Manuel Noriega: Perbedaan revisi

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Tag: Pengembalian
{{Spanish name|Noriega|Moreno}}
{{Infobox President officeholder
|name=Manuel Noriega
|image name = Manuel Noriega mug shot.jpg
| image = Manuel Noriega mugshot cropped.jpg
|caption=Mugshot of Noriega, after his surrender (1990)
| caption =
|order=[[Daftar kepala negara Panama|Pemimpin militer Panama]]
| birth_name=Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno
|term=12 Agustus 1983 – 20 Desember 1989<br />({{age in years and days|1983|8|12|1989|12|20}})
|president=[[Ricardo de la Espriella]]<br />[[Jorge Illueca]]<br />[[Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino]]<br />[[Eric Arturo Delvalle]]<br />[[Manuel Solís]]<br />[[Francisco Rodríguez]]
|predecessor=[[Rubén Darío Paredes]]
|successor=[[Guillermo Endara]] (sebagai Presiden Panama)
| birth_date = {{birth date|1934|02|11|mf=yes}}
| birth_place = [[Kota Panama City]], [[Republic of Panama|Panama]]
| death_date = {{death date and age|2017|05|29|1934|02|11|mf=yes}}
| death_place = PanamaKota CityPanama, Panama
| death_cause = ComplicationsKomplikasi fromdari [[Neurosurgerybedah saraf|brainoperasi surgeryotak]]
| spouse = Felicidad Sieiro de Noriega
| children = 3
| alma_mater = [[Sekolah Militer Chorrillos]]<br />[[WesternInstitut HemisphereBelahan InstituteBumi forBarat Securityuntuk Cooperation|SchoolKerja ofSama theKeamanan|Sekolah AmericasAmerika]]
| order = [[Daftar Presiden Panama|Pemimpin Maksimum Pembebasan Nasional Panama]]<ref name=Gilboa>{{cite journal|first=Eytan|last=Gilboa|url=http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/gilboa.htm|archivedate=26 April 2012|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426073757/https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/gilboa.htm|title=The Panama Invasion Revisited: Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era|journal=Political Science Quarterly|volume=110|issue=4|pages=539–562|access-date=1 Juli 2011|doi=10.2307/2151883|jstor=2151883|year=1995}}</ref>
| term = 15 Desember 1989&nbsp;– 20 Desember 1989
| predecessor = ''Jabatan baru''
| successor = ''Jabatan dihapuskan''
|order order2 = [[Daftar kepala negaraPresiden Panama|Pemimpin militerMiliter Panama]]
| term2 = 12 Agustus 1983&nbsp;– 20 Desember 1989
|president president2 = [[Ricardo de la Espriella]]<br />[[Jorge Illueca]]<br />[[Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino]]<br />[[Eric Arturo Delvalle]]<br />[[Manuel Solís Palma]]<br />[[Francisco Rodríguez (Presiden Panama)|Francisco Rodríguez]]
|predecessor predecessor2 = [[Rubén Darío Paredes]]
| allegiance =Panama
|branch = [[Pasukan Pertahanan Panama]]
|serviceyears = 1967–1990
|rank = [[Jenderal]]
|unit =
|commands = Pasukan Pertahanan Panama
|battles = [[Invasi Amerika Serikat ke Panama 1989|Invasi Panama]]
|awards =
}}
'''Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno''' ({{IPA-es|maˈnwel noˈɾjeɣa}}; {{lahirmati||11|2|1934||29|5|2017}}){{efn|Secara umum diketahui bahwa Noriega lahir pada tahun 1934, tetapi terdapat ketidakpastian mengenai hal tersebut. Berbagai catatan menulis ia lahir pada tahun 1934, 1936, atau 1938. Noriega sendiri juga memberi berbagai macam keterangan mengenai tanggal lahirnya.<ref name="nytimesobit" />}} adalah seorang [[politikus]] dan [[perwira]] militer Panama yang merupakan penguasa ''de facto'' [[Panama]] dari tahun 1983 hingga 1989. Ia memiliki hubungan panjang dengan agen-agen intelijen Amerika Serikat, namun begitu, ia digulingkan dari kekuasaannya lewat sebuah [[Invasi Amerika Serikat ke Panama 1989|invasi Amerika Serikat ke Panama]].
'''Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno'''<ref>Boyd Marciacq, Carmen. "[http://www.elsiglo.com/siglov2/Nacion.php?idsec=1&fechaz=29-01-2007&idnews=33933 Noriega: el dictador]." ''[[El Siglo]]''. Retrieved on January 8, 2010.</ref> ({{IPA-es|maˈnwel noˈɾjeɣa}}; {{lahirmati||11|2|1934}}) adalah prajurit dan politisi asal [[Panama]]. Ia adalah [[Diktaktor militer]] [[Panama]] dari tahun [[1983]] hingga [[1989]].<ref name="t">{{cite journal |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101880222-148712,00.html |title=Panama Noriega's Money Machine |first=Michael S. |last=Serrill |journal=[[Time]] |date=2001-01-24}}</ref>
 
== ReferensiDalam budaya populer ==
Aktor asal Inggris, [[Bob Hoskins]] berperan sebagai Manuel Noriega dalam [[film televisi]] bergenre biografi tahun 2000, ''[[Noriega: God's Favorite]]''. Seorang pengulas film menulis bahwa "karier menanjak diktator Panama yang digulingkan, Manuel Noriega bahkan dapat melampaui kreasi surealis dari banyak novelis Amerika Latin, sehingga membuatnya menjadi subjek film yang alami".<ref>{{cite web |url=https://variety.com/2000/film/reviews/noriega-god-s-favorite-noriega-captured-1200461209/ |title=Review: 'Noriega: God's Favorite – 'Noriega' Captured'|website=[[Variety (magazine)|Variety.com]] |date=12 Maret 2000 }}</ref> Hoskins dinominasikan untuk [[Penghargaan Satellite]] atas perannya dalam film tersebut.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://variety.com/2000/film/awards/gladiator-traffic-lead-golden-sat-noms-1117790733/|title='Gladiator,' 'Traffic' lead Golden Sat noms|date=18 Desember 2000|website=Variety}}</ref>
 
Noriega digambarkan dalam permainan video ''[[Call of Duty: Black Ops II]]''.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://time.com/2993611/call-of-duty-dictator |title=This Former Dictator Is Suing the Call of Duty Makers |work=Time|last=Abrams|first=Abby|date=4 Juli 2016|access-date=30 Mei 2016}}</ref> Pada Juli 2014, Noriega mengajukan gugatan terhadap perusahaan ''game'' [[Activision]] karena menggambarkan dirinya dan menggunakan namanya tanpa izin di dalam permainan video tersebut. Noriega, yang mengajukan gugatan ketika sedang berada di penjara, mengklaim bahwa ia digambarkan sebagai "penculik, pembunuh dan musuh negara".<ref name="Gibbons-Neff">{{cite news |url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/07/16/former-dictator-manuel-noriega-suing-call-of-duty-makers/ |title=Former dictator Manuel Noriega suing 'Call of Duty' makers |last=Gibbons-Neff |first=Thomas |date=16 Juli 2014 |work=The Washington Post}}</ref> Dalam permainan itu, karakter fiksi Frank Woods mengacu pada Noriega sebagai "Old Pineapple Face", nama panggilan yang awalnya diterapkan pada Presiden Noriega oleh rakyat Panama.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2014/07/17/former-panamanian-dictator-manuel-noriega-sues-over-depiction-in-call-duty-game/ |title=Former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega sues over depiction in 'Call of Duty' game |date=17 Juli 2014 |publisher=Fox News |}}</ref> Pada 28 Oktober 2014, kasus gugatan Noriega terhadap Activision diberhentikan oleh hakim di California.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Linshi|first1=Jack |title=Judge Dismisses Manuel Noriega's Call of Duty Lawsuit|url=http://time.com/3544680/manuel-noriega-call-of-duty-lawsuit-dismissed/|work=Time|date=29 Oktober 2014}}</ref>
{{Reflist}}
 
==Catatan dan referensi==
== Bacaan lanjutan ==
===Catatan kaki===
{{notelist|30em}}
 
===Kutipan===
* William Blum [http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol1/cia_body.html "The CIA, Contras, Gangs, and Crack"] at Foreign Policy in Focus
{{reflist|30em}}
* Cole, Ronald. [http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/1220.pdf Grenada, Panama, and Haiti]. United States of America: ''Joint History Office{{ndash}} [[Defense Technical Information Center]], US Department of Defense''. 1998, 1999.
* Dinges, John, ''Our Man in Panama: The Shrewd Rise and Brutal Fall of Manuel Noriega'', New York, Random House, 1991. ISBN 0-8129-1950-5
* Noriega, Manuel and Eisner, Peter. ''America's Prisoner{{ndash}} The Memoirs of Manuel Noriega''. Random House, 1997.
* Koster, R.M. and Sánchez, Guillermo. ''In the Time of the Tyrants: Panama, 1968–1990''. W W Norton & Co Inc, 1990.
* Murillo, Luis E. (1995). The Noriega Mess: The Drugs, the Canal, and Why America Invaded. 1096 pages, illustrated. Berkeley: Video Books. ISBN 0-923444-02-5.
* Robert C. Harding (2001). ''Military Foundations of Panamanian Politics'', Transaction Publishers.
* Robert C. Harding (2006) ''The History of Panama'', Greenwood Publishing.
 
===Daftar pustaka===
== Pranala luar ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
{{Portalbox|Panama|Biography}}
* {{cite book| publisher = C. Scribner's Sons| isbn = 978-0-684-19375-5| last = Albert| first = Steven| title = The Case against the General: Manuel Noriega and the Politics of American Justice| location = New York| date = 1993|ref=harv}}
* [http://www.specwarnet.net/miscinfo/patilla.htm Description of 1989 raid on Patilla airport, resulting in deaths of US Navy SEALs]
* {{cite book|last1=Cockburn|first1=Alexander|last2=St-Clair|first2=Jeffrey|title=Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press|publisher=Verso Books|year=1998|isbn=978-1-85984-258-4|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|publisher=Random House|isbn=978-0-8129-1950-9|last=Dinges|first=John|title=Our Man in Panama|date=1990|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=V08YAAAAYAAJ|location=New York City|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|first=Javier A.|last=Galván|title=Latin American Dictators of the 20th Century: The Lives and Regimes of 15 Rulers|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kW3P9uf-jRYC|date=December 21, 2012|publisher=McFarland|isbn=978-0-7864-6691-7|location=[[Jefferson, North Carolina]], USA|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|publisher=I.B. Tauris|isbn=978-0-399-13517-0|last=Kempe|first=Frederick|title=Divorcing the Dictator: America's Bungled Affair with Noriega|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OQg__T-knb4C|location=London, UK|year= 1990|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |title = In the Time of the Tyrants: Panama, 1968–1990 |last = Koster |first = R.M. |first2 = Guillermo |last2 = Sánchez |year = 1990 |publisher = Norton |location = New York |isbn = 978-0-393-02696-2|url=https://books.google.co.in/books/about/In_the_Time_of_the_Tyrants.html?id=SzV7AAAAMAAJ|ref=harv }}
* {{cite book| publisher = L. Rienner Publishers| isbn = 978-1555872045| last = Scranton| first = Margaret E.| title = The Noriega Years : U.S.-Panamanian Relations, 1981–1990| location = Boulder, CO| date = 1991|ref=harv}}
{{refend}}
 
== Bacaan lanjutanlebih lanjut==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite web |last = Blum |first = William |author-link = William Blum |url = http://www.fpif.org/reports/the_cia_contras_gangs_and_crack |title = The CIA, Contras, Gangs, and Crack |work = Foreign Policy in Focus|date=November 1, 1996}}
* {{cite book |last = Chiasson |first = Lloyd |url = http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/91.1/rs_20.html |title = Illusive Shadows: Justice, Media, and Socially Significant American Trials |publisher = Praeger |year = 2003 |volume = |issue = |pages = |isbn = 978-0-275-97507-4 |deadurl = yes |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080401080540/http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/91.1/rs_20.html |archivedate = April 1, 2008 |df = mdy-all }}
* Gilboa, Eytan. "The Panama Invasion Revisited: Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era." ''Political Science Quarterly'' 110.4 (1995): 539–562. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/2151883 online]
* {{cite book |first = Robert C. |last = Harding |year = 2001 |title = Military Foundations of Panamanian Politics |location = |publisher = Transaction Publishers |isbn =9781412828697|url=https://books.google.com/books/about/Military_Foundations_of_Panamanian_Polit.html?id=T-8vDg7V9awC}}
* {{cite book |last = Harris |first = David |title = Shooting the Moon: The True Story of an American Manhunt Unlike Any Other, Ever |location = New York |publisher = Little Brown |year = 2001 |isbn = 978-0-316-15480-2 |url=https://books.google.com/books/about/Shooting_the_Moon.html?id=vnyfQgAACAAJ}}
* {{cite book |last = Rempel |first = William |year = 2011 |url = http://williamrempel.com/2011/cartel-drug-bosses-helped-u-s-convict-noriega/ |title = At the Devil's Table |location = |publisher = Random House |isbn = }}
* {{cite book |last1 = Scott |first1 = P. |last2 = Marshall |first2 = J |url = http://www.peterdalescott.net/cocpref.html |title = Cocaine Politics |publisher = University of California Press |year = 1998 |isbn=9780520921283}}
* {{cite journal |last = Sherman |first = M.A. |jstor = 40176218 |title = An Inquiry Regarding The International and Domestic Legal Problems Presented in ''United States v. Noriega'' |journal = The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review |year = 1989 |volume = 20|issue = 2|pages = 393–428}}
{{refend}}
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{commonscat|name=Manuel Noriega}}
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20140105204001/http://generalnoriega.com/ The Official Archives of General Manuel Antonio Noriega]
* [http://www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/Panama89eng/TOC.htm 1989 Report on the situation of human rights in Panama by Inter-American Commission on Human Rights]
* [http://www.thislife.org/radio-archives/episode/246/My-Pen-Pal ''My Pen Pal''], the story ofkisah [[Sarah York]], aseorang girlgadis fromdari asebuah smallkota kota kecil di [[Michigan]] townyang whomenjadi was[[sahabat a pen pal withpena]] Noriega, beginning c.sejak 1988.
* [http://www.escapeartist.com/efam/56/panama_again.html R.M. Koster's response to claims made in Noriega's biography]
* [http://www.cnn.com/2004/US/12/04/noriega.stroke/index.html Noriega suffers mild stroke, hospitalized in Miami (CNN.com)]
* [http://www.thislife.org/radio-archives/episode/246/My-Pen-Pal ''My Pen Pal''], the story of [[Sarah York]], a girl from a small [[Michigan]] town who was a pen pal with Noriega, beginning c. 1988.
* [http://www.arm.org/noriega.htm ''The Conversion of Manuel Noriega''], American Rehabilitation Ministries. Noriega's profession of faith in Jesus Christ and his baptism in 1992 are chronicled.
* [https://archive.is/20120710122117/findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IAV/is_1_90/ai_70777165 The Battle for Coco Solo Panama, 1989] Analysis by former USMA faculty member and Academy graduate
 
{{Start boxS-start}}
{{s-mil}}
{{s-bef|before = [[Rubén Darío Paredes]]}}
{{Succession box
{{s-ttl|title = [[Daftar Kepala NegaraPresiden Panama|Pemimpin militerMiliter Panama]]|years = 1983–1989}}
{{s-aft|successorafter = [[Guillermo Endara]] <br>(sebagai Presiden Panama)}}
|before=[[Rubén Darío Paredes]]
{{S-end}}
|after=[[Guillermo Endara]] (sebagai Presiden Panama)
{{Presiden Panama}}
|years=1983–1989}}
{{End box}}
 
{{Authority control}}
{{lifetime|1934||}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Noriega, Manuel}}
[[Kategori:Presiden Panama]]
 
 
{{Negara-bio-stub|Panama}}