40 (angka): Perbedaan revisi

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Tambahan
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(Tambahan)
* [[20 (angka)|20]]
* [[40 (angka)|40]]
 
{{angka-stub}}
== Matematika ==
*Empat puluh merupakan [[bilangan komposit]], suatu [[:en:octagonal number|bilangan oktagonal]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://oeis.org/A000567|title=Sloane's A000567 : Octagonal numbers|last=|first=|date=|website=The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences|publisher=OEIS Foundation|access-date=2016-05-31}}</ref> dan karena merupakan jumlah empat [[:en:pentagonal number|bilangan pentagonal]] pertama, merupakan suatu [[:en:pentagonal pyramidal number|bilangan piramidal pentagonal]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://oeis.org/A002411|title=Sloane's A002411 : Pentagonal pyramidal numbers|last=|first=|date=|website=The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences|publisher=OEIS Foundation|access-date=2016-05-31}}</ref> Jumlah subset pembaginya sendiri (yaitu: 1, 4, 5, 10 dan 20) menghasilkan 40, sehingga 40 merupakan [[:en:semiperfect number|bilangan semi-sempurna]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://oeis.org/A005835|title=Sloane's A005835 : Pseudoperfect (or semiperfect) numbers|last=|first=|date=|website=The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences|publisher=OEIS Foundation|access-date=2016-05-31}}</ref>
<!--*Given 40, the [[Mertens function]] returns [[0 (number)|0]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://oeis.org/A028442|title=Sloane's A028442 : Numbers n such that Mertens' function is zero|last=|first=|date=|website=The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences|publisher=OEIS Foundation|access-date=2016-05-31}}</ref> 40 is the smallest number ''n'' with exactly 9 solutions to the equation [[Euler's totient function|φ]](''x'') = ''n''.
*Forty is the number of [[eight queens puzzle|''n''-queens problem]] solutions for ''n'' = 7.-->
*40 adalah suatu [[:en:repdigit|repdigit]] pada bilangan basis 3 (1111, ''misalnya'' 3<sup>0</sup> + 3<sup>1</sup> + 3<sup>2</sup> + 3<sup>3</sup>) dan sebuah [[:en:Harshad number|bilangan Harshad]] dalam [[:en:base 10|basis 10]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://oeis.org/A005349|title=Sloane's A005349 : Niven (or Harshad) numbers|last=|first=|date=|website=The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences|publisher=OEIS Foundation|access-date=2016-05-31}}</ref>
 
==Ilmu alam==
* [[Bilangan atom]] [[Zirkonium]].
*'''Minus empat puluh''' adalah suatu [[suhu]] unik di mana derajat Fahrenheit sama dengan derajat Celsius; yaitu, −40&nbsp;°F = −40&nbsp;°C. Dalam bahasa Inggris disebut "''negative forty''", "''minus forty''" atau "''forty below''".
 
===Astronomi===
*[[:en:Messier object|Objek Messier]] [[:en:Winnecke 4|M40]], adalah suatu [[:en:double star|bintang ganda]] dengan [[:en:visual magnitude|magnitude]] 9.0 pada [[:en:constellation|konstelasi]] [[Ursa Major]]
* Objek [[:en:New General Catalogue|New General Catalogue]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ngcic.org/|title=Account Suspended|work=ngcic.org}}</ref> [[NGC 40]], suatu [[:en:planetary nebula|planetary nebula]] dengan magnitude 12.4 pada konstelasi [[:en:Cepheus (constellation)|Cepheus]]
 
==Agama==
Angka 40 dikenal dalam [[Yudaisme]], [[Kristen]], [[Islam]], dan tradisi [[Timur Tengah]] lain melambangkan suatu [[:en:Indefinite and fictitious numbers|angka besar terukur]]<!--, similar to "[[umpteen]]"-->.
 
=== Yudaisme ===
Dalam [[Alkitab Ibrani]], 40 sering digunakan pada periode waktu, 40 hari atau 40 tahun, yang memisahkan "dua periode berbeda" ("''two distinct epochs''").<ref name="coogan">Michael David Coogan, ''A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context'', Oxford, 2008, p. 116</ref>
 
* Hujan turun selama "empat puluh hari dan empat puluh malam" yang menyebabkan [[Air bah (Nuh)|Air bah]]. ({{Alkitab|Kejadian 7:4}})
* Para pengintai menjelajahi tanah Israel (Kanaan) selama "empat puluh hari." ({{Alkitab|Bilangan 13:25}})
<!--* The Hebrew people lived in the lands outside of the promised land for "forty years". This period of years represents the time it takes for a new generation to arise. (Numbers 32:13)
* Several Jewish leaders and kings are said to have ruled for "forty years", that is, a generation. Examples include Eli (1 Samuel 4:18), Saul (Acts 13:21), David (2 Samuel 5:4), and Solomon (1 Kings 11:42).
* [[Goliath]] challenged the Israelites twice a day for forty days before [[David]] defeated him. (1 Samuel 17:16)
* [[Moses]] spent three consecutive periods of "forty days and forty nights" on [[Biblical Mount Sinai|Mount Sinai]]:
# He went up on the seventh day of [[Sivan]], after [[God]] gave the Torah to the Jewish people, in order to learn the Torah from God, and came down on the [[Seventeenth of Tammuz|seventeenth day of Tammuz]], when he saw the Jews worshiping the [[Golden Calf]] and broke the tablets. (Deuteronomy 9:11)
# He went up on the eighteenth day of [[Tammuz (Hebrew month)|Tammuz]] to beg forgiveness for the people's sin and came down without God's atonement on the twenty-ninth day of [[Av]]. (Deuteronomy 9:25)
# He went up on the first day of [[Elul]] and came down on the tenth day of [[Tishrei]], the first [[Yom Kippur]], with God's atonement. (Deuteronomy 10:10)
* A [[mikvah]] consists of 40 ''[[se'ah]]'' (approximately 200 [[gallon]]s) of water
* Prophet [[Elijah]] had to walk 40 days and 40 nights before arriving to mount [[Mount Horeb|Horeb]] (1King 19: 8)
* 40 lashes is one of the punishments meted out by the [[Sanhedrin]], though in actual practice only 39 lashes were administered.<ref>https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0007_0_06574.html</ref>
* One of the prerequisites for a man to study Kabbalah is that he is forty years old.-->
 
=== Kristen ===
[[Kekristenan]] mengenal angka 40 terkait periode yang penting.<ref name="coogan"/>
 
* Sebelum [[:en:temptation of Christ|dicobai Iblis]], [[Yesus]] berpuasa "empat puluh hari dan empat puluh malam" di [[:en:Judean desert|Padang gurun Yudea]]. ({{Alkitab|Matius 4:2}}, {{Alkitab|Markus 1:13}}, {{Alkitab|Lukas 4:2}})
* Empat puuh hari merupakan periode dari [[Kebangkitan Yesus]] dari kematian samapi [[Kenaikan Yesus|kenaikan-Nya ke sorga]]. ({{Alkitab|Kisah Para Rasul 1:3}})
<!--* Biblical verse Numbers 14:33-34 alludes to the same with ties to the prophecy in The Book of Daniel. "For forty years--one year for each of the forty days you explored the land--you will suffer for your sins and know what it is like to have me against you.'"
* In modern Christian practice, [[Lent]] consists of the 40 days preceding [[Easter]]. In much of Western Christianity, Sundays are excluded from the count; in Eastern Christianity, Sundays are included.
* The [[Forty Martyrs of Sebaste]]-->
<!--* [[Kirk Kilisse]], "Forty Churches" (Σαράντα Εκκλησιές) in Eastern Thrace
* Kehidupan [[Musa]] dibagi atas tiga periode yang masing-masing terdiri dari 40 tahun, yaitu masa pertumbuhan sampai dewasa dan melarikan diri dari Mesir, masa tinggal di Midian, dan masa perjalanan [[keluar dari Mesir]] di padang gurun ([[Kisah Para Rasul 7]]).<ref>{{Alkitab|Kisah Para Rasul 7:23,30,36}}</ref>
 
=<!--
==Islam===
*[[Muhammad]] was forty years old when he first received the revelation delivered by the archangel Gabriel.
*[[Masih ad-Dajjal]] roams around the Earth in forty days, a period of time that can be as many as forty months, forty years, and so on.
*God forbade the Fasiqun (the non-believers) from entering the Holy Land for 40 years to separate them from Musa ([[Moses]]) and his brother.<ref>Qur'an 5:25-26</ref>
*Musa ([[Moses]]) spent 40 days on Mount Sinai where he received the 10 commandments.<ref>Qur'an 7:142</ref>
*On the 40th verse (ayat) of the 2nd chapter of the Quran (Al-Baqarah) God changes the topic.
*Forty was the number of days that Prophet Ilyas ([[Elijah]]) spent in the wilderness before the angel appeared to him with God's message on [[Mount Horeb]].{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Forty was the number of days that Prophet Isa ([[Jesus]]) was tempted in the desert by Satan.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Muhammad praying and fasting in the cave for 40 days.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Muhammad then had 40 followers to spread the religion of Islam.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Prophets [[David in Islam|Dawuud]] and [[Suleiman]] each ruled for forty years.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Regarding the flood that [[Noah]] encountered, it is said that for forty days water continued to pour from the heavens and to stream out over the earth.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*There is also a hadith from Mohammad that the prayers of a person who gossips would not be accepted for forty days and nights. (Al-Kafi, Vol. 6, p.&nbsp;400)
*Imam Ali has narrated from Mohammad that one who memorizes and preserves forty hadith relating to their religious needs shall be raised by God as a learned scholar on the Day of Resurrection.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*It is said that a person’s intellect attains maturity in forty years, everyone according to his own capacity.<ref>Qur'an 46:15</ref>
*It is believed that one who assists a blind man for forty steps becomes worthy of entering heaven.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Imam Baghir has said: “The prayers of someone who drinks wine are not accepted for forty days.”{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Believers have also been encouraged to devote themselves to God Almighty for forty days to see the springs of wisdom break forth from their hearts and flow from their tongues.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
*Mourning period officially last for 40 days.{{Citation needed|date=November 2012}}
--><!--
===Yazidism===
* In the [[Yazidi]] faith, The Chermera Temple (meaning “40 Men” in the Yazidi dialect) is so old that no one remembers how it came to have that name but it is believed to derive from the burial of 40 men on the mountaintop site.
 
===Funerary customs===
* Some Russians believe that [[ghost]]s of the dead linger at the site of their death for forty days.
* Many Christian Filipinos mark the end of the initial mourning period on the fortieth day after death, and have a [[Mass (liturgy)|Mass]] said. They believe that the soul remains on the earthly plane for forty days before entering the afterlife, recalling how Christ [[Ascension of Jesus|ascended to heaven]] forty days after his [[Resurrection of Jesus|Resurrection]].
 
===Hinduism===
* In [[Hinduism]], some popular religious prayers consist of forty [[shloka]]s or [[Doha (poetry)|dohas]] (couplets, stanzas). The most common being the [[Hanuman Chalisa]] (''chaalis'' is the Hindi term for 40).
In the Hindu system some of the popular fasting periods consist 40 days and is called the period One 'Mandl kal' Kal means a period and Mandal kal means a period of 40 days. For example, the devotees of 'Swami Ayyappa', the name of a Hindu God very popular in Kerala, India ( Sabarimala Swami Ayyappan ) strictly observed forty days fasting and visit ( Only male devotees are permitted to enter into the God's Temple) with their holy submittance or offerings on 41st or a convenient day after a minimum 40 days practice of fasting. The offering is called 'Kanikka'.
 
===Sumerian===
* [[Enki]] ( /ˈɛŋki/) or Enkil (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)𒂗𒆠) is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of [[Eridu]], but later the influence of his cult spread throughout [[Mesopotamia]] and to the [[Canaanites]], [[Hittites]] and [[Hurrians]]. He was the deity of crafts (gašam); mischief; water, seawater, lake water (a, aba, ab), intelligence (gestú, literally "ear") and creation (Nudimmud: nu, likeness, dim mud, make bear). He was associated with the southern band of constellations called stars of Ea, but also with the constellation AŠ-IKU, the Field ([[Square of Pegasus]]). Beginning around the second millennium BCE, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for "40," occasionally referred to as his "sacred number."
A large number of myths about Enki have been collected from many sites, stretching from Southern Iraq to the Levantine coast. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times.
The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is "Lord of the Earth": the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to "lord"; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means "earth"; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning "mound". The name Ea is allegedly Hurrian in origin while others claim that it is possibly of Semitic origin and may be a derivation from the West-Semitic root *hyy meaning "life" in this case used for "spring", "running water." In Sumerian E-A means "the house of water", and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the God at Eridu.
-->
== Olahraga ==
<!--* In baseball, each team in [[Major League Baseball]] is allowed to have [[Major League Baseball rosters#40-man roster|40 players]] under major-league contracts at any given time (not including players on the 60-day disabled list). From September 1 to the end of the regular season, teams are allowed to expand their game-day rosters to include the entire 40-man roster.
* In horse racing, the maximum permitted number of runners in the grand national is 40.
*The distance run in the [[40-yard dash]], an important metric in [[American football]] scouting.-->
* Dalam tenis, skor 40 merupakan poin ketiga yang diperoleh dalam suatu game. Skor 40-40 (masing-masing tiga poin) dinamakan "deuce", di mana seorang pemain kemudian harus memenangkan dua poin berturut-turut untuk memenangkan game itu.
<!--* Beginning with the 2013 season, the number of cars that will run each race in [[NASCAR]]'s second-level [[Nationwide Series]]. And effective with the 2016 season, it is the maximum number of participating cars in each [[Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series]] race.
-->
== Bidang lain ==
[[File:Crush 40 Logo.jpg|thumb|Angka pada logo grup band hard rock Jepang-Amerika, ''Crush 40''.]]
 
'''Empat puluh''' juga dijumpai pada:
<!--*Literally in other fields, after the Civil War, there were plans to offer the freed slaves [[40 acres and a mule]].-->
* ''Untuk mengerti orang, Anda harus diam di antara mereka selama 40 hari. ''~ suatu pepatah Arab''<ref>{{cite book|last=Dallal|first=Tamalyn|title=40 Days & 1001 Nights|publisher=Melati Press|year=2007|location=Seattle|pages=back cover|isbn=978-0-9795155-0-7|nopp=true}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.40daysand1001nights.com|title=40 Days & 1001 Nights - ''One Woman's Dance Through Life in the Islamic World''}}</ref>
*kaliber peluru pada sejumlah senjata api, yang terkenal antara lain [[.40 S&W]]. ([[10mm Auto]], meskipun menggunakan kaliber metrik, menggunakan kaliber yang sama, dan sering juga peluru yang sama.)
* Suatu [[pepatah]] "Hidup dimulai pada usia empat puluh"
<!--* in the expression "[[forty winks]]", meaning a short sleep-->
*Angka tertinggi yang pernah dihitung pada acara televisi anak-anak ''[[Sesame Street]]''
<!--*A song by [[Dave Matthews Band]]
*the number of years of marriage as the ruby [[wedding anniversary]]
*the [[List of country calling codes|code for direct dial international]] phone calls to [[Romania]]
*the number in the designation of:
**[[Interstate 40]], a freeway that runs from [[California]] to [[North Carolina]]
**[[U.S. Route 40]], the {{convert|2285|mi|km|adj=on}} highway that runs from [[Baltimore|Baltimore, Maryland]], to [[Park City, Utah]], a portion of which follows the [[National Road]]
**[[European route E40]] from [[Calais]] to [[Ridder, Kazakhstan|Ridder]]
**the [[A40 road|A40]] and [[M40 motorway|M40]], important highways in the [[United Kingdom|UK]]. The A40 is a trunk road in [[England]] and [[Wales]], connecting [[London]] to [[Fishguard]]. The M40 motorway is the second motorway in the British transport network to connect London to [[Birmingham]]
*[[40 (song)|"40"]], a 1983 song by [[U2]] from their album ''[[War (U2 album)|War]]''
*"40" is the title of a song by [[Franz Ferdinand (band)|Franz Ferdinand]]
*The number of spaces in a standard [[Monopoly (game)|''Monopoly'']] game board
*The American-Japanese hard rock band Crush 40 featured in [[Sega]]'s ''[[Sonic the Hedgehog (series)|Sonic the Hedgehog]]'' franchise with guitarist [[Jun Senoue]] and vocalist [[Johnny Gioeli]]
*The radio program ''[[American Top 40]]''
*The radio program ''[[Rick Dees' Weekly Top 40]]''
*the number of thieves in [[Ali Baba|Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves]] and in ''Ali Shar and Zumurrud'', from [[The Book of One Thousand and One Nights|Thousand and One Nights]] (both the numbers 40 and [[1001 (number)|1001]] are more likely to mean "many" than to indicate a specific number)
*the customary number of hours in a regular [[Working time|workweek]] in some [[Western world|Western]] countries.
*the number of positions on a number of radio countdown programs, most notably ''[[American Top 40]]'' and ''[[American Country Countdown]]''.
*for ''[[The Early Show]]'' segment "Chef on a Shoestring", chefs are given a $40 budget.-->
* Jumlah minggu masa [[kehamilan]] rata-rata, dihitung dari masa [[menstruasi]] terakhir sang ibu.
<!--*A [[40 (malt liquor)|40-ounce bottle]] of malt liquor, referenced in the song "[[40oz. to Freedom]]" by [[Sublime (band)|Sublime]].
*[[Canadians|Canadian]] [[hip hop music|hip hop]] [[record producer|producer]] [[Noah "40" Shebib|Noah Shebib]] is known as "40".
*[[Forty Shades of Green]] is a visual term for rural Ireland, [[Johnny Cash]] popularized it with his 1961 song of the name.
*The [[Tessarakonteres]], or 40, the largest ship of antiquity, constructed by [[Ptolemy IV]]
*Forty is the only integer whose English name has its letters in alphabetical order.
*[[Forty Foot]], a promontory on the southern tip of [[Dublin Bay]], Ireland, from which people have been swimming in the Irish Sea all year round for some 250 years.
*[[Eskimo]] have 40 words for snow. Which although untrue is an established phrase and is an example of usage as a large approximate number.-->
*[[Karantina]], praktik isolasi atau pemisahan sementara, diturunkan dari dialek Venetia dari frasa [[bahasa Italia]] 'quaranta giorni' artinya "empat puluh hari".
<!--* [[Fortycoats & Co.]] an Irish children's TV drama series of the 1980s, the origin of the name is based on the nickname of a Dublin tramp, Johnny Fortycoats, of the 1930s.-->
 
==Referensi==
{{reflist}}
 
== Pustaka tambahan ==
* Stanley Brandes, Forty:The Age and the Symbol. (Knoxville, Univ of Tennessee Press, 1985)
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{EB1911 Poster|Forty}}
:{{Commons category|40 (number)}}
{{Clear}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:40}}
 
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