Sinode: Perbedaan revisi

2.552 bita ditambahkan ,  1 tahun yang lalu
Meetings of the entire episcopate of a supra-national region have historically been called councils as well, such as the various [[Councils of Carthage]] in which all the bishops of North Africa were to attend.
During the Middle Ages, some councils were [[legatine council|legatine]], called by a papal legate rather than the pope or bishop.<ref>{{cite book |author=Robinson, I. S. |title=The Papacy 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge, UK |year=1990 |page=150 |isbn=0-521-31922-6 }}</ref>-->
==== Sinode ====
Synods in [[Eastern Rite Catholic Churches]] are similar to synods in Orthodox churches in that they are the primary vehicle for election of bishops and establishment of inter-diocesan ecclesiastical laws. The term ''synod'' in [[Latin Rite]] canon law, however, refers to meetings of a representative, thematic, non-legislative (advisory) or mixed nature or in some other way do not meet the qualifications of a "council." Examples include:
*[[Diocesan synod (Catholic)|Diocesan synod]]s are irregular meetings of the clergy and laity of a [[particular church]] summoned by the diocesan bishop (or other prelate if the particular church is not a diocese) to deliberate on legislative matters. Only the diocesan bishop holds legislative authority; the other members of the diocesan synod act only in an advisory capacity. Those who must be invited to a diocesan synod by law are any [[coadjutor bishop|coadjutor]] or [[auxiliary bishop]]s, the [[vicar general|vicars general and episcopal]], the ''[[officialis]]'', the [[vicar forane|vicars forane]] plus an additional priest from each vicariate forane, the presbyterial council, [[Canon (priest)|canon]]s of the cathedral chapter (if there is one), the [[Rector (ecclesiastical)|rector]] of the seminary, some of the superiors of religious houses in the diocese, and members of the laity chosen by the diocesan pastoral council, though the diocesan bishop can invite others to attend at his own initiative. (can. 463)
==== Konferensi waligereja ====
National [[Episcopal Conference]]s are another development of the Second Vatican Council. They are permanent bodies consisting of all the Latin rite bishops of a nation and those equivalent to diocesan bishops in law (i.e. [[territorial abbot]]s). Bishops of other ''[[sui juris]]'' churches and papal [[nuncio]]s are not members of episcopal conferences by law, though the conference itself may invite them in an advisory or voting capacity (can. 450).
While councils (can. 445) and diocesan synods (can. 391 & 466) have full legislative powers in their areas of competence, national episcopal conferences may only issue supplementary legislation when authorized to do so in canon law or by decree of the [[Holy See]]. Additionally, any such supplemental legislation requires a two-thirds vote of the conference and review by the Holy See (can. 455) to have the force of law. Without such authorization and review, episcopal conferences are deliberative only and exercise no authority over their member bishops or dioceses.-->
=== Gereja Anglikan ===