Istana Damaskus: Perbedaan antara revisi

28 bita ditambahkan ,  4 tahun yang lalu
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(←Membuat halaman berisi '{{Infobox military structure |name=Istana Damaskus |nativename-a= {{lang|ar|قلعة دمشق}} |location=Damascus, Suriah |image=[[Berkas:Damaskus4.jpg|300px]...')
 
k (Bot: Perubahan kosmetika)
Lokasi istana saat ininya pertama kali dibentengi pada 1076 oleh panglima perang [[orang Turkmen|Turkman]] [[Atsiz bin Uvaq|Atsiz bin Uvak]], meskipun diyakini sebuah istana telah berdiri di tempat tersebut pada zaman [[peradaban Hellenistik|Hellenistik]] dan [[Kekaisaran Romawi|Romawi]].
 
== Referensi ==
{{Reflist|3}}
 
== Daftar pustaka ==
{{Refbegin}}
* {{citation |last1=Adorni |first1=Elisa |last2=Venturelli |first2=Giampiero |year=2010 |title=Mortars and Stones of the Damascus Citadel (Syria) |journal=International Journal of Architectural Heritage |volume=4 |issue=4 |pages=337–350 |doi=10.1080/15583050903121851 }}
* {{Citation |last1=Allen|first1=Terry |year=1999 |title=Ayyubid Architecture |publisher=Solipsist Press|location= Occidental|isbn=0-944940-02-1 |url=http://sonic.net/~tallen/palmtree/ayyarch/}}
* {{Citation|last1=Berthier |first1=Sophie |editor1-first=Hugh |editor1-last=Kennedy |title=Muslim Military Architecture in Greater Syria: From the Coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period |series=History of Warfare |volume=35 |year=2006 |publisher=Brill |location=Leiden |isbn=90-04-14713-6 |pages=151–164 |chapter=La Citadelle de Damas: les apports d'une étude archéologique |language= French }}
* {{Citation |title=Damascus: A History |last=Burns |first=Ross |year=2005 |publisher=Routledge |location=Milton Park |isbn=0-415-27105-3 }}
* {{Citation |title=The Citadel of Damascus |last=Chevedden |first=Paul |year=1986 |publisher=U.M.I. Dissertation Information Service |location=Ann Arbor |oclc=640193186}}
* {{Citation |title=Arab Historians of the Crusades |last=Gabrieli |first=Francesco |year=1984 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley |isbn=978-0-520-05224-6 }}
* {{citation |title=Die ayyūbidischen Toranlangen der Zitadelle von Damaskus. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des mittelalterlichen Festungsbauwesen in Syrien |last=Hanisch |first=Hanspeter |year=1996 |publisher=Ludwig Reichert |location=Wiesbaden |isbn=3-88226-886-7 |language= German }}
* {{Citation |title=The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives |last=Hillenbrand |first=Carole |authorlink=Carole Hillenbrand |year=2000 |publisher=Routledge |location=New York |isbn=978-0-415-92914-1 }}
* {{Citation |last=Hillenbrand |first=Carole |authorlink=Carole Hillenbrand |editor1-first=Jonathan |editor1-last=Phillips |editor2-first=Martin |editor2-last=Hoch |title=The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences |year=2001 |publisher=Manchester University Press |location=Manchester |isbn=978-0-7190-5711-3 |pages=111–132 |chapter=The Career of Zengi }}
* {{Citation |title=From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193–1260 |last=Humphreys |first=R. Stephen |year=1977 |publisher=SUNY Press |location=Albany |isbn=978-0-87395-263-7 }}
* {{Citation |last=Kedourie |first=Elie |authorlink=Elie Kedourie |year=1964 |title=The Capture of Damascus, 1 October 1918 |journal=Middle Eastern Studies |volume=1 |issue=1 |pages=66–83 |doi=10.1080/00263206408700005 }}
* {{Citation |title=A History of Egypt in the Middle Ages |last=Lane-Poole |first=Stanley |authorlink=Stanley Lane-Poole |year=1901 |publisher=Charles Scribner's |location=New York |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kipLAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false |oclc=455336208}}
* {{Citation |title=Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem |last=Lane-Poole |first=Stanley |authorlink=Stanley Lane-Poole |year=1906 |publisher=G.P. Putnam's |location=London |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=M7pIVpjuyw0C |oclc=448994737}}
* {{Citation |title=The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster Outside Damascus |last=Nicolle |first=David |year=2009 |publisher=Osprey |location=Oxford |isbn=978-1-84603-354-4 }}
* {{Citation |last=Phillips |first=Jonathan |editor-first=Jonathan |editor-last=Riley-Smith |title=The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades |year=2001 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=Oxford |isbn=978-0-19-285428-5 |pages=112–140 |chapter=The Latin East 1098–1291 }}
* {{Citation |title=A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Acre and the later Crusades |last=Runciman |first=Steven |authorlink=Steven Runciman |year=1987 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |isbn=978-0-521-34772-3 }}
* {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Quincy |year=1926 |title=The Bombardment of Damascus |journal=American Journal of International Law |volume=20 |issue=2 |pages=263–280 |doi=10.2307/2188917 }}
{{Refend}}
 
== Bacaan tambahan ==
* {{Citation |last1=Bessac |first1=Jean-Claude |last2=Boqvist |first2=Marianne |year=2005 |title=Les chantiers de construction de la citadelle de Damas: méthodologie et résultats préliminaires |journal=Arquelogía de la Arquitectura |volume=4 |pages=237–249 |issn=1989-5313 |url=http://arqarqt.revistas.csic.es/index.php/arqarqt/article/view/85/82 |language=French }}
* {{Citation |last1=Sauvaget |first1=Jean |authorlink=Jean Sauvaget|year=1930 |title=La citadelle de Damas |journal=Syria |volume=11 |issue=1 |pages=59–90 |doi=10.3406/syria.1930.3486 |language=French }}
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{Commons category|Damascus Citadel|Citadel of Damascus}}
* [http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/entrees-thematiques_830/echanges-scientifiques-recherche-archeologie_20149/archeologie-sciences-humaines-sociales_1058/les-carnets-archeologie_5064/orient-ancien_5067/syrie-citadelle-damas_19031/publications-parues-sur-citadelle-damas_64199.html List of publications on the citadel]{{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} (in French)
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20071024201005/http://www.nmdcsyria.org/photo_gallery/photo_gallery.htm Additional pictures from the restoration project]
 
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