Kekristenan: Perbedaan revisi

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Agama Kristen adalah suatu [[agama Abrahamik]] yang bermula sebagai sebuah sekte [[Yudaisme Bait Kedua|agama Yahudi era Bait Allah kedua]] pada pertengahan abad pertama tarikh Masehi.<ref name="Robinson">{{harvnb|Robinson|2000|p=229}}</ref><ref name="Esler">Esler. ''The Early Christian World''. hal. 157f.</ref> Sekte ini berasal dari [[Yudea (provinsi Romawi)|Yudea]] dan [[Pusat awal Kekristenan|menyebar pesat]] ke [[Eropa]], [[Syam|Suriah]], [[Mesopotamia]], [[Anatolia|Asia Kecil]], [[Kaukasus Selatan|Transkaukasia]], [[Mesir]], [[Etiopia]], serta [[India]], dan pada akhir abad ke-4 telah menjadi [[Gereja negara Kekaisaran Romawi|agama resmi Kekaisaran Romawi]].<ref>Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley-Blackwell, oleh James B. Rives, halaman 196</ref><ref>[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07218b.htm Catholic encyclopedia] New Advent</ref><ref>McManners, ''Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity'', hal. 301–303.</ref> Sesudah [[Zaman Penjelajahan]], agama Kristen menyebar ke [[Benua Amerika]], [[Australasia]], [[Afrika sub-Sahara]] dan ke segenap penjuru dunia melalui [[Misi (Kristen)|karya misi]] dan [[Sejarah kolonialisme|kolonialisme]].<ref name="Spread">{{cite book|url = https://books.google.com/books?id=g2AtOlJMPTUC&pg=PA52|title =Muslim-Christian Relations|publisher = [[Amsterdam University Press]]|quote=The enthusiasm for evangelization among the Christians was also accompanied by the awareness that the most immediate problem to solve was how to serve the huge number of new [[Conversion to Christianity|converts]]. Simatupang said, if the number of the Christians were double or triple, then the number of the ministers should also be doubled or tripled and the tole of the laity should be maximized and Christian service to society through schools, universities, hospitals and orphanages, should be increased. In addition, for him the Christian mission should be involved in the struggle for justice amid the process of modernization.|accessdate = 18 October 2007|isbn = 978-90-5356-938-2|year = 2006}}</ref><ref name="Charity">{{cite book|url = https://books.google.com/?id=WmuV6g0yR3sC&pg=PA77&dq=christianity+serve+others+hospitals+orphanages+schools#v=onepage&q&f=false|author=Fred Kammer|title =Doing Faith Justice|publisher = [[Paulist Press]]|quote=Theologians, bishops, and preachers urged the Christian community to be as compassionate as their God was, reiterating that creation was for all of humanity. They also accepted and developed the identification of Christ with the poor and the requisite Christian duty to the poor. Religious congregations and individual charismatic leaders promoted the development of a number of helping institutions-hospitals, hospices for pilgrims, orphanages, shelters for unwed mothers-that laid the foundation for the modern "large network of hospitals, orphanages and schools, to serve the poor and society at large."|accessdate = 18 October 2007|isbn = 978-0-8091-4227-9|date = 1 May 2004}}</ref><ref name="Service">{{cite book|url = https://books.google.com/books?id=dz_EM2ofIb4C&pg=PA132|title =Christian Church Women: Shapers of a Movement|publisher = Chalice Press|quote=In the central provinces of India they established schools, orphanages, hospitals, and churches, and spread the gospel message in zenanas.|accessdate = 18 October 2007|isbn = 978-0-8272-0463-8|date = March 1994}}</ref> Agama Kristen telah [[Gereja Katolik Roma dan peradaban manusia|berperan besar]] dalam pembentukan [[Budaya Barat|Peradaban Dunia Barat]].<ref>Religions in Global Society – Halaman 146, Peter Beyer – 2006</ref><ref name="Cambridge University Historical Series">Cambridge University Historical Series, ''An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects'', hal.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.</ref><ref name="Caltron J.H Hayas">Caltron J.H Hayas, ''Christianity and Western Civilization'' (1953),Stanford University Press, hal.2: "That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization — the civilization of western Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo – Graeco – Christianity, Catholic and Protestant."</ref><ref name="Horst Hutter">Horst Hutter, University of New York, ''Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices'' (2004), hal.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato.</ref><ref name="Fred Reinhard Dallmayr">Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, ''Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices'' (2004), hal.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization.</ref>
 
Sepanjang [[Sejarah Kekristenan|sejarahnya]], agama Kristen telah mengalami [[skisma]] dan pertentangan teologis yang mengakibatkan munculnya bermacam-macam gereja dan [[Denominasi Kristen|denominasi]]. Tiga cabang agama Kristen yang terbesar di dunia adalah [[Gereja Katolik]], [[Gereja Ortodoks|Gereja Ortodoks Timur]], dan bermacam-macam denominasi dari [[Protestanisme|Mazhab Protestan]]. Gereja Katolik dan Gereja Ortodoks Timur saling memutuskan [[Komuni penuh|hubungan persekutuan]] dalam peristiwa [[Skisma Timur–Barat]] pada 1054, sementara Mazhab Protestan muncul pada era [[Reformasi Protestan|reformasi]] dipada abad ke-16 sebagai pecahan dari Gereja Katolik.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=q-vhwjamOioC&pg=PA23&dq=anagignoskomena#v=onepage&q=anagignoskomena&f=true |title=Orthodox and Wesleyan Scriptural understanding and practice | editor=S. T. Kimbrough|publisher=St Vladimir's Seminary Press|year=2005|isbn=978-0-88141-301-4}}</ref>
 
== Gambaran umum agama Kristen ==