Lingkungan dan orientasi seksual: Perbedaan revisi

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Studi mengenai '''lingkungan dan orientasi seksual''' adalah penelitian yang mencari kemungkinan pengaruh lingkungan dalam pembentukan [[orientasi seksual]]. Beberapa peneliti membedakan antara pengaruh lingkungan dengan pengaruh hormonal,<ref name="pediatrics2004">{{cite journal|doi=10.1542/peds.113.6.1827 |author=Frankowski BL|author2=American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence|title=Sexual orientation and adolescents |journal=[[Pediatrics (journal)|Pediatrics]]|volume=113 |issue=6 |pages=1827–32 |date=June 2004|pmid=15173519|url=}}</ref> sementara yang lain memasukkan pengaruh biologis seperti [[Hormon prenatal dan orientasi seksual|hormon prenatal]] sebagai bagian dari pengaruh lingkungan.<ref name="Sweden">{{cite journal|first=Niklas|last=Långström |author2=Qazi Rahman |author3=Eva Carlström |author4=Paul Lichtenstein|title=Genetic and Environmental Effects on Same-sex Sexual Behaviour: A Population Study of Twins in Sweden|publisher=Archives of Sexual Behavior|date=7 June 2008
|doi=10.1007/s10508-008-9386-1|pmid=18536986|journal=Archives of Sexual Behavior|volume=39|issue=1|pages=75–80}}
Ilmuwan tidak tahu pasti apa yang menyebabkan orientasi seksual, tetapi mereka berteori bahwa ini adalah hasil dari pengaruh kompleks antara [[genetik]], [[hormonal]], dan pengaruh lingkungan.<ref name="Frankowski">{{cite journal |doi=10.1542/peds.113.6.1827 |author=Frankowski BL|author2=American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence|title=Sexual orientation and adolescents |journal=[[Pediatrics (journal)|Pediatrics]]|volume=113 |issue=6 |pages=1827–32 |date=June 2004|pmid=15173519|url=}}</ref><ref name="Lamanna">{{cite book|author=Mary Ann Lamanna|author2=Agnes Riedmann|author3=Susan D Stewart|title=Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society|publisher=[[Cengage Learning]]|isbn=1305176898|year=2014|page=82|accessdate=January 11, 2016|url=|quote=The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established &nbsp;– nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychology Association 2010).}}</ref><ref name="Stuart">{{cite book|author=Gail Wiscarz Stuart|title=Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing|publisher=[[Elsevier Health Sciences]]|isbn=032329412X|year=2014|page=502|accessdate=January 11, 2016|url=|quote=No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation.}}</ref> Tidak seperti [[identitas orientasi seksual]], mereka tidak melihat orientasi seksual sebagai sebuah pilihan.<ref name="Frankowski"/><ref name="Lamanna"/><ref name="Kersey-Matusiak">{{cite book|author=Gloria Kersey-Matusiak|title=Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care|publisher=[[Springer Publishing Company]]|isbn=0826193811|year=2012|page=169|accessdate=January 10, 2016|url=|quote=Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.'}}</ref>
Hipotesis bahwa lingkungan sosial pascalahir berdampak pada orientasi seksual adalah lemah, terutama bagi laki-laki.<ref name="Bailey1">{{cite journal|vauthors=Bailey JM, Vasey PL, Diamond LM, Breedlove SM, Vilain E, Epprecht M|title=Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science |journal=[[Psychological Science in the Public Interest]]|volume=17|issue=21|date=2016|doi=10.1177/1529100616637616|PMID=27113562|pages=45-101}}</ref> Meskipun tidak ada bukti kuat yang berpendapat bahwa pengasuhan orang tua atau pengalaman kanak-kanak awal berperan dalam orientasi seksual,<ref name="AmPsychiAssn-Sexual orientation">{{Cite web|title=Sexual Orientation|publisher=[[American Psychiatric Association]]|accessdate=January 1, 2013|url=|archivedate=July 22, 2011|archiveurl=}}</ref><ref name="rcp2007">{{cite web |url= |title=Submission to the Church of England’s Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality |publisher=The Royal College of Psychiatrists|accessdate=13 June 2013}}</ref> beberapa studi telah menghubungkan pengasuhan orang tua dengan identitas [[non-heteroseksual]],<ref name="Sweden"/><ref name=Parenting2010>{{cite journal|last1=Schumm|first1=Walter R.|title=CHILDREN OF HOMOSEXUALS MORE APT TO BE HOMOSEXUALS? A REPLY TO MORRISON AND TO CAMERON BASED ON AN EXAMINATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF DATA|journal=Journal of Biosocial Science|date=November 2010|volume=42|issue=06|doi=10.1017/S0021932010000325|url=|accessdate=6 September 2014|pmid=20642872|pages=721–42}}</ref> serta [[nonkonformitas gender masa kanak-kanak]] dan [[homoseksualitas]].<ref name="Bearman">{{cite journal|last=Bearman