Livia: Perbedaan revisi

33 bita ditambahkan ,  3 tahun yang lalu
Dia mungkin menikah pada tahun 43 SM.<ref>Livia, First pLady of Imperial Rome by Anthony A Barrett, Yale University Press.</ref>&nbsp;Ayahnya menikahkannya dengan&nbsp;Tiberius Claudius Nero, sepupunya dari&nbsp; status ningrat&nbsp;yang sedang bertempur dengan dia di pihak para pembunuh [[Julius Caesar]]&nbsp;melawan&nbsp;Oktavianus. Ayahnya bunuh diri dalam [[Pertempuran Filipi]], bersama dengan [[Gaius Cassius Longinus]] dan [[Markus Yunius Brutus]], tapi suaminya terus berjuang melawan Oktavianus, sekarang atas nama [[Markus Antonius]] dan saudaranya Lucius Antonius. Anak pertamanya, yang kelak menjadi Kaisar&nbsp;[[Tiberius]], lahir pada tahun 42 SM. Pada tahun&nbsp;40 SM, keluarganya terpaksa melarikan diri ke Italia dalam rangk menghindari tiga serangkai Oktavianus (kemudian bernama Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus dan Mark Antony dan larangan&nbsp;yang mereka mulai, dan sebagaimana banyak dari mereka yang terlarang mereka bergabung dengan anak [[Pompeius|Pompeius Magnus]], Sextus Pompeius, yang melawan tiga serangkai dari markasnya di [[Sisilia]]. Kemudian, Livia, suaminya Tiberius Nero dan putra mereka yang saat itu berusia dua tahun, Tiberius, pindah ke [[Yunani]].<ref name="Fraschetti">Fraschetti, A. [https://books.google.com/books?id=cYnDNcxd6QwC&pg=PA7&vq=Marcus+Livius+Drusus+Claudianus&dq=marcus+livius+drusus+claudianus&source=gbs_search_s&cad=1&sig=ACfU3U1_8qrrhp_1WMtRo7Iyfo1LUlgN6g#PPA100,M1 ''Roman Women''] pp. 100–101. Linda Lappin (tr.) University of Chicago Press. {{ISBN|978-0-226-26094-5}}</ref>
 
== Istri dari Augustus ==
Setelah ada perdamaian antara tiga serangkai dengan pengikut Sextus Pompeius, amnesti umum diumumkan, dan Livia kembali ke Roma, di mana dia secara pribadi diperkenalkan kepada Oktavianus pada tahun 39 SM. Pada saat ini, Livia sudah punya anak, yang kelak adalah kaisar [[Tiberius]], dan sedang hamil putra kedua, [[Nero Claudius Drusus]] (juga dikenal sebagai Drusus the Elder). Legenda mengatakan bahwa Oktavianus langsung jatuh cinta dengan dia, meskipun faktanya bahwa ia masih menikah dengan Scribonia.<ref name="Hurley">Hurley, D. (1999). [http://www.roman-emperors.org/livia.htm "Livia (Wife of Augustus)]." Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.</ref> Oktavianus bercerai Scribonia pada tahun 39 SM, pada hari ia melahirkan putrinya Julia Tua.<ref>Cassius Dio [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/home.html Roman History]. 48.34.3. (Vol. VI, Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917. Harvard University Press. Translation by Earnest Cary)</ref> Tampaknya sekitar waktu itu, ketika Livia sedang hamil enam bulan, Tiberius Claudius Nero dibujuk atau dipaksa oleh Oktavianus untuk bercerai Livia. Pada tanggal 14 Januari, anak itu lahir. Augustus dan Livia menikah pada tanggal 17 Januari, mengabaikan waktu tunggu tradisional. Tiberius Claudius Nero hadir di pesta pernikahan itu, menyerahkan Livia dalam pernikahan "sepertii seorang ayah."<ref>Cassius Dio 48.44.1–3</ref>&nbsp;Prntingnya status ningrat Claudii untuk reputasi Oktavianus, dan kelangsungan hidup politik Claudii Nerones mungkin merupakan alasan yang lebih rasional&nbsp; untuk pernikahan kilat itu. Namun demikian, Livia dan Augustus tetap menikah selama 51 tahun, meskipun mereka tidak memiliki anak selain dari satu keguguran. Dia selalu menikmati status istimewa sebagai penasihat untuk suaminya, dia mengajukan petisi atas nama orang lain dan mempengaruhi kebijakan, peran yang tidak biasa untuk sebuah istri Romawi dalam budaya didominasi oleh pater familias.
[[Berkas:Livia_Drusilla_Louvre_Ma1233.jpg|kiri|jmpl|272x272px|Patung Livia dari bahan basalt [[Mesir]], ~ 31 SM, [[Museum Louvre|Louvre]]]]
 
Ada desas-desus ketika Marcellus, keponakan laki-laki Augustus, mati pada tahun 23 SM, bukan karena kematian alamiah, dan bahwa Livia di belakangnya.<ref>Cassius Dio 55.33.4</ref>&nbsp;Setelah dua&nbsp; anak tertua Juliaarcus Vipsanius Agrippa, yang telah diadopsi oleh Augustus sebagai putra-putra dan penerusnya, mati, satu putra tersisa&nbsp;Agrippa Postumus&nbsp;diadopsi pada waktu yang sama dengan Tiberius, tetapi kemudian Agrippa Postumus dikirim ke suatu pulau dan akhirnya dibunuh. [[Tacitus]] menuduh bahwa Livia bukannya tidak bersalah atas kematian-kematian tersebut<ref>Tacitus [http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/tac/index.htm ''Annals.''] 1.3; 1.6. (The Works of Tacitus tr. by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb 1864–1877),</ref>&nbsp;dan&nbsp;[[Cassius Dio]]&nbsp;Juga menyebutkan desas-desus itu.<ref>Cassius Dio 53.33.4, 55.10A, 55.32; 57.3.6</ref>&nbsp;Ada juga gosip yang dicatat oleh Tacitus dan Cassius Dio bahwa Livia menyebabkan kematian Augustus dengan meracuni buah-buah ara segar.<ref>Tacitus ''Annals'' 1.5</ref><ref>Cassius Dio 55.22.2; 56.30</ref>&nbsp;Cucu Augustus, Julia the Younger, menikah dengan Lucius Aemilius Paullus dan antara tahun 1 dan 14, suaminya dihukum mati sebagai konspirator sebuah revolusi.<ref>Suetonius, ''The Lives of Caesars'', Life of Augustus 19</ref>&nbsp;Para sejarawan modern&nbsp; berteori bahwa pengasinganJulia's ini bukan karena perzinahan sebagai yang diumumkan melainkan karena keterlibatan dalam revolusi Paullus.<ref>Norwood, Frances, "The Riddle of Ovid's Relegatio" ''Classical Philology'' (1963) p. 154</ref> Livia Drusilla telah mengatur untuk menghancurkan keluarga cucu tirinya sehingga muncul belas kasihan umum kepada keluarga yang hancur itu. Julia mati pada tahun 29 M setelah hidup di pulau pengasingannya selama dua puluh tahun<ref>Tacitus, ''Ann.'' IV, 71</ref>
<!--==Life afterKehidupan setelah Augustus, deathkematian, anddan sesudahnya aftermath==
<!--Augustus died on August 19, 14 AD, being [[Imperial cult (ancient Rome)|deified]] by the Senate shortly afterwards. In his will, he left one third of his property to Livia, and the other two thirds to [[Tiberius]]. In the will, he also adopted her into the [[Julia (gens)|Julian family]] and granted her the [[Augusta (honorific)|honorific title of Augusta]]. These dispositions permitted Livia to maintain her status and power after her husband's death, under the new name of '''Julia Augusta'''. Tacitus and Cassius Dio wrote that rumours persisted that Augustus was poisoned by Livia, but these are mainly dismissed as malicious fabrications spread by political enemies of the dynasty. The most famous of these rumors was that Livia, unable to poison his food in the kitchens because Augustus insisted on only eating [[ficus carica|figs]] picked fresh from his garden, smeared each fruit with poison while still on the tree to pre-empt him.<ref>{{cite book| title=Roman History 54.30| author=Cassius Dio}}</ref> In Imperial times, a variety of fig cultivated in Roman gardens was called the ''Liviana'', perhaps because of her reputed horticultural abilities, or as a [[tongue-in-cheek]] reference to this rumor.<ref>{{cite book| title=Confronting the Classics| author=Mary Beard| year=2014| p=131}}</ref>
[[File:KunsthistorischesMuseumCameeLivia.jpg|thumb|upright|right|[[Sardonyx]] [[:en:Cameo (carving)|cameo]] of Livia with the bustdengan ofpatung thedada Divus Augustus (Vienna)]]
For some time, Livia and her son Tiberius, the new Emperor, appeared to get along with each other. Speaking against her became treason in AD 20, and in AD 24 he granted his mother a theater seat among the [[Vestal Virgin]]s. Livia exercised unofficial but very real power in Rome. Eventually, Tiberius became resentful of his mother's political status, particularly against the idea that it was she who had given him the throne. At the beginning of his reign Tiberius vetoed the unprecedented title ''Mater Patriae'' ("Mother of the Fatherland") that the Senate wished to bestow upon her, in the same manner in which Augustus had been named ''[[Pater Patriae]]'' ("Father of the Fatherland")<ref name = Hurley/> (Tiberius also consistently refused the title of ''Pater Patriae'' for himself).
 
The historians Tacitus and Cassius Dio depict an overweening, even domineering dowager, ready to interfere in Tiberius’ decisions, the most notable instances being the case of [[Urgulania]] (grandmother of Claudius's first wife [[Plautia Urgulanilla]]), a woman who correctly assumed that her friendship with the empress placed her above the law,<ref name = Cassius57.12>Cassius Dio, 57.12</ref><ref>Tacitus, 2.34</ref> and [[Munatia Plancina]], suspected of murdering [[Germanicus]] and saved at Livia's entreaty<ref>Tacitus, 3.17</ref> (Plancina committed suicide in AD 33 after being accused again of murder after Livia's death). A notice from AD 22 records that Julia Augusta (Livia) dedicated a statue to Augustus in the center of Rome, placing her own name even before that of Tiberius.
 
Ancient historians give as a reason for Tiberius' retirement to [[Capri]] his inability to endure her any longer.<ref name = Cassius57.12/><ref>Tacitus, 4.57</ref> Until [[AD 22]] there had, according to Tacitus, been "a genuine [[harmony]] between mother and son, or a hatred well concealed;"<ref name = Tacitus3.64>Tacitus, 3.6eirca4</ref> Dio tells us that at the time of his accession already Tiberius heartily loathed her.<ref>Cassius Dio, 57.3.3</ref> In-->Pada ADtahun 22 sheLivia hadjatuh fallensakit ill, anddan Tiberius had hastened back to Rome inbergegas orderpulang toke beRoma withuntuk hermenemaninya.<ref name = Tacitus3.64/> ButPada intahun [[AD 29]] whenM sheketika finallyia felljatuh illsakit andlagi dieddan mati, heTibetius remainedtetap ontinggal di Capri, pleadingdengan pressurealasan oftekanan work andpekerjaan, sendingmengutus [[Caligula]] tountuk delivermenyampaikan theorasi funeral orationpemakaman.<ref>Tacitus, 5.1</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, 58.2</ref><ref name = Suetonius51>Suetonius. [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Tiberius*.html Vita Tiberii]. (The Life of Tiberius) 51.</ref> <!--Suetonius adds the macabre detail that "when she died... after a delay of several days, during which he held out hope of his coming, [she was at last] buried because the condition of the corpse made it necessary...". Divine honors he also vetoed, stating that this was in accord with her own instructions. Later he vetoed all the honors the Senate had granted her after her death and cancelled the fulfillment of her will.<ref name = Suetonius51/>
[[File:Livia Drusila - Paestum (M.A.N. Madrid) 01.jpg|thumb|left|180px|Patung Livia Drusilla statue, fromdari [[Paestum]].]]
It was not until 13 years later, in AD 42 during the reign of her grandson [[Claudius]], that all her honors were restored and her deification finally completed. She was named ''Diva Augusta'' (''The Divine Augusta''), and an elephant-drawn chariot conveyed her image to all public games. A statue of her was set up in the [[Temple of Divus Augustus|Temple of Augustus]] along with her husband's, races were held in her honor, and women were to invoke her name in their sacred oaths. In AD 410, during the [[Sack of Rome (410)|Sack of Rome]], her ashes were scattered when Augustus' tomb was sacked.
 
Luke Devenish's "Empress of Rome" novels, "Den of Wolves" (2008) and "Nest of Vipers" (2010), have Livia as central character in a fictionalized account of her life and times.
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== Keturunan ==
Meskipun pernikahannya dengan Augustus hanya menghasilkan satu kehamilan yang mengalami keguguran, melalui anak-anaknya dengan suaminya yang pertama, Tiberius dan [[Nero Claudius Drusus|Drusus]], dia adalah nenek moyang langsung dari semua Julio-Claudian kaisar serta kebanyakan perpanjangan keluarga kekaisaran Julio-Claudian keluarga kekaisaran. Jalur&nbsp;ini mungkin berlanjut selama setidaknya satu abad setelah kejatuhan dinasti melalui anak dan cucu dari Livia besar-besar-cucu Rubellia Bassa (lihat di bawah); namun, hal ini tidak diketahui apakah atau tidak ini line dilanjutkan atau jika itu menjadi punah.