Livia: Perbedaan revisi

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Ada desas-desus ketika Marcellus, keponakan laki-laki Augustus, mati pada tahun 23 SM, bukan karena kematian alamiah, dan bahwa Livia di belakangnya.<ref>Cassius Dio 55.33.4</ref>&nbsp;Setelah dua&nbsp; anak tertua Juliaarcus Vipsanius Agrippa, yang telah diadopsi oleh Augustus sebagai putra-putra dan penerusnya, mati, satu putra tersisa&nbsp;Agrippa Postumus&nbsp;diadopsi pada waktu yang sama dengan Tiberius, tetapi kemudian Agrippa Postumus dikirim ke suatu pulau dan akhirnya dibunuh. [[Tacitus]] menuduh bahwa Livia bukannya tidak bersalah atas kematian-kematian tersebut<ref>Tacitus [http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/tac/index.htm ''Annals.''] 1.3; 1.6. (The Works of Tacitus tr. by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb 1864–1877),</ref>&nbsp;dan&nbsp;[[Cassius Dio]]&nbsp;Juga menyebutkan desas-desus itu.<ref>Cassius Dio 53.33.4, 55.10A, 55.32; 57.3.6</ref>&nbsp;Ada juga gosip yang dicatat oleh Tacitus dan Cassius Dio bahwa Livia menyebabkan kematian Augustus dengan meracuni buah-buah ara segar.<ref>Tacitus ''Annals'' 1.5</ref><ref>Cassius Dio 55.22.2; 56.30</ref>&nbsp;Cucu Augustus, Julia the Younger, menikah dengan Lucius Aemilius Paullus dan antara tahun 1 dan 14, suaminya dihukum mati sebagai konspirator sebuah revolusi.<ref>Suetonius, ''The Lives of Caesars'', Life of Augustus 19</ref>&nbsp;Para sejarawan modern&nbsp; berteori bahwa pengasinganJulia's ini bukan karena perzinahan sebagai yang diumumkan melainkan karena keterlibatan dalam revolusi Paullus.<ref>Norwood, Frances, "The Riddle of Ovid's Relegatio" ''Classical Philology'' (1963) p. 154</ref> Livia Drusilla telah mengatur untuk menghancurkan keluarga cucu tirinya sehingga muncul belas kasihan umum kepada keluarga yang hancur itu. Julia mati pada tahun 29 M setelah hidup di pulau pengasingannya selama dua puluh tahun<ref>Tacitus, ''Ann.'' IV, 71</ref>
<!--==Life after Augustus, death, and aftermath==
Augustus died on August 19, 14 AD, being [[Imperial cult (ancient Rome)|deified]] by the Senate shortly afterwards. In his will, he left one third of his property to Livia, and the other two thirds to [[Tiberius]]. In the will, he also adopted her into the [[Julia (gens)|Julian family]] and granted her the [[Augusta (honorific)|honorific title of Augusta]]. These dispositions permitted Livia to maintain her status and power after her husband's death, under the new name of '''Julia Augusta'''. Tacitus and Cassius Dio wrote that rumours persisted that Augustus was poisoned by Livia, but these are mainly dismissed as malicious fabrications spread by political enemies of the dynasty. The most famous of these rumors was that Livia, unable to poison his food in the kitchens because Augustus insisted on only eating [[ficus carica|figs]] picked fresh from his garden, smeared each fruit with poison while still on the tree to pre-empt him.<ref>{{cite book| title=Roman History 54.30| author=Cassius Dio}}</ref> In Imperial times, a variety of fig cultivated in Roman gardens was called the ''Liviana'', perhaps because of her reputed horticultural abilities, or as a [[tongue-in-cheek]] reference to this rumor.<ref>{{cite book| title=Confronting the Classics| author=Mary Beard| year=2014| p=131}}</ref>
[[File:KunsthistorischesMuseumCameeLivia.jpg|thumb|upright|right|[[Sardonyx]] [[Cameo (carving)|cameo]] of Livia with the bust of the Divus Augustus (Vienna)]]
For some time, Livia and her son Tiberius, the new Emperor, appeared to get along with each other. Speaking against her became treason in AD 20, and in AD 24 he granted his mother a theater seat among the [[Vestal Virgin]]s. Livia exercised unofficial but very real power in Rome. Eventually, Tiberius became resentful of his mother's political status, particularly against the idea that it was she who had given him the throne. At the beginning of his reign Tiberius vetoed the unprecedented title ''Mater Patriae'' ("Mother of the Fatherland") that the Senate wished to bestow upon her, in the same manner in which Augustus had been named ''[[Pater Patriae]]'' ("Father of the Fatherland")<ref name = Hurley/> (Tiberius also consistently refused the title of ''Pater Patriae'' for himself).
 
The historians Tacitus and Cassius Dio depict an overweening, even domineering dowager, ready to interfere in Tiberius’ decisions, the most notable instances being the case of [[Urgulania]] (grandmother of Claudius's first wife [[Plautia Urgulanilla]]), a woman who correctly assumed that her friendship with the empress placed her above the law,<ref name = Cassius57.12>Cassius Dio, 57.12</ref><ref>Tacitus, 2.34</ref> and [[Munatia Plancina]], suspected of murdering [[Germanicus]] and saved at Livia's entreaty<ref>Tacitus, 3.17</ref> (Plancina committed suicide in AD 33 after being accused again of murder after Livia's death). A notice from AD 22 records that Julia Augusta (Livia) dedicated a statue to Augustus in the center of Rome, placing her own name even before that of Tiberius.
 
Ancient historians give as a reason for Tiberius' retirement to [[Capri]] his inability to endure her any longer.<ref name = Cassius57.12/><ref>Tacitus, 4.57</ref> Until [[AD 22]] there had, according to Tacitus, been "a genuine [[harmony]] between mother and son, or a hatred well concealed;"<ref name = Tacitus3.64>Tacitus, 3.6eirca4</ref> Dio tells us that at the time of his accession already Tiberius heartily loathed her.<ref>Cassius Dio, 57.3.3</ref> In AD 22 she had fallen ill, and Tiberius had hastened back to Rome in order to be with her.<ref name = Tacitus3.64/> But in [[AD 29]] when she finally fell ill and died, he remained on Capri, pleading pressure of work and sending [[Caligula]] to deliver the funeral oration.<ref>Tacitus, 5.1</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, 58.2</ref><ref name = Suetonius51>Suetonius. [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Tiberius*.html Vita Tiberii]. (The Life of Tiberius) 51.</ref> Suetonius adds the macabre detail that "when she died... after a delay of several days, during which he held out hope of his coming, [she was at last] buried because the condition of the corpse made it necessary...". Divine honors he also vetoed, stating that this was in accord with her own instructions. Later he vetoed all the honors the Senate had granted her after her death and cancelled the fulfillment of her will.<ref name = Suetonius51/>
[[File:Livia Drusila - Paestum (M.A.N. Madrid) 01.jpg|thumb|left|180px|Livia Drusilla statue, from [[Paestum]].]]
It was not until 13 years later, in AD 42 during the reign of her grandson [[Claudius]], that all her honors were restored and her deification finally completed. She was named ''Diva Augusta'' (''The Divine Augusta''), and an elephant-drawn chariot conveyed her image to all public games. A statue of her was set up in the [[Temple of Divus Augustus|Temple of Augustus]] along with her husband's, races were held in her honor, and women were to invoke her name in their sacred oaths. In AD 410, during the [[Sack of Rome (410)|Sack of Rome]], her ashes were scattered when Augustus' tomb was sacked.
 
Her [[Villa of Livia|Villa ad Gallinas Albas]] north of Rome is currently being excavated; its famous frescoes of imaginary garden views may be seen at [[National Museum of Rome]].<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2002/2002-07-18.html|title=Review of: The Villa of Livia Ad Gallinas Albas. A Study in the Augustan Villa and Garden. Archaeologica Transatlantica XX|first=Susann S.|last=Lusnia|date=29 October 2016|publisher=|journal=BMCR|accessdate=29 October 2016|via=Bryn Mawr Classical Review}}</ref> One of the most famous statues of Augustus (the [[Augustus of Prima Porta]]) came from the grounds of the villa.
 
== Kepribadian ==
While reporting various unsavory hearsay, the ancient sources generally portray Livia (Julia Augusta) as a woman of proud and queenly attributes, faithful to her imperial husband, for whom she was a worthy consort, forever poised and dignified. With consummate skill she acted out the roles of consort, mother, widow and dowager. Dio records two of her utterances: "Once, when some naked men met her and were to be put to death in consequence, she saved their lives by saying that to a chaste woman such men are in no way different from statues. When someone asked her how she had obtained such a commanding influence over Augustus, she answered that it was by being scrupulously chaste herself, doing gladly whatever pleased him, not meddling with any of his affairs, and, in particular, by pretending neither to hear nor to notice the favourites of his passion."<ref>Cassius Dio, 58.2.5</ref>
 
With time, however, and widowhood, a haughtiness and an overt craving for power and the outward trappings of status came increasingly to the fore. Livia had always been a principal beneficiary of the climate of adulation that Augustus had done so much to create, and which Tiberius despised ("a strong contempt for honours", Tacitus, Annals 4.37). In [[AD 24]], typically, whenever she attended the theatre, a seat among the Vestals was reserved for her (Annals 4.16), and this may have been intended more as an honor for the Vestals than for her (cf. Ovid, Tristia, 4.2.13f, Epist. Ex Ponto 4.13.29f).
 
Livia played a vital role in the formation of her children Tiberius and Drusus. Attention focuses on her part in the divorce of her first husband, father of Tiberius, in 39/38 BC. It would be interesting to know her role in this, as well as in Tiberius' divorce of [[Vipsania Agrippina]] in 12 BC at Augustus' insistence: whether it was merely neutral or passive, or whether she actively colluded in Caesar's wishes. The first divorce left Tiberius a fosterchild at the house of Octavian; the second left Tiberius with a lasting emotional scar, since he had been forced to abandon the woman he loved for dynastic considerations.
 
==In literature and popular culture==
 
===In ancient literature===
In Tacitus' ''Annals'', Livia is depicted as having great influence, to the extent where she "had the aged Augustus firmly under control — so much so that he exiled his only surviving grandson to the island of Planasia".
[[File:Dupondius-Livia-RIC 0043v.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Dupondius]] depicting Livia as [[Pietas (goddess)|Pietas]].]]
Livia's image appears in ancient visual media such as coins and portraits. She was the first woman to appear on provincial coins in 16 BC and her portrait images can be chronologically identified partially from the progression of her hair designs, which represented more than keeping up with the fashions of the time as her depiction with such contemporary details translated into a political statement of representing the ideal Roman woman. Livia's image evolves with different styles of portraiture that trace her effect on imperial propaganda that helped bridge the gap between her role as wife to the emperor Augustus, to mother of the emperor Tiberius. Becoming more than the "beautiful woman" she is described as in ancient texts, Livia serves as a public image for the idealization of Roman feminine qualities, a motherly figure, and eventually a goddesslike representation that alludes to her virtue. Livia's power in symbolizing the renewal of the Republic with the female virtues ''Pietas'' and ''Concordia'' in public displays had a dramatic effect on the visual representation of future imperial women as ideal, honorable mothers and wives of Rome.<ref>''I Claudia II: Women in Roman art and society''. Edited by Diana E. E. Kleiner and Susan B. Matheson Yale University Art Gallery. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000.</ref>
 
===In modern literature===
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In the popular fictional work ''[[I, Claudius]]'' by [[Robert Graves]]—based on Tacitus' innuendo—Livia is portrayed as a thoroughly Machiavellian, scheming political mastermind. Determined never to allow republican governance to flower again, as she felt they led to corruption and civil war, and devoted to bringing Tiberius to power and then maintaining him there, she is involved in nearly every death or disgrace in the Julio-Claudian family up to the time of her death. In her deathbed she only fears divine punishment for all she had done, and secures the promise of future deification by her grandson Claudius, an act which, she believes, will guarantee her a blissful afterlife. However, this portrait of her is balanced by her intense devotion to the well-being of the Empire as a whole, and her machinations are justified as a necessarily cruel means to what she firmly considers a noble aspiration: the common good of the Romans, achievable only under strict imperial rule. In the 1976 [[BBC]] [[I, Claudius (TV series)|television series]] based on the book, Livia was played by [[Siân Phillips]]. Phillips won a [[British Academy of Film and Television Arts|BAFTA]] for her portrayal of the role.
 
In the [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] television series ''[[The Caesars (TV series)|The Caesars]]'', Livia was played by [[Sonia Dresdel]].
 
Livia was dramatized in the [[HBO]]/BBC series ''[[Rome (TV series)|Rome]]''. Introduced in the 2007 episode "[[A Necessary Fiction]]", [[Livia (Rome character)|Livia]] ([[Alice Henley]]) soon catches the eye of young [[Gaius Octavian (Rome character)|Octavian]]. ''Rome'' does acknowledge the existence of Livia's child, Tiberius, by her first husband, but not that she was pregnant with Nero Claudius Drusus when she met Octavian. Livia is portrayed as deceptively submissive in public, while in private she possesses an iron will, and a gift for political scheming that matches [[Atia of the Julii|Atia's]].
 
Livia appears in [[Neil Gaiman]]'s comic "Distant Mirrors – August" collected in ''[[The Sandman: Fables and Reflections]]''.
 
In [[John Maddox Roberts]]'s short story "The King of Sacrifices," set in his [[SPQR series]], Livia hires [[Decius Metellus]] to investigate the murder of one of [[Julia the Elder]]'s lovers.
 
In ''[[Antony and Cleopatra (novel)|Antony and Cleopatra]]'' by [[Colleen McCullough]], Livia is portrayed as a cunning and effective advisor to her husband, whom she loves passionately.
 
Livia plays an important role in two [[Marcus Corvinus]] mysteries by [[David Wishart]], ''Ovid'' (1995) and ''Germanicus'' (1997). She is mentioned posthumously in ''[[Sejanus]]'' (1998).
 
A heavily fictionalized version of Livia appeared in the 5th and 6th seasons of [[Xena: Warrior Princess]]. This version of Livia is in fact the daughter of [[Xena]], raised by Augustus to be the military champion of Rome.
 
Luke Devenish's "Empress of Rome" novels, "Den of Wolves" (2008) and "Nest of Vipers" (2010), have Livia as central character in a fictionalized account of her life and times.
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== Keturunan ==
Meskipun pernikahannya dengan Augustus hanya menghasilkan satu kehamilan yang mengalami keguguran, melalui anak-anaknya dengan suaminya yang pertama, Tiberius dan [[Nero Claudius Drusus|Drusus]], dia adalah nenek moyang langsung dari semua Julio-Claudian kaisar serta kebanyakan perpanjangan keluarga kekaisaran Julio-Claudian keluarga kekaisaran. Jalur&nbsp;ini mungkin berlanjut selama setidaknya satu abad setelah kejatuhan dinasti melalui anak dan cucu dari Livia besar-besar-cucu Rubellia Bassa (lihat di bawah); namun, hal ini tidak diketahui apakah atau tidak ini line dilanjutkan atau jika itu menjadi punah.
 
: 1. [[Tiberius|Tiberius Claudius Nero (Tiberius Julius Caesar)]], 42 BCSM – AD 37 M, punya dua anak
:: A. Julius Caesar Drusus, 13 BCSM AD 23 M, tiga anak-anak
::: I. Julia Livia, 5 IKLANM IKLAN 43 M, punya anak empat
:::: a. Gayus Rubellius Plautus, 33-62, memiliki beberapa anak<ref>TheirNama namesanak-anak areini unknowntidak disebutkan, buttetapi itdiketahui isbahwa knownmereka thatsemua alldibunuh of them were killed byoleh Nero, thus descent fromsehingga thisgaris lineketurunan isini extinctpunah.</ref>
:::: b. Rubellia Bassa, yang lahir antara 33 dan 38, memiliki setidaknya satu anak<ref>Sir Ronald Syme mengklaim bahwa Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus, konsul pada tahun 131 di bawah Kaisar Hadrian, setmendirikan upsuatu adedikasi dedicationbagi to his grandmotherneneknya, Rubellia Bassa.</ref>
::::: I. Octavius Laenas, memiliki setidaknya satu anak
:::::: I. Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus