Pengusiran penduduk Jerman setelah Perang Dunia II: Perbedaan revisi

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(←Membuat halaman berisi '{{Pengusiran pendudukan Jerman}} thumb|300px|Penduduk Jerman hijrah dari [[Silesia ke Jerman yang didu...')
 
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{{Pengusiran pendudukan Jerman}}
[[Berkas:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1985-021-09, Flüchtlinge.jpg|thumb|300px|Penduduk Jerman hijrah dari [[Silesia]] ke [[Jerman yang diduduki Sekutu]] pada 1945. Cuplikan [[Arsip Federal Jerman]] (''Deutsches Bundesarchiv'').]]
Padam masa akhir [[Perang Dunia II]] dan masa setelah perang, pendudukan Jerman dan keturunan Jerman diusir dari berbagai negara Eropa Timur dan dikirim ke sisa-sisa kawasan Jerman dan Austria. Setelah tsahun 1950, beberapa beremigrasi ke Amerika Serikat, Austrlaia, dan negara-negara lainnya dari situ. Kawasan-kawasan yang berdampak meliputi [[bekas kawasan timur Jerman]], yang dianeksasi oleh [[Republik Rakyat Polandia|Polandia]] dan [[Uni Soviet]] setelah perang, serta orang-orang Jerman yang tinggal di perbatasan pra-perang dari [[Republik Polandia Kedua|Polandia]], Cekoslowakia, Hongaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, dan [[Negara-negara Baltik]]. [[Nazi]] [[Generalplan Ost|telah membuat rencana]]—baru sebagian terselesaikan sebelum kekalahan Nazi—untuk memusnahkan beberapa orang Slavik dan Yahudi dari Eropa Timur dan memukimkan kawasan tersebut dengan orang-orang Jerman.<ref name="Schmuhl">Hans-Walter Schmuhl. The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, 1927–1945: crossing boundaries. Volume 259 of Boston studies in the philosophy of science. Coutts MyiLibrary. SpringerLink Humanities, Social Science & LawAuthor. Springer, 2008. {{ISBN|1-4020-6599-X}}, 9781402065996, p. 348–349</ref><ref>[http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206247.pdf Yad Vashem, Generalplan Ost]</ref> Pengusiran orang-orang Jerman pada masa setelah perang membentuk bagian besar dari rekonfigurasi etnis dan geopolitik dari Eropa Timur sebagai [[dampak Perang Dunia Dunia II]], yang berupaya untuk membuat negara-negara homogen secara etnis dalam perbatasan-perbatasan yang didefinisikan ulang.<ref name="a">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wOsSG0K8hCYC&q=%22mass+expulsions+from+Eastern+Europe%22#v=snippet&q=%22mass%20expulsions%20from%20Eastern%20Europe%22&f=false|title=Nationhood in German legislation|publisher=Cambridge University Press|work=Memory and Power in Post-War Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past|date=2002|accessdate=30 January 2015|author=Jan-Werner Müller|pages=254–256|ISBN=052100070X}}</ref> Antara 1944 dan 1948, sekitar 31 juta orang, yang meliputi etnis Jerman ('Volksdeutsche') serta warga negara Jerman ('Reichsdeutsche'), [[pengusiran dan evakuasi Perang Dunia II|berpindah secara permanen atau temporer]] dari Eropa Tengah dan Timur.<ref>Paul Robert Magocsi, ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=8iPa2Q1HtP8C&pg=PA281#v=onepage&q=Magocsi%2031%20million%201945&f=false Historical Atlas of East Central Europe]'', University of Washington Press (1993), pp. 164-68; {{ISBN|0295972483}}. Porter, ''The Ghosts of Europe''.</ref>
 
== Referensi ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== Sumber ==
* Baziur, Grzegorz. ''Armia Czerwona na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1945–1947'' [Red Army Gdańsk Pomerania 1945–1947], Warsaw: [[Instytut Pamięci Narodowej]], 2003; {{ISBN|83-89078-19-8}}
* Beneš, Z., D. Jančík et al., ''Facing History: The Evolution of Czech and German Relations in the Czech Provinces, 1848–1948'', Prague: Gallery; {{ISBN|80-86010-60-0}}
* Jankowiak, Stanisław. ''Wysiedlenie i emigracja ludności niemieckiej w polityce władz polskich w latach 1945–1970'' [Expulsion and emigration of German population in the policies of Polish authorities in 1945–1970], Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, 2005; {{ISBN|83-89078-80-5}}
* Naimark, Norman M. ''The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949'', Cambridge: [[Harvard University Press]], 1995; {{ISBN|0-674-78405-7}}
* Naimark, Norman M.: ''Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth–Century Europe''. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001; {{ISBN|0674009940}}
* Overy, Richard. ''The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Third Reich'', London: [[Penguin Books]], 1996; {{ISBN|0-14-051330-2}}, pg. 111.
* Podlasek, Maria. ''Wypędzenie Niemców z terenów na wschód od Odry i Nysy Łużyckiej'', Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Polsko-Niemieckie, 1995; {{ISBN|83-86653-00-0}}
* Suppan, Arnold: "Hitler- Benes- Tito". Wien 2014. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Drei Bände. {{ISBN|978-3-7001-7309-0}}.
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{Commons category|Refugees of World War II in Germany}}
{{Commons category|Notaufnahmelager Marienfelde}}
* [http://vimeo.com/39264897 A documentary film about the expulsion of the Germans from Hungary]
* [http://law.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4600&context=expresso Timothy V. Waters, ''On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing''], Paper 951, 2006, [[University of Mississippi School of Law]] (PDF)
* [http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1945v02.p1240&isize=M Interest of the United States in the transfer of German populations from Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, and Austria], Foreign relations of the United States: diplomatic papers, Volume II (1945) pp.&nbsp;1227–1327 (Note: Page 1227 begins with a Czechoslovak document dated 23 November 1944, several months before Czechoslovakia was "liberated" by the Soviet Army.) ([http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/FRUS.FRUS1945v02 Main URL], wisc.edu)
* [http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1945Berlinv01.p0874 Frontiers and areas of administration.] Foreign relations of the United States (the Potsdam Conference), Volume I (1945), wisc.edu
* [http://www.iz.poznan.pl/news/99_Biuletyn%20IZ%20nr%2021.%20History%20and%20Memory%20(numer%20specjalny).pdf History and Memory: mass expulsions and transfers 1939-1945-1949], M. Rutowska, Z. Mazur, H. Orłowski
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=it0-Zi2nEX0C Forced Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 1939–1950]
* [https://www.herder-institut.de/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/vergriffene_Publikationen/Losy_Band1.pdf "Unsere Heimat ist uns ein fremdes Land geworden..." Die Deutschen östlich von Oder und Neiße 1945–1950. Dokumente aus polnischen Archiven. Band 1: Zentrale Behörden, Wojewodschaft Allenstein]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20120413231136/http://www.z-g-v.de/doku/index5.htm Dokumentation der Vertreibung] {{de icon}}
* [http://library.uwb.edu/guides/USimmigration/1948_displaced_persons_act.html Displaced Persons Act of 1948]
* [http://www.many-roads.com/galleries/Photo%20Galleries/Senger%20Family%20Photos/Flucht%20Expulsion/ Flucht und Vertreibung Gallerie- Flight & Expulsion Gallery]
* [http://www.many-roads.com/libraries/prussia-histories/deutsche-vertriebenen-german-expulsions-history/ Deutsche Vertriebenen – German Expulsions (Histories & Documentation)]
 
{{Topik Jerman}}