Skanderbeg: Perbedaan antara revisi

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[[ImageBerkas:Skanderbeg sculpture.jpg|right|frame|'''Skanderbeg dan rakyat''', patung oleh Janaq Paço dan Genc Hajdari di Museum Nasional, [[Krujë]], Albania]]
'''George Kastrioti''' (Gjergj Kastrioti) ([[1405]] - [[17 Januari]] [[1468]]), yang lebih dikenal sebagai '''Skanderbeg''', adalah tokoh yang paling terkemuka dalam sejarah [[Albania]]. Ia juga dikenal sebagai Naga Albania<ref name="EB1911">{{1911}}</ref> dan merupakan pahlawan nasional bangsa Albania. Ia dikenang terutama karena perjuangannya melawan [[Kerajaan Ottoman]], melalui karya penulis biografinya yang pertama, [[Marin Barleti]]<ref name="barleti">[[Marin Barleti]], 1508, ''Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis'', []</ref>.
=== Melayani dalam Tentara Ottoman ===
[[ImageBerkas:Skanderbeu.jpg|right|thumb|190px|Patung Skanderbeg di [[Tirana]]]]
[[ImageBerkas:Ne Udhetim 132.jpg|right|thumb|190px|Patung Skanderbeg di [[Prishtina]]]]
Skanderbeg yang dilahirkan di [[Krujë]], adalah keturunan dari keluarga Kastriotis, yang merupakan salah satu keluarga utama dari apa yang dulu dikenal sebagai Arberia (kini Albania).
===Fighting for freedom ===
[[Image:Castle Krija Albania 2004-07-08.jpg|thumb|right|235px|What remains of the castle in [[Krujë]]]]
In November 28th, [[1443]], Skanderbeg saw his opportunity to rebel during a battle against the Hungarians led by [[John Hunyadi]] in [[Niš]]. He switched sides along with 300 other Albanians serving in the Ottoman army. After a long trek to Albania he eventually captured Krujë by forging a letter<ref name="Tennent1845" /> from the Sultan to the Governor of Krujë, which granted him control of the territory. After capturing the castle, Skanderbeg<ref name="gibbon" /> abjured the prophet and the sultan, and proclaimed himself the avenger of his family and country. He raised his standard (that later became the [[Flag of Albania|Albanian flag]]) above the castle and reportedly pronounced: ''"I have not brought you freedom, I found it here, among you."'' Skanderbeg allied with George Arianite<ref name="Fine1994">John V Fine, 1994, ''The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest'', ISBN 04720826040-472-08260-4</ref> and married his daughter Andronike.
Following the capture of Krujë, Skanderbeg managed to bring together all the Albanian princes in the town of [[Lezhë]]<ref name="jensen">Minna Skafte Jensen, 2006, ''[ A Heroic Tale: Marin Barleti's Scanderbeg between orality and literacy]''</ref> (see [[League of Lezhë]], [[1444]]). Gibbon<ref name="gibbon" /> reports that
''"Albanians, a martial race, were unanimous to live and die with their hereditary prince"'' and that ''"in the assembly of the states of Epirus, Scanderbeg was elected general of the Turkish war and each of the allies engaged to furnish his respective proportion of men and money"''. With this support, Skanderbeg built fortresses and organized a mobile defense force that forced the Ottomans to disperse their troops, leaving them vulnerable to the hit-and-run tactics of the Albanians<ref name="Stavrianos">L.S. Stavrianos, 2000, ''The Balkans Since 1453'', ISBN 18506555101-85065-551-0</ref>.
Skanderbeg fought a [[guerrilla warfare|guerrilla war]] against the opposing armies by using the mountainous terrain to his advantage. Skanderbeg continued his resistance against the Ottoman forces, with a force rarely exceeding 20,000.
In [[1461]] the Sultan proposed<ref name="Tennent1845" /> terms of accommodation with Skanderbeg and a peace was concluded between them on June 22. In the same year, Skanderbeg launched a successful campaign<ref name="jensen" /> against the [[Angevin]] noblemen and their allies who sought to destabilize King [[Ferdinand I of Naples]]. For his services<ref name="cwe1876" /> he gained the title '''Duke of San Pietro''' in the kingdom of Naples. After securing the Neapolitan kingdom, a crucial ally in his struggle, he returned home. In [[1464]] Skanderbeg fought and defeated [[Ballaban Badera]], an Albanian renegade who had captured a large number of Albanian army commanders <ref name="musachi">John Musachi, 1515, ''[ Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty]''</ref>, including [[Moisi Arianit Golemi]], a cavalry commander; [[Vladan Giurica]], the chief army economist (maybe quartermaster? ) [[Muzaka of Angelina]], a nephew of Skanderbeg, and 18 other noblemen and army captains. These men, after they were captured, were sent immediately to [[Istanbul]] and tortured for fifteen days<ref name="musachi" />. Skanderbeg’s pleas to have these men back, by either ransom or prisoner exchange, failed.
In [[1466]] Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army into Albania and laid siege to Krujë as his father had attempted sixteen years earlier. The town was defended by a garrison of 4,400 men, led by Prince [[Tanush Topia]]. After several months, Mehmed, like Murad II, saw that seizing Krujë by force of arms was impossible for him to accomplish. Shamed, he left the siege to return to Istanbul. However, he left a force of 40,000 men under [[Ballaban Pasha]] to maintain the siege, even building a castle in central Albania, which he named ''El-basan'' (the modern [[Elbasan]]), to support the siege. Durrës would be the next target of the sultan, in order to be used as a strong base opposite the Italian coast<ref name="Babinger">Franz Babinger, 1992, ''Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time'', ISBN 06910107810-691-01078-1</ref>. The second siege of Kruja was eventually broken by Skanderbeg, resulting in the death of Ballaban Pasha from [[firearm]]s.
A few months later in [[1467]], Mehmed, frustrated by his inability to subdue Albania, again led the largest army of its time into Albania. Krujë was besieged for a third time, but on a much grander scale. While a contingent kept the city and its forces pinned down, Ottoman armies came pouring in from [[Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire|Bosnia]], [[Serbia]], [[Macedonia (region)|Macedonia]], and [[Greece]] with the aim of keeping the whole country surrounded, thereby strangling Skanderbeg’s supply routes and limiting his mobility. During this conflict, Skanderbeg fell ill with [[malaria]] in the Venetian-controlled city of Lezhë, and died on [[January 17]] [[1468]], just as the army under the leadership of [[Leke Dukagjini]] defeated the Ottoman force in [[Shkodër]].
Skanderbeg's family, the Castriots <ref name="gibbon" /> were invested with a Neapolitan dukedom, as the Turkish pressure became too strong. They obtained a feudal fiefdom, the Duchy of San Pietro di Galatina. John, Skanderbeg's son, married<ref name="runciman">Steven Runciman, 1990, ''The Fall of Constantinople 1453'', ISBN 05213983200-521-39832-0</ref> Irene Palaeologus, grand-daughter of [[Thomas Palaeologus]].
An illegitimate branch of that family lives onwards in south Italy, having used the name '''Castriota Scanderbeg''' for centuries. They have been part of [[Italy|Italian]] lower [[nobility]]. The legitimate line of George Castriota went extinct as to males within a few generations, but apparently the family continues through a Sanseverino branch. There is also a [[Spain|Spanish]] nobleman by the name of [[Juan Alandro Castriota]] who contributed a great deal towards Albania's struggle for independence {{fact}}.
Books on the Albanian prince began to appear in Western Europe in the early 16th century. One of the earliest of these histories to have circulated in Western Europe about the heroic deeds of Skanderbeg was the ''Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum Princeps'' (Rome ca. 1508-1510), published a mere four decades after Skanderbeg's death. This: ''History of the life and deeds of Scanderbeg, Prince of the Epirotes'' was written by the Albanian historian Marinus Barletius Scodrensis (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), known in Albanian as [[Marin Barleti]]<ref name="barleti" />, who after experiencing the Turkish occupation of his native Shkodër at first hand, settled in [[Padua]] where he became rector of the parish church of [[St. Stephan]].
Barleti dedicates<ref name="jensen" /> his work to Donferrante Kastrioti, Scanderbeg's grandchild and to the next generations.
The first time this book was published in Italy in Latin language and since then it was translated in many languages.
The work was widely read in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and was translated and/or adapted into a number of foreign language versions: [[German language|German]] by [[Johann Pincianus]] (Augsburg, 1533), [[Italian language|Italian]] by [[Pietro Rocca]] ([[Venice]], 1554, 1560), Portuguese by Francisco D'Andrade (Lisbon, 1567), Polish by Ciprian Bazylik (Brest-Litovsk, 1569), [[French language|French]] by [[Jaques De Lavardin]], also known as Jacques de Lavardin, Seigneur du Plessis-Bourrot (''"Histoire de Georges Castriot Surnomé Scanderbeg, Roy d'Albanie"'', Paris, 1576), and Spanish by [[Juan Ochoa de la Salde]] (Seville, 1582). The English version, translated from the French of Jaques De Lavardin by one Zachary Jones Gentleman, was published at the end of the 16th century under the title, ''Historie of George Castriot, surnamed Scanderbeg, King of Albinie; containing his Famous Actes, his Noble Deedes of Armes and Memorable Victories against the Turkes for the Faith of Christ''.
* [ Scanderbeg: Warrior-King of Albania] - trailer dokumenter
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