Zhou Barat: Perbedaan antara revisi

16.177 bita dihapus ,  3 tahun yang lalu
Zhou Barat
(Dibuat dengan menerjemahkan halaman "Western Zhou")
 
(Zhou Barat)
{{Sejarah Tiongkok|BC=1}}
'''Zhou Barat''' ( {{lang-zh|西周}}; skt. 1046 – 771 SM) adalah paruh pertama [[Dinasti Zhou]] Tiongkok kuno. Itu dimulai ketika [[Raja Wu dari Zhou]] menggulingkan [[Dinasti Shang]] pada [[Pertempuran Muye]] dan berakhir ketika para pengembara Quanrong menjarah ibukotanya Haojing dan membunuh [[Raja You dari Zhou]] pada tahun 771 SM.
 
 
== Perang sipil ==
Hanya sedikit catatan yang bertahan dari periode awal ini dan catatan dari periode Zhou Barat mencakup sedikit di luar daftar raja dengan tanggal yang tidak pasti. Raja Wu meninggal dua atau tiga tahun setelah penaklukan. Karena putranya, [[Raja Cheng dari Zhou]] masih muda, saudaranya, [[Zhou Gong|Adipati Zhou]] membantu raja muda dan tidak berpengalaman sebagai wali penguasa. Saudara-saudara Wu lainnya (Shu Du Cai, Guan Shu, dan Huo Shu), prihatin tentang kekuatan Adipati Zhou yang tumbuh, membentuk aliansi dengan penguasa regional lainnya dan sisa-sisa Shang dalam pemberontakan. Adipati Zhou membasmi pemberontakan ini dan menaklukkan lebih banyak wilayah untuk membawa orang lain di bawah kekuasaan Zhou.{{Sfnpsfnp|Chinn|2007|p=43}}{{Sfnpsfnp|Hucker|1978|p=32}}
 
Sang adipati merumuskan ajaran [[Tianming]] untuk melawan Shang menggugat hak ilahi pemerintahan dan mendirikan [[Luoyang]] sebagai ibukota timur.{{Sfnpsfnp|Hucker|1978|p=33}} Dengan sistem feodal ''fengjian'', keluarga kerajaan dan jenderal diberikan tanah di timur,{{Sfnpsfnp|Chinn|2007|p=43}} termasuk Luoyang, Jin, Ying, Lu, Qi dan Yan. Meskipun ini dirancang untuk mempertahankan otoritas Zhou karena memperluas kekuasaannya atas sejumlah besar wilayah, banyak dari ini menjadi negara utama ketika dinasti melemah. Ketika Adipati Zhou mengundurkan diri sebagai wali penguasa, sisa pemerintahan Cheng (1042–1021 SM) dan putranya [[Raja Kang dari Zhou]] (1021-996 SM) tampaknya telah damai dan makmur.
 
== Raja selanjutnya ==
[[Berkas:EN-WesternZhouStates.jpg|kiri|jmpl|300x300px|Negara-negara dinasti Zhou Barat]]
Raja keempat, [[Raja Zhao dari Zhou|Raja Zhao Zhou]] (996-977 SM) memimpin pasukan ke selatan melawan [[Chu (negara)|Chu]] dan terbunuh bersama dengan sebagian besar tentara Zhou. Raja kelima, [[Raja Mu dari Zhou]] (977-922 SM) dikenang karena kunjungan legendarisnya ke [[Xi Wangmu|Ibu Suri Barat]]. Wilayah hilang ke Xu Rong di tenggara. Kerajaan tampaknya telah melemah selama masa pemerintahan Mu, mungkin karena hubungan keluarga antara Raja Zhou dan penguasa regional menipis dari generasi ke generasi sehingga perkawinan yang awalnya dipegang oleh saudara kerajaan sekarang dipegang oleh sepupu ketiga dan keempat; wilayah periferal juga mengembangkan kekuatan dan prestise lokal yang setara dengan keluarga kerajaan Zhou.{{Sfnpsfnp|Hucker|1978|p=37}}
 
Pemerintahan dari empat raja berikutnya ([[Raja Gong dari Zhou]], [[Raja Yi dari Zhou (Jian)|Raja Yi dari Zhou (Ji Jian)]], [[Raja Xiao dari Zhou|Raja Xiao Zhou]], dan [[Raja Yi dari Zhou (Xie)|Raja Yi dari Zhou (Ji Xie)]]) (922-878 SM) tidak didokumentasikan dengan baik. Raja kesembilan dikatakan telah merebus Adipati Qi dalam sebuah kuali, menyiratkan bahwa para pengikut tidak lagi taat. Raja kesepuluh, [[Raja Li dari Zhou|Li dari Zhou]] (877-841 SM) dipaksa mengasingkan diri dan kekuasaan diadakan selama empat belas tahun oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten [[Gong He|Gonghe]]. Penggulingan Li mungkin telah ditemani oleh pemberontakan petani pertama yang tercatat di Tiongkok. Ketika Li meninggal di pengasingan, Gonghe pensiun dan kekuasaan diteruskan ke putra Li, [[Raja Xuan dari Zhou]] (827-782 SM). Raja Xuan bekerja untuk mengembalikan otoritas kerajaan, meskipun penguasa daerah menjadi kurang patuh di masa pemerintahannya. Raja kedua belas dan terakhir dari periode Zhou Barat adalah [[Raja You dari Zhou]] (781-771 SM). Ketika You mengganti istrinya dengan seorang selir, ayahanda mantan ratu yang kuat, Markis Shen, bergabung dengan barbar Quanrong untuk menjarah ibukota barat Haojing dan membunuh Raja You pada tahun 771 SM. Beberapa ahli telah menduga bahwa menjarah Haojing mungkin telah terhubung dengan serangan Skithia dari Altai sebelum ekspansi ke barat mereka.<ref name="Scythian successes">{{Citecite web |url=http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565551/the-Steppe/10302/Scythian-successes |author= |title=The Steppe: Scythian successes |publisher=[[Encyclopædia Britannica Online]] |access-dateaccessdate=31 December 2014}}</ref> Sebagian besar bangsawan Zhou mengundurkan diri dari lembah Sungai Wei dan ibu kota itu dibangun kembali di hilir di ibukota timur [[Luoyang|Chengzhou]] yang lama di dekat [[Luoyang]] modern. Ini adalah awal dari periode Zhou Timur, yang biasanya dibagi menjadi [[Zaman Musim Semi dan Gugur|periode musim semi dan gugur]] dan [[Periode Negara Perang|periode negara berperang]].
 
Ada kemungkinan bahwa raja-raja Zhou memperoleh sebagian besar pendapatan mereka dari tanah kerajaan di lembah Wei. Ini akan menjelaskan hilangnya secara tiba-tiba kekuasaan kerajaan ketika Zhou didorong ke timur, tetapi masalah ini sulit dibuktikan. Dalam beberapa dekade terakhir, para arkeolog telah menemukan sejumlah besar harta karun yang terkubur di lembah Wei tentang waktu Zhou dikeluarkan.{{citation needed|date=March 2011}} Ini menyiratkan bahwa bangsawan Zhou tiba-tiba diusir dari rumah mereka dan berharap untuk kembali, tetapi tidak pernah melakukannya.
 
== Raja ==
 
== Referensi ==
 
=== Kutipan ===
{{Reflist|25em}}
 
=== Karya yang dikutip ===
{{refbegin}}
* {{citation
|surname=Chinn
|given=Ann-ping
|year=2007
|title=The Authentic Confucius
|publisher=Scribner
|isbn=0-7432-4618-7
|postscript=.
}}
* {{citation
|surname=Hucker
|given=Charles O.
|year=1978
|title = China to 1850: A short history
|publisher=Stanford University Press
|isbn = 0-8047-0958-0
|postscript=.
}}
{{refend}}
 
== Bacaan selanjutnya ==
*{{citation
| given = Edward L. | surname = Shaughnessy | author-link = Edward L. Shaughnessy
| chapter = Western Zhou history
| editor-given1 = Michael | editor-surname1 = Loewe | editor-link1 = Michael Loewe
| editor-given2 = Edward L. | editor-surname2 = Shaughnessy
| title = [[The Cambridge History of Ancient China]]
| location = Cambridge | publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 1999
| pages = 292–351 | isbn = 978-0-521-47030-8
| postscript = .
| ref = none
}}
*{{citation
| surname = Li | given = Feng | author-link = Li Feng (sinologist)
| title = 'Feudalism' and Western Zhou China: a criticism
| journal = Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies | volume = 63 | issue = 1 | year = 2003 | pages = 115–144
| jstor = 25066693
| postscript = .
| ref = none
}}
*{{citation
| surname = Li | given = Feng | author-mask = 2
| title = Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045–771 BC
| publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 2006
| isbn = 978-0-521-85272-2
| postscript = .
| ref = none
}}
 
* {{Citation|title=[[The Cambridge History of Ancient China]]|year=1999|ref=none|postscript=.|surname=Shaughnessy|given=Edward L.|author-link=Edward L. Shaughnessy|pages=292–351|chapter=Western Zhou history|place=Cambridge|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|editor-last=Loewe|editor-first=Michael|isbn=978-0-521-47030-8|ISBN=978-0-521-47030-8}}Lebih dari satu parameter <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;location=</code> dan <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;place=</code> yang digunakan ([[Bantuan:Galat CS1#redundant parameters|bantuan]]); Lebih dari satu parameter <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;ISBN=</code> dan <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;isbn=</code> yang digunakan ([[Bantuan:Galat CS1#redundant parameters|bantuan]]) [[Kategori:Halaman dengan rujukan yang memiliki parameter duplikat]] [[Kategori:Halaman dengan rujukan yang memiliki parameter duplikat]]
 
<div class="cx-template-editor-source-container" dir="ltr" style="display: none;" lang="en"><div class="cx-template-editor-source"><div class="cx-template-editor-title" title="The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.">Citation</div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="title" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">title of source</span><span data-key="title" title="Title of source; displays in italics." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="title" style="position: relative;">The Cambridge History of Ancient China</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="pages" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Pages</span><span data-key="pages" title="Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="pages" style="position: relative;">292–351</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="year" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Year of publication</span><span data-key="year" title="Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="year" style="position: relative;">1999</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="postscript" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Postscript</span><span data-key="postscript" title="Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="postscript" style="position: relative;">.</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="editor-last" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Editor last name</span><span data-key="editor-last" title="The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="editor-last" style="position: relative;">Loewe</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="editor-first" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Editor first name</span><span data-key="editor-first" title="The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="editor-first" style="position: relative;">Michael</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="chapter" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Chapter</span><span data-key="chapter" title="The chapter heading of the source" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="chapter" style="position: relative;">Western Zhou history</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="place" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Location of publication</span><span data-key="place" title="Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="place" style="position: relative;">Cambridge</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="publisher" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Publisher</span><span data-key="publisher" title="Name of the publisher; displays after title" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="publisher" style="position: relative;">Cambridge University Press</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="isbn" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">ISBN</span><span data-key="isbn" title="International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="isbn" style="position: relative;">978-0-521-47030-8</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="ref" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Ref</span><span data-key="ref" title="An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="ref" style="position: relative;">none</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="author-link" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Author link</span><span data-key="author-link" title="Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="author-link" style="position: relative;">Edward L. Shaughnessy</div></div></div></div>
* {{Citation|title='Feudalism' and Western Zhou China: a criticism|year=2003|ref=none|postscript=.|surname=Li|given=Feng|author-link=Li Feng (sinologist)|journal=Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies|work=Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies|volume=63|issue=1|pages=115–144|jstor=25066693|JSTOR=25066693}}Lebih dari satu parameter <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;work=</code> dan <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;journal=</code> yang digunakan ([[Bantuan:Galat CS1#redundant parameters|bantuan]]); Lebih dari satu parameter <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;JSTOR=</code> dan <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;jstor=</code> yang digunakan ([[Bantuan:Galat CS1#redundant parameters|bantuan]]) [[Kategori:Halaman dengan rujukan yang memiliki parameter duplikat]] [[Kategori:Halaman dengan rujukan yang memiliki parameter duplikat]]
 
<div class="cx-template-editor-source-container" dir="ltr" style="display: none;" lang="en"><div class="cx-template-editor-source"><div class="cx-template-editor-title" title="The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.">Citation</div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="title" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">title of source</span><span data-key="title" title="Title of source; displays in italics." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="title" style="position: relative;">'Feudalism' and Western Zhou China: a criticism</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="work" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Work</span><span data-key="work" title="Name of the work in which the cited title is found" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="work" style="position: relative;">Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="volume" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Volume</span><span data-key="volume" title="For one publication published in several volumes" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="volume" style="position: relative;">63</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="issue" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Issue</span><span data-key="issue" title="Issue number" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="issue" style="position: relative;">1</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="pages" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Pages</span><span data-key="pages" title="Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="pages" style="position: relative;">115–144</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="year" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Year of publication</span><span data-key="year" title="Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="year" style="position: relative;">2003</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="postscript" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Postscript</span><span data-key="postscript" title="Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="postscript" style="position: relative;">.</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="jstor" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">JSTOR</span><span data-key="jstor" title="JSTOR identifier" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="jstor" style="position: relative;">25066693</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="ref" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Ref</span><span data-key="ref" title="An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="ref" style="position: relative;">none</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="author-link" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Author link</span><span data-key="author-link" title="Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="author-link" style="position: relative;">Li Feng (sinologist)</div></div></div></div>
* {{Citation|title=Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045–771 BC|year=2006|ref=none|postscript=.|author-mask=2|surname=Li|given=Feng|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-85272-2|ISBN=978-0-521-85272-2}}Lebih dari satu parameter <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;ISBN=</code> dan <code style="color:inherit; border:inherit; padding:inherit;">&#x7C;isbn=</code> yang digunakan ([[Bantuan:Galat CS1#redundant parameters|bantuan]]) [[Kategori:Halaman dengan rujukan yang memiliki parameter duplikat]]
 
<div class="cx-template-editor-source-container" dir="ltr" style="display: none;" lang="en"><div class="cx-template-editor-source"><div class="cx-template-editor-title" title="The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.">Citation</div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="title" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">title of source</span><span data-key="title" title="Title of source; displays in italics." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="title" style="position: relative;">Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045–771 BC</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="year" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Year of publication</span><span data-key="year" title="Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="year" style="position: relative;">2006</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="postscript" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Postscript</span><span data-key="postscript" title="Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="postscript" style="position: relative;">.</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="author-mask" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Author Mask</span><span data-key="author-mask" title="Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, &quot;with&quot;. You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /&gt; or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="author-mask" style="position: relative;">2</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="publisher" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Publisher</span><span data-key="publisher" title="Name of the publisher; displays after title" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="publisher" style="position: relative;">Cambridge University Press</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="isbn" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">ISBN</span><span data-key="isbn" title="International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="isbn" style="position: relative;">978-0-521-85272-2</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="ref" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Ref</span><span data-key="ref" title="An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="ref" style="position: relative;">none</div></div></div></div>
[[Kategori:Dinasti Zhou]]
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