Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat: Perbedaan antara revisi

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Setelah Kongres menyetujui kata-kata akhir Deklarasi pada [[4 Juli]], salinan tulisan tangan itu dikirim beberapa blok ke percetakan [[John Dunlap]]. Sepanjang malam, Dunlap mencetak sekitar 200 [[selebaran]] untuk distribusi. Tak lama, Deklarasi dibacakan kepada khalayak dan dicetak ulang di koran-koran di seluruh 13 [[negara bagian]]. Pembacaan publik resmi pertama dari dokumen tersebut adalah [[John Nixon (ahli keuangan)|John Nixon]] dihalaman [[Balai Kemerdekaan (Amerika Serikat)|Balai Kemerdekaan]] pada [[8 Juli]]; pembacaan publik juga terjadi pada hari itu di [[Trenton, New Jersey]] dan [[Easton, Pennsylvania]].<ref name="Maier156">Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156.</ref> Terjemahannya dalam [[Bahasa Jerman]] diterbitkan di Philadelphia pada [[9 Juli]].<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 72.</ref>
 
Presiden Kongres [[John Hancock]] mengirim selebaran kepada [[Jenderal]] [[George Washington]], mengintruksikan kepadanya untuk berproklamasi "kepada Kepala Angkatan Darat dengan cara itu, kamu harus memikirkannya dengan yang paling tepat".<ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 155.</ref> Washington melakukan pembacaan Deklarasi tersebut kepada pasukannya di [[New York City|Kota New York]] pada 9 Juli, dengan pasukan Inggris yang tidak jauh darinya. Washington dan Kongres berharap Deklarasi akan menginspirasi para prajurit, dan mendorong orang lain untuk masuk tentara.<ref name="Maier156"/> <!--After hearing the Declaration, crowds in many cities tore down and destroyed signs or statues representing royalty. <ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156–57.</ref>-->
 
[[Berkas:William Whipple.jpg|jmpl|[[William Whipple]], penanda tangan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan.]]
Enslaved African Americans also heard the call to liberty and freedom. Tens of thousands of slaves left plantations in the South and farms in the North to join the British lines, or to escape during the disruption of war. The British kept their promise and evacuated thousands of [[Black Loyalists]] with their troops in the closing days of the war, for resettlement as freedmen in Nova Scotia, Jamaica or England. Four to five thousand African Americans served in the Continental Army fighting for American Independence. The revolutionary government freed slaves who enlisted with the Continentals; 5% of George Washington's forces consisted of African-American troops.
 
[[William Whipple]], a signer of the Declaration of Independence who had fought in the war, freed his slave, [[Prince Whipple]], because of revolutionary ideals. In the postwar decades, so many other slaveholders also freed their slaves that from 1790-1810, the percentage of free blacks in the Upper South increased to 8.3 percent from less than one percent of the black population. <ref>Peter Kolchin, ''American Slavery, 1619-1877'' (1993), pp. 77-79, 81</ref> Most Northern states abolished slavery; although with gradual emancipation, slaves were still listed in some mid-Atlantic state censuses in 1840.
 
Having fought for independence, after the war freedmen faced housing and job discrimination, were denied voting rights in several states, and needed passes to travel between the states.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Quarles |first=Benjamin |title=Black America at the Time of the Revolutionary War |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=znUlZTIWfrEC&pg=PA44&dq=Black+America+at+the+time+Benjamin+Quarles&hl=en&ei=jeJiToRuj9iIAojy8bYK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Black%20America%20at%20the%20time%20Benjamin%20Quarles&f=false |magazine=Ebony |pages=44, 45, 48 |date=August 1975 |accessdate=09-03-2011}}</ref>-->