Penghakiman massa: Perbedaan antara revisi

7 bita ditambahkan ,  3 tahun yang lalu
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Bot: Perubahan kosmetika
(←Membuat halaman berisi ''''Penghakiman massa''' ({{lang-en|Lynching}}) adalah pembunuhan di luar hukum dini oleh sebuah kelompok. Ini seringkali dipakai untuk mengkarakterisasikan eksekus...')
 
k (Bot: Perubahan kosmetika)
'''Penghakiman massa''' ({{lang-en|Lynching}}) adalah [[pembunuhan di luar hukum]] dini oleh sebuah kelompok. Ini seringkali dipakai untuk mengkarakterisasikan eksekusi publik informal oleh sebuah geng dalam rangka menghukum orang yang dituduh bersalah, atau untuk mengintimidasi sebuah kelompok.
 
== Catatan ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== Referensi ==
* Auslander, Mark, [http://southernspaces.org/2010/holding-those-who-cant-be-held-reenacting-lynching-moores-ford-georgia "Holding on to Those Who Can't be Held": Reenacting a Lynching at Moore's Ford, Georgia"], ''Southern Spaces'', November 8, 2010.
* [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&cite=&coll=moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fatla%2Fatla0088%2F&tif=00732.TIF&pagenum=731 "The Real Judge Lynch" (December 1901), ''The Atlantic Monthly'']
* Quinones, Sam, [http://samquinones.com ''True Tales From Another Mexico: the Lynch Mob, the Popsicle Kings, Chalino and the Bronx''] (University of New Mexico Press): recounts a lynching in a small Mexican town in 1998.
* Smith, Tom. ''The Crescent City Lynchings: The Murder of Chief Hennessy, the New Orleans 'Mafia' Trials, and the Parish Prison Mob'', [https://web.archive.org/web/20071009005147/http://www.crescentcitylynchings.com/ crescentcitylynchings.com]
 
== Bacaan tambahan ==
* Allen, James (ed.), Hilton Als, John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwack, ''Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America'' (Twin Palms Pub: 2000), {{ISBN|0-944092-69-1}} accompanied by an [http://www.worldcat.org/title/without-sanctuary-lynching-photography-in-america/oclc/43312471 online photographic survey of the history of lynchings in the United States]
* Arellano, Lisa, ''Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and Nation.'' Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
* Bailey, Amy Kate and Stewart E. Tolnay. ''Lynched: The Victims of Southern Mob Violence.'' Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.
* Bancroft, H. H., ''Popular Tribunals'' (2 vols, San Francisco, 1887).
* Beck, Elwood M. and Stewart E. Tolnay. "The killing fields of the deep south: the market for cotton and the lynching of blacks, 1882–1930." ''American Sociological Review'' (1990): 526–539. [http://utminers.utep.edu/trcurry/Lynching%20article.pdf online]
* [[Manfred Berg|Berg, Manfred]], ''Popular Justice: A History of Lynching in America''. Ivan R. Dee, Chicago 2011, {{ISBN|978-1-56663-802-9}}.
* Bernstein, Patricia, ''The First Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP.'' College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press (March 2005), hardcover, {{ISBN|1-58544-416-2}}
* Brundage, W. Fitzhugh, ''Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930'', Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press (1993), {{ISBN|0-252-06345-7}}
* Zangrando, Robert L. ''The NAACP crusade against lynching, 1909–1950'' (1980).
 
== Pranala liar ==
{{Commons category|Lynchings}}
{{Wiktionary}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20131212113547/http://cle.ens-lyon.fr/anglais/taking-history-personnally-215553.kjsp?RH=CDL_ANG000000 ''Taking History Personnally''], a text on the Marion lynching by Cynthia Carr
* [http://www.dailykos.com/story/2015/02/04/1362325/-ISIS-Burned-a-Man-Alive-That-It-is-Nothing-Compared-to-the-Spectacular-Lynchings-of-Black-Americans# Yes, ISIS Burned a Man Alive: White Americans Did the Same Thing to Black People by the Thousands] (Feb. 2015), ''[[Dailykos]]''
* Richardson, Dixie Kline. [http://www.spencereveningworld.com/news/2014-08-04/Front_Page/1891_Lynching_Remains_A_Mystery.html "1891 Lynching Remains a Mystery"], ''Spencer Evening World,'' Spencer, Indiana, August 4, 2014
* McKee, Robert Guy. 2013. ''Lynchings in modern Kenya and inequitable access to basic resources: A major human rights scandal and one contributing cause.'' [http://www.gial.edu/documents/McKee_Lynchings.pdf Web access]
* Cotter, Holland, [https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/26/arts/design/the-legacy-of-lynching-at-the-brooklyn-museum-documents-violent-racism.html?src=twr&_r=0 "‘The Legacy of Lynching,’ at the Brooklyn Museum, Documents Violent Racism"], ''[[New York Times]]'', July 26, 2017.
 
[[CategoryKategori:Vigilantisme]]