Persekutuan Anglikan: Perbedaan revisi

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{{Anglicanism}}
[[Berkas:CompassRose.gif|thumb|Komuni Anglikan menggunakan [[mawar kompas]] sebagai lambangnya, yang menunjukkan jangkauannya ke seluruh dunia dan sifatnya yang didesentralisasikan. Seperti lambang gerejanya, di atas mawar ini terdapat [[topi uskup]]; di tengahnya terdapat [[salib St. George]] yang mengingatkan asal-usul komuni ini di [[Gereja Inggris]]. Mottonya dalam [[bahasa Yunani]], {{polytonic|Ἡ ἀλήθεια ἐλευθερώσει ὑμᾶς}} ("Kebenaran akan membebaskan engkau") adalah kutipan dari [[Injil Yohanes|Yohanes]] 8:32. Lambang ini dirancang oleh [[Edward Nason West]], [[Kanon (imam)|Kanon]] dari [[Katedral Saint John the Divine, New York|Katedral St. John the Divine]] di [[New York City]].
]]
{{Main|Anglikanisme}}
'''Komuni Anglikan''' adalah afiliasi sedunia dari Gereja-gereja [[Anglikan]]. "Gereja Anglikan" selalu mempunyai otoritas yuridis yang universal, karena setiap gereja nasional atau regional mempunyai otonomi yang penuh. Seperti yang tersirat dari namanya, ''Komuni'' Anglikan adalah asosiasi dari gereja-gereja ini yang memiliki [[komuni penuh]] atau persekutuan dengan [[Gereja Inggris]] (yang dapat dianggap sebagai "gereja induk" dari komuni sedunia, dan secara khusus dengan [[primat]]nya, [[Uskup Agung Canterbury]]. Dengan lebih dari 70 juta anggotanya, Komuni Anglikan adalah komuni terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah [[Gereja Katolik Roma]] dan [[Gereja Ortodoks Timur|Gereja-gereja Ortodoks Timur]].
Status komuni penuh berarti bahwa semua [[ritus]] yang diselenggarakan di sebuah gereja diakui oleh yang lainnya. Beberapa dari gereja-gereja ini dikenal sebagai Anglikan, yang secara eksplisit mengakui hubungannya dengan Inggris (''Ecclesia Anglicana'' berarti "Gereja Inggris"); yang lainnya, seperti mislanya [[Gereja Episkopal di Amerika Serikat]] dan [[Gereja Episkopal Skotlandia]], atau [[Gereja Irlandia]], lebih suka menggunakan nama yang lain. Masing-masing Gereja mempunyai [[Doktrin Anglikan|doktrin]] dan [[liturgi]]nya sendiri, yang pada umumnya didasarkan pada doktrin dan lilturgi Gereja Inggris. Masing-masing Gereja juga mempunyai proses legislatifnya serta peraturan episkopalnya sendiri, di bawah kepemimpinan seorang primat setempat.
 
== Logo ==
<!--The [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], religious head of the Church of England, has no formal authority outside that jurisdiction, but is recognised as symbolic head of the worldwide communion. Among the other primates, he is ''[[primus inter pares]]'', or "first among equals." If the Archbishop of Canterbury is compared with other religious leaders such as the [[Pope]], therefore, it is only because of his prominent [[figurehead (metaphor)|figurehead]] role in the media. He has no formal authority outside his own province. Nonetheless, churches are not considered to be in the Anglican Communion unless they are in full communion with him.
[[Berkas:CompassRose.gif|left]]Komuni Anglikan menggunakan [[mawar kompas]] sebagai lambangnya, yang menunjukkan jangkauannya ke seluruh dunia dan sifatnya yang didesentralisasikan. Seperti lambang gerejanya, di atas mawar ini terdapat [[topi uskup]]; di tengahnya terdapat [[salib St. George]] yang mengingatkan asal-usul komuni ini di [[Gereja Inggris]]. Mottonya dalam [[bahasa Yunani]], {{polytonic|Ἡ ἀλήθεια ἐλευθερώσει ὑμᾶς}} ("Kebenaran akan membebaskan engkau") adalah kutipan dari [[Injil Yohanes|Yohanes]] 8:32. Lambang ini dirancang oleh [[Edward Nason West]], [[Kanon (imam)|Kanon]] dari [[Katedral Saint John the Divine, New York|Katedral St. John the Divine]] di [[New York City]].
 
Although they are not considered members, some non-Anglican bodies have entered into communion with the Communion as a whole or with its constituent member churches, despite having non-Anglican origins and traditions. There are also a number of jurisdictions which do have Anglican origins and traditions but have separated from a member church of the Anglican Communion. They thus are no longer in communion with Canterbury, although some are in communion with individual provinces of the Communion. Nonetheless, these bodies self-identify as Anglican and are referred to as Anglican by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Many are part of the [[Continuing Anglican Movement]]. It is estimated that there are approximately forty million {{cn}} non-Canterbury Anglicans worldwide as against seventy million members of the Anglican Communion.
 
==What holds the Communion together?==
{{Anglicanism}}
The Anglican Communion has no official legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an [[Anglican Communion Office]] in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury; but it serves merely a supporting and organisational role. Instead, the communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its [[ecclesiology]], [[polity]], and [[ethos]]; and by participation in international consultative bodies.
 
===Ecclesiology, polity, and ethos===
Three elements have been important in holding the Communion together: First, the shared ecclesial structure of the churches, manifested in an [[episcopal polity]] maintained through the [[apostolic succession]] of bishops and [[synod|synodical]] government; second, the principle of belief expressed in worship, investing importance in approved prayer books and their rubrics; and third, the historical documents and standard [[divinity (academic discipline)|divine]]s that have influenced the ethos of the Communion.
 
Originally, the Church of England was self-contained, and relied for its unity and identity on its own history, its traditional legal and episcopal structure, and its status as an [[established church]] of the state. As such, Anglicanism was from the outset a movement with an explicitly [[episcopal polity]], a characteristic which has been vital in maintaining the unity of the Communion by conveying the episcopate's role in manifesting visible catholicity and ecumenism.
 
Early in its development, the Church developed a vernacular prayer book, called the [[Book of Common Prayer]]. Unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a [[magisterium]] nor by appeal to a founding [[theology|theologian]], nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine (such as the [[Westminster Confession]] of the [[Presbyterian]] Church). Instead, Anglicans have typically appealed to the Book of Common Prayer and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and practice. This had the effect of inculcating the principle of ''[[lex orandi, lex credendi]]'' ("the law of prayer is the law of belief") as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession.
 
Protracted conflict through the seventeenth century with more radical [[Protestant]]s on the one hand and [[Catholic]]s who still recognised the supremacy of the [[Pope]] on the other, resulted in a Church that was both deliberately vague about doctrinal principles, yet bold in developing parameters of acceptable deviation. These parameters were most clearly articulated in the various [[rubric]]s of the successive prayer books, as well as the [[Thirty-Nine Articles]] of Religion. These Articles, while never binding, have had an influence on the ethos of the Communion, an ethos reinforced by their interpretation and expansion by such influential early theologians as [[Richard Hooker (theologian)|Richard Hooker]], [[Lancelot Andrewes]], [[John Cosin]], and others.
 
With the expansion of Anglicanism outside [[Britain]] and [[Ireland]], the Communion sought to establish new vehicles of unity. The first major expression of this were the [[Lambeth Conference]]s of the Communion's bishops, first convened by Archbishop of Canterbury [[Charles Longley]] in 1867. From the outset, these were not intended to displace the autonomy of the emerging provinces of the Communion, but to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action." One of the enduringly influential early resolutions of the Conference was the so-called [[Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral]] of [[1888]]. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches, but it had the ancillary effect of establishing parameters of Anglican identity. Its four principles are:
 
# "The Holy Scriptures of the [[Old Testament|Old]] and [[New Testament]]s, as 'containing all things necessary to salvation', and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith."
# "The [[Apostles' Creed]], as the Baptismal Symbol; and the [[Nicene Creed]], as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith."
# "The two [[Sacrament]]s ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him."
# "The Historic [[bishop|Episcopate]], locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church."
 
===Instruments of Unity===
As mentioned above, the Anglican Communion has no international juridical organisation. The Archbishop of Canterbury's role is strictly symbolic and unifying; and the Communion's three international bodies are consultative and collaborative, their resolutions having no legal effect on the independent provinces of the Communion. Taken together, however, the four do function as "instruments of unity", since all churches of the Communion partcipate in them. In order of antiquity, they are:
 
# The [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] (''ab origine'') functions as the spiritual head of the Communion. He is the focus of unity, since no church claims membership in the Communion without being in communion with him. The present incumbent is Dr. [[Rowan Williams]].
# The [[Lambeth Conference]] (first held in [[1867]]) is the oldest international consultation. It is a forum for bishops of the Communion to reinforce unity and collegiality through manifesting the [[episcopal|episcopate]], to discuss matters of mutual concern, and to pass resolutions intended to act as guideposts. It is held roughly every ten years and invitation is by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
# The [[Anglican Consultative Council]] (first met in [[1971]]) was created by a 1968 Lambeth Conference resolution, and meets usually at three year intervals. The council consists of representative bishops, clergy, and laity chosen by the thirty-eight provinces. The body has a permanent secretariat, the Anglican Communion Office, of which the Archbishop of Canterbury is president.
# The [[Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting|Primates' Meeting]] (first met in [[1979]]) is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation, having been first convened by Archbishop [[Donald Coggan]] as a forum for "leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation."
 
Since there is no binding authority in the Communion, these international bodies are a vehicle for consultation and persuasion. In recent years, persuasion has tipped over into debates over conformity in certain areas of doctrine, discipline, worship, and ethics. The most notable example has been the objection of some provinces of the Communion (particularly in Africa and Asia) to the changing role of homosexuals in the North American churches (e.g., by [[same-sex unions|blessing same-sex unions]] and ordaining and consecrating gays and lesbians in same-sex relationships), and to the process by which changes were undertaken. Those who objected condemned these actions as unscsriptural, unilateral, and without the agreement of the Communion prior to these steps being taken. In response, the [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America|American Episcopal Church]] and the [[Anglican Church of Canada]] answered that the actions had been undertaken after lengthy scriptural and theological reflection, legally in accordance with their own [[canon law|canons and constitutions]] and after extensive consultation with the provinces of the Communion.
 
The Primates' Meeting voted to request the two churches to withdraw their delegates from the 2005 meeting of the Anglican Consultative Council, and Canada and the United States decided to attend the meeting but without exercising their right to vote. They have not been expelled or suspended, since there is no mechanism in this voluntary association to suspend or expel an independent province of the Communion. Since membership is based on a province's communion with Canterbury, expulsion would require the Archbishop of Canterbury's refusal to be in communion with the affected jurisdiction(s). In line with the suggestion of the [[Windsor Report]], Dr. Williams has recently established a working group to examine the feasibility of an Anglican [[covenant]] which would articulate the conditions for communion in some fashion.<ref>[http://www.anglicancommunion.org/acns/articles/41/50/acns4164.cfm Archbishop of Canterbury: address to General Synod on the Anglican Communion, ACNS 4164, July 7, 2006]</ref>
 
==Provinces of the Anglican Communion==
All thirty-eight provinces of the Anglican Communion are independent, each with its own [[primate (religion)|primate]] and governing structure. These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, Central Africa, or Southeast Asia). They are, in alphabetical order:
 
*The [[Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand, and Polynesia]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Australia]]
*The [[Church of Bangladesh]]
*The [[Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil]] (Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil)
*The [[Anglican Church of Burundi]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Canada]]
*The [[Church of the Province of Central Africa]]
*The [[Iglesia Anglicana de la Region Central America]] (Anglican Church in the Central Region of America)
*The [[Province de L'Eglise Anglicane Du Congo]] (Province of the Anglican Church of Congo)
*The [[Church of England]]
*[[Sheng Kung Hui]] (Hong Kong Anglican Church (Episcopal))
*The [[Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean]]
*The [[Church of Ireland]]
*The [[Nippon Sei Ko Kai]] (The Anglican Communion in Japan)
*The [[Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Kenya]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Korea]]
*The [[Church of the Province of Melanesia]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Mexico]]
*The [[Church of the Province of Myanmar]] (Burma)
*The [[Church of Nigeria]]
*The [[Church of North India]]
*The [[Church of Pakistan]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea]]
*The [[Episcopal Church of the Philippines]]
*The [[Church of the Province of Rwanda]]
*The [[Scottish Episcopal Church]]
*The [[Church of the Province of South East Asia]]
*The [[Church of South India]]
*The [[Church of the Province of Southern Africa]]
*[[Iglesia Anglicana del Cono Sur de las Americas]] (Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of the Americas)
*The [[Episcopal Church of the Sudan]]
*The [[Anglican Church of Tanzania]]
*The [[Church of Uganda]]
*The [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America]]
*The [[Church in Wales]]
*The [[Church of the Province of West Africa]]
*The [[Church in the Province of the West Indies]]
 
In addition, there are six extra-provincial churches, five of which are under the [[metropolitan|metropolitical]] authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
 
*The [[Anglican Church of Bermuda]] (extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury)
*[[Iglesia Episcopal de Cuba]] (Episcopal Church of Cuba) (under a metropolitan council)
*The [[Parish of the Falkland Islands]] (extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury)
*The [[Lusitanian Catholic Apostolic Evangelical Church]] of [[Portugal]] (extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury)
*The [[Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church]] (extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury)
*The [[Church of Ceylon]] ([[Sri Lanka]]) (extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury)
 
==History==
 
''Main article: see [[History of the Anglican Communion]]''
 
The Anglican Communion is a relatively recent concept. Ever since the [[Church of England]] (which until the [[20th century]] included the [[Church in Wales]]) broke from [[Roman Catholic Church|Rome]] in the reign of [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]], it has thought of itself not as a new foundation but rather as a reformed continuation of the ancient "English church" and a reassertion of that church's rights. As such it was a distinctly local phenomenon.
 
Thus the only members of the present Anglican Communion existing by the mid-[[18th century]] were the Church of England, its closely-linked sister church, the [[Church of Ireland]] (which also broke from Rome under Henry VIII), and the [[Scottish Episcopal Church]], which for parts of the [[17th century|17th]] and 18th centuries was partially underground (it was suspected of [[Jacobitism|Jacobite]] sympathies).
 
However, the enormous expansion in the 18th and 19th centuries of the [[British Empire]] brought the church along with it. At first all these colonial churches were under the jurisdiction of the [[Bishop of London]]. After the [[American Revolution]], the parishes in the newly independent country found it necessary to break formally from a church whose [[Supreme Governor]] was (and remains) the [[British monarchy|British monarch]]. Thus they formed their own dioceses and national church, the [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America]], in a mostly amicable separation.
 
At about the same time, in the colonies which remained linked to the crown, the Church of England began to appoint colonial bishops. In 1787 a bishop of [[Nova Scotia]] was appointed with a jurisdiction over all of British North America; in time several more colleagues were appointed to other cities in present-day [[Canada]]. In [[1814]] a bishop of [[Calcutta]] was made; in [[1824]] the first bishop was sent to the [[West Indies]] and in [[1836]] to [[Australia]]. By 1840 there were still only ten colonial bishops for the Church of England; but even this small beginning greatly facilitated the growth of Anglicanism around the world. In [[1841]] a "Colonial Bishoprics Council" was set up and soon many more dioceses were created.
 
In time, it became natural to group these into provinces, and a [[metropolitan bishop|metropolitan]] appointed for each province. Although it had at first been somewhat established in many colonies, in [[1861]] it was ruled that, except where specifically established, the Church of England had just the same legal position as any other church. Thus a colonial bishop and colonial diocese was by nature quite a different thing from their counterparts back home. In time bishops came to be appointed locally rather than from England, and eventually national synods began to pass ecclesiastical legislation independent of England.
 
A crucial step in the development of the modern communion was the idea of the Lambeth Conferences, as discussed above. These conferences demonstrated that the bishops of disparate churches could manifest the unity of the church in their episcopal collegiality, despite the absence of universal legal ties. Some bishops were initially reluctant to attend, fearing that the meeting would declare itself a council with power to legislate for the church; but it agreed to pass only advisory resolutions. These Lambeth Conferences have been held roughly decennially since 1878 (the second such conference), and remain the most visible coming-together of the whole Communion.
 
==Controversies==
One effect of the Communion's dispersed authority has been that conflict and controversy regularly arise over the effect divergent practices and doctrines in one part of the Communion have on others. Disputes that had been confined to the Church of England could be dealt with legislatively in that realm, but as the Communion spread out into new nations and disparate cultures, such controversies multiplied and intensified. These controversies have generally been of two types: liturgical and social.
 
The first such controversy of note concerned that of the growing influence of the [[Catholic Revival]] manifested in the so-called [[ritualism]] controversies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Later, rapid social change and the dissipation of British cultural hegemony over its former colonies contributed to disputes over the role of women, the parameters of marriage and divorce, and the practice of [[contraception]] and [[abortion]]. More recently, disagreements over homosexuality have strained the unity of the Communion as well as its relationships with other Christian denominations (''see [[Anglican views of homosexuality]]''). Simultaneous with debates about social theology and ethics, the Communion has debated prayer book revision and the acceptable grounds for achieving full communion with non-Anglican churches.
 
*[http://descant.classicalanglican.net/?p=2126 A Letter From The Episcopal Church Historical Society On Bishop Polk And Sewanee]
 
==Ecumenical relations==
Anglican interest in [[ecumenism|ecumenical]] dialogue can be traced back to the time of the Reformation and dialogues with both Orthodox and Lutheran churches in the sixteenth century. In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the Oxford Movement, there arose greater concern for reunion of the churches of "Catholic confession." This desire to work towards full [[Communion (Christian)|communion]] with other denominations led to the development of the [[Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral]], approved by the Third [[Lambeth Conference]] of 1888. The four points (the sufficiency of scripture, the historic creeds, the two dominical sacraments, and the historic episcopate) were proposed as a basis for discussion, although they have frequently been taken as a non-negotiable bottom-line for reunion.
=== World Council of Churches ===
Ecumenical dialogue has been particularly fruitful in three realms. The first is the [[World Council of Churches]] and its predecessors, in which Anglicans have been involved from the first. Anglican representatives were particularly involved in the development of the seminal Faith and Order paper, ''Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry'', which sought to develop common ground concerning these issues, and have been at the centre of the process of developing recent work on the "Nature and Mission of the Church".
=== Roman Catholic Church ===
The second concerns dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. Long-term hostility between the two Communions had undermined the prospects of dialogue. Although [[Catholic Emancipation]] in the United Kingdom relieved some of the tension, the Catholic response to the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral was articulated in ''[[Apostolicae Curae]]'', an 1896 [[papal bull]] which declared Anglican [[holy orders]] null and void. Rapprochement was finally achieved in 1966, with the visit of Archbishop [[Michael Ramsey]] to Pope [[Paul VI]]. The following year, the [[Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission]] was established. Its first project focused on the authority of Scripture, and the Commission has since produced nine agreed statements. Phase One of ARCIC ended in 1981 with the publication of a final report, ''Elucidations on Authority in the Church''. Phase Two lasted between 1983 and 2004, and a third phase is expected. The most recent agreed statement dealt with Marian theology, and was published in 2004. In 2000, following a successful meeting of Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops in Mississauga in Canada, a new commission, the International Anglican Roman Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission, was established to promote practical co-operation between Anglicans and Roman Catholics, and the reception of the fruits of the theological dialogue.
 
Despite the productivity of these discussions, dialogue is strained by developments in some provinces of the Communion, primarily concerning the [[ordination of women]] and the ordination of those in public same-sex sexual relationships including, in one case, a bishop ([[Gene Robinson]]). Pope [[John Paul II]] made a [[Pastoral Provision]] for a small number parishes led by former Episcopal clergy who have converted to the Roman Catholic Church. There are approximately a half-dozen of these [[Anglican Use]] parishes, so called because they have been permitted the temporary use of a Roman Catholic adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer, although not the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer itself. In addition, there is one [[Continuing Anglican]] church jurisdiction, the [[Traditional Anglican Communion]], currently seeking to achieve full communion with Rome while retaining its own faith and practices.
 
=== Lutheran Churches ===
Another fruitful realm of dialogue has been with various [[Lutheran]] churches. In 1994, the [[Porvoo Communion]] was formed, bringing the Anglican churches of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland and the Episcopal churches of Portugal and Spain into full communion with the Lutheran churches of Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania. In 2001, the [[Anglican Church of Canada]] and the [[Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada]] achieved full communion [http://www.anglican.ca/news/news.php?newsItem=2001-07-08_a.ans], as did the [[Episcopal Church in the United States]] and the [[Evangelical Lutheran Church in America]] [http://www.episcopal-life.org/26769_70474_ENG_HTM.htm]. In addition, full communion agreements have been reached between various [[ecclesiastical province]]s and smaller, mostly [[Catholicism|Catholic]] denominations, such as the [[Old Catholic Church]] after the [[Bonn Agreement (religion)|Bonn Agreement]] of 1931.
 
=== Orthodox Churches ===
Dialogue has has also been fruitful with the Orthodox Churches. The current [[International Commission of the Anglican-Orthodox Theological Dialogue]] was established in 1999, building on the work of earlier commissions, which had published their work in the Dublin Statement, and the [[Anglican Oriental Orthodox International Commission]] was established in 2001.
 
===Other churches===
Consultations with Protestant churches other than Lutherans have also been fruitful. However, movements toward full communion between the Anglican Church of Canada and the [[United Church of Canada]], as well as between the Church of England and the [[Methodist Church of Great Britain]] were both derailed because of the issue of episcopacy, specifically, [[apostolic succession]]. This, as well as Anglican stands on certain social issues, has likewise hindered dialogue between Anglicans and conservative [[evangelicalism|evangelical]] Protestant denominations. This has not prevented a range of reports by bilateral commissions producing descriptions of converging theology and practice however, such as Conversations around the World (2005), a report of conversations between the representatives of the Anglican Communion and the Baptist World Alliance.-->
 
== Rujukan ==
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== Lihat pula ==
*[[Jaringan Komuni Anglikan]]
*[[Sakramen Anglikan]]
*[[Anglican Use]]
*[[Anglicans online]]
*[[Anglo-Katolisisme]]
*[[Kitab Doa Bersama]]
*[[Anglikan Sydney]]
*[[Ke-39 Artikel]]
*[[Pelayanan Anglikan]]
 
*[http://descant.classicalanglican.net/?p=2126 A Letter From The Episcopal Church Historical Society On Bishop Polk And Sewanee]
 
 
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