburger, ''Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz'', volume III, chapter "Sifra De'aftarta".</ref> Such scrolls are used for the reading of the haftarot in many, perhaps most, Lithuanian-style [[yeshivot]], and in a number of Ashkenazic synagogues, especially in Israel.
 
=== ''Haftarah'' untuk mempelai pria ===
Menjadi kebiasaan dalam banyak komunitas untuk membaca {{Alkitab|Yesaya 61:10-63:9}} jika ada seorang mempelai laki-laki (yang baru menikah dalam periode minggu itu) hadir di sinagogasinagoge. Ada variasi adat:
* Ada yang membaca seluruh ''haftarah'', menggantikan bacaan ''haftarah'' biasa minggu itu.
* Ada yang hanya membaca beberapa ayat (kemungkinan {{Alkitab|Yesaya 61:10-62:5}}, meskipun sumber kebiasan ini tidak jelas). Mereka membaca ''setelah'' pembacaan ''haftarah'' biasa, baik sebelum atau sesusah — tergantung adat setempat — berkat penutup ''haftarah'' tersebut.