Suku Māori: Perbedaan revisi

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cosmetic changes
k (bot Membuang: ms:Māori (strong connection between (2) id:Suku Māori and ms:Orang Maori), simple:Māori (strong connection between (2) id:Suku Māori and simple:Māori people))
k (cosmetic changes)
[[Berkas:marae_in.jpg|thumb|130px|right|''Wharenui'', carved meeting house on a marae]]
The East Polynesian ancestors of the Māori were hunters, fishermen and gardeners. After arriving in New Zealand, Māori had to rapidly adapt their material culture and agricultural practices to suit the climate of their new land, cold and harsh in comparison to tropical island Polynesia. Great ingenuity was required to grow the tropical plants they had brought with them from Polynesia, including [[taro]], [[sweet potato|kumara]], gourds, and [[yam (vegetable)|yams]]; this was especially difficult in the chillier southern parts of the country. The [[New Zealand flax|''harakeke'']] (flax plant) served as a replacement for coconut fronds and hibiscus fibre in the manufacture of mats, baskets, rope, fishing nets and clothing. Seasonal activites included gardening, fishing and the hunting of birds. Main tasks were separated for men and women, but there were also a lot of group activities involving food gathering & food cultivation, and warfare. Art was and is a prominent part of the culture as seen in the carving of houses, canoes, weapons, and other items. The people also wore highly decorative personal ornaments, and people of rank were often extensively tattooed.
The marae is a communal ceremonial centre where meetings and ceremonies take place in accordance with traditional protocols. The marae symbolises group [[unity]] and generally consists of an open grassed area in front of a large carved meeting house, along with a dining hall and other facilities necessary to provide a comfortable stay for visiting groups. On the marae official functions take place including formal welcomes, celebrations, [[wedding]]s, christenings, [[tribal]] reunions, and ''tangihanga'' (funerals). The older people have the authority on the marae, and they impart to the young people traditions and cultural practices including [[legend]]s, songs or the arts of [[weaving]] or [[carving]].
Other ''taonga'' (treasured possessions) used as items of personal adornment include bone carvings in the form of neck ornaments, earrings or necklaces. For many Māori the wearing of such items relates to cultural identity; however, they are also popular with young New Zealanders of all races. Several artistic [[collectives]] have been established by Māori tribal groups. These collectives have begun creating and exporting [[jewellery]] (such as bone carved ''[[hei matau]]'' pendants and [[greenstone]] jewellery) and other artistic items (such as [[wood]] carvings and [[textiles]]). Several [[actor]]s who have recently appeared in high-profile movies filmed in New Zealand have come back wearing such jewellery, including [[Viggo Mortensen]] of [[The Lord of the Rings]] fame, took to wearing a ''hei matau'' around his neck. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts.
===Tā moko===
In the [[1860s]], disputes over questionable land purchases and the attempts of Māori in the [[Waikato]] to establish a rival British-style system of royalty led to the [[New Zealand land wars|New Zealand wars]]. Although these resulted in relatively few deaths, large tracts of tribal land were confiscated by the colonial government. Settlements such as [[Parihaka]] in [[Taranaki]] are remembered as sites of violent conflict that took place there during that period.
With the loss of much of their land, Māori went into a period of decline, and by the late 19th century it was believed that the Māori population would cease to exist as a separate race and be assimilated into the European population. The predicted decline did not occur, and population levels recovered. Despite a high degree of intermingling between the Māori and European populations, Māori were able to retain their cultural identity and in the [[1960s]] and [[1970s]], Māoridom underwent a cultural revival. No Māori live a traditional pre-European contact lifestyle today. Some commentators express frustration with the "theme-parkisation" of Māori identity with tourist-driven performances and gift shop "art". Others seek to develop a New Zealand identity that incorporates strands of Māori identity.
Sympathetic governments and political activism have led to compensation for certain historic instances of unjust confiscation of land and the violation of other [[property]] rights. A special [[court]], the [[Waitangi Tribunal]], was established to investigate and make recommendations on such issues. As a result of the compensation paid, Māori now have significant interests in the [[fish]]ing and forestry industries.
== Referensi ==
* Australian Bureau of Statistics (2004). ''Australians' Ancestries: 2001''. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue Number 2054.0. [$File/20540_2001.pdf]
* Biggs, Bruce (1994). Does Maori have a closest relative? In Sutton (Ed.)(1994), pp.  96–-105.
* Hiroa, Te Rangi (Sir Peter Buck)(1974). ''The Coming of the Maori''. Second Edition. First Published 1949. Wellington: Whitcombe and Tombs.
* Irwin, Geoffrey (1992). ''The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* {{en}} [ Māori theology] — by the late Michael Shirres.
* {{en}} [ Te Ara Encylopedia of New Zealand] — Government-funded encyclopedia.
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